# Accelerated Mathematics Plan Grade 4   (#5012065)

## General Course Information and Notes

### Version Description

In this course, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing fluency with addition and subtraction of fractions, and developing understanding of the multiplication of fractions and of division of fractions in limited cases (unit fractions divided by whole numbers and whole numbers divided by unit fractions); (2) extending division to 2-digit divisors, integrating decimal fractions into the place value system and developing understanding of operations with decimals to hundredths, and developing fluency with whole number and decimal operations; and (3) developing understanding of volume.

(1)  Students extend previous understandings about how fractions are built from unit fractions, composing fractions from unit fractions, decomposing fractions into unit fractions, and using the meaning of fractions and the meaning of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. Students apply their understanding of fractions and fraction models to represent the addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators as equivalent calculations with like denominators. They develop fluency in calculating sums and differences of fractions, and make reasonable estimates of them. Students also use the meaning of fractions, of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions make sense. (Note: this is limited to the case of dividing unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.)

(2) Students generalize their understanding of place value to 1,000,000, understanding the relative sizes of numbers in each place. Students apply their understanding of models for division, place value, properties of operations, and the relationship of division to multiplication as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalization procedures to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends. They select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate and mentally calculate quotients, and interpret remainders based upon the context. Students develop understanding of why division procedures work based on the meaning of base-ten numerals and properties of operations. They finalize fluency with multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They apply their understandings of models for decimals, decimal notation, and properties of operations to add and subtract decimals to hundredths. They develop fluency in these computations, and make reasonable estimates of their results. Students use the relationship between decimals and fractions, as well as the relationship between finite decimals and whole numbers (i.e., a finite decimal multiplied by an appropriate power of 10 is a whole number), to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing finite decimals make sense.  They compute products and quotients of decimals to hundredths efficiently and accurately.

(3) Students recognize volume as an attribute of three-dimensional space. They understand that volume can be measured by finding the total number of same-size units of volume required to fill the space without gaps or overlaps. They understand that a 1-unit by 1-unit by 1-unit cube is the standard unit for measuring volume. They select appropriate units, strategies, and tools for solving problems that involve estimating and measuring volume. They decompose three-dimensional shapes and find volumes of right rectangular prisms by viewing them as decomposed into layers of arrays of cubes. They measure necessary attributes of shapes in order to determine volumes to solve real world and mathematical problems.

English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: http://www.cpalms.org/uploads/docs/standards/eld/MA.pdf.

For additional information on the development and implementation of the ELD standards, please contact the Bureau of Student Achievement through Language Acquisition at sala@fldoe.org.

### General Information

Course Number: 5012065
Course Path:
Abbreviated Title: ACCEL MATH GRADE 4
Course Length: Year (Y)
Course Level: 3
Course Status: Course Approved

## Educator Certifications

One of these educator certification options is required to teach this course.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this course.

## Original Student Tutorials

Learn about decimals on a number line and comparing decimals to save the Decis from a wizard's spell in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Video Game Store: Volume!:

Help solve the problem of shipping video games and accessories to customers by calculating the volume of the containers needed in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Building Blocks of Volume :

Build on your previous knowledge of area and learn how to calculate volume in cubic units with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Base Ten and Exponents:

Batter up! Lace up your cleats, grip your bat, and explore base 10 and exponents in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Designing Dog Playgrounds: Multiplying Decimals:

Help your town build a dog park by multiplying whole numbers by decimals to the tenths place in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Topsy-Turvy Playground: Subtracting Decimals:

Learn to subtract decimals to the hundredths place using place-value models and written expressions as you fix the topsy-turvy playground in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

CPALMS Aquarium Part 2: Division Strategies:

Learn to solve division challenges using the partial quotients strategy with this interactive tutorial.

This is the second tutorial is a series on division strategies.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sweet Treats Factory Invasion: Adding Decimals:

Help these aliens clean up the Sweet Treats Factory by learning to add decimals in this interactive mathematics tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Relationships with Venn & Euler Diagrams – Part 2:

Learn how to show relationships represented in Venn & Euler Diagrams as you complete this interactive geometry tutorial.

This is part two of four. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

CPALMS Aquarium: Connecting Multiplication and Division: Part 1:

Learn how multiplication connects to division to help understand what division is in this aquarium-themed, interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of a two-part series. Click HERE to open Part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Classifying Triangles by Sides & Angles Using Venn and Euler Diagrams – Part 4:

Learn how triangles can be sorted and classified using side lengths and angle measures in this interactive tutorial.

This is the final tutorial in a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Scaling Up to Escape:

Try to escape from this room using multiplication as scaling in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Classifying Triangles by Angles using Euler Diagrams – Part 3:

Learn to classify triangles and use Euler diagrams to show relationships, in this interactive tutorial.

This is part-three of four. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

"Figuring Out" 2D Figures - Part 1:

Explore 2D (two-dimensional) figures and see how every 2D figure possesses unique attributes in this interactive tutorial.

This is part one of four. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Logging Lengths with Line Plots:

Learn how to create a line plot and analyze data in the line plot in this interactive tutorial.  You will also see how to add and subtract using the line plot to solve problems based on the line plots.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Deci Land Escape:

Help Rich escape Deci Land by learning how to write decimals that are related to fractions with denominators of 10 and 100 in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Treasure of Aryabhata: Place Value Comparison:

Help solve mysteries built on patterns of ten to discover the treasure of our number system in this interactive student tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Just Get to the Point!:

Practice plotting coordinates, in Quadrant I, using ordered pairs in this interactive tutorial for students.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What Do You Mean the Coordinate Plane Doesn’t Fly?:

Learn about the basics of the coordinate plane, focus on Quadrant I and see why the coordinate plane is useful in everyday life in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Let’s Get Buzzy: Multiplying Multi-digit Numbers Using the Standard Algorithm:

Learn how the standard algorithm for multiplying numbers works and practice your skills in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Bee A Coder Part 4: Repeat Loops:

Learn how to use repeat loops in this interactive tutorial. Repeat loops iterate though a list of instructions based on a desired number of times. Combined with variables, condition statements, if statements, and repeat loops we practice using order of operations to code.

Click below to check out the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Bee A Coder Part 3: If Statements:

Learn how to perform instructions using an if statement and explore relational operators (less than, greater than, equal and not equal to) and how they are used to compare to values in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Bee A Coder Part 2: Condition Statements:

Construct efficient lines of code using condition- and if-statements to solve equations as you complete this interactive tutorial. You'll also review the order of operations in expressions. This is part 2 of a 4-part series on coding.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Bee A Coder Part 1: Declare Variables:

Learn how to define, declare and initialize variables as you start the journey to "bee" a coder in this interactive tutorial. Variables are structures used by computer programs to store information.  You'll use your math skills to represent a fraction as a decimal to be stored in a variable. This is part 1 of a series of 4 in learning how to code.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Multiplying Math Magic:

Learn how to write multiplication equations based on multiplication comparisons and story problems in this magical math online tutorial!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Expressions: Not Just for Faces:

Learn how to write mathematical expressions while making faces in this interactive tutorial!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to interpret data presented on a line plot and use operations on fractions to solve problems involving information presented in line plots as you complete this beach-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Measuring to Build a Ramp:

By the end of this tutorial you’ll know how to convert among different-sized customary units of weight, length, capacity, and units of time.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Expression Debate:

Learn to evaluate expressions that have all four operations (multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction) and parentheses as you settle debates in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cracking the Decimal Code:

By the end of this tutorial, you will be able to read and write decimals to the thousandths using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Flying From Place To Place:

Take flight as you learn to recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

#InterpretAFractionAsDivision:

Learn to identify a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator using fraction models in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

You Sank my Battleship! :

Learn how to accurately plot coordinates on a plane.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Symmetry Sisters Save the Day:

Help the Symmetry Sisters save the City of Symmetry Line and the State of Arithmetic from the Radical Rat!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Leftover Dessert Dilemma:

Learn how to be able to decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with common denominators.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Working for Wonka:

Demonstrate how a rectangular prism can be carefully filled without gaps or overlaps using the same size unit cubes and then use this model to determine its volume.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Marvelous Solid Mixtures: Let’s Sort them Out!:

Learn and demonstrate that mixtures of solids can be separated by observable properties in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Games

Ice Ice Maybe: An Operations Estimation Game:

This fun and interactive game helps practice estimation skills, using various operations of choice, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, using decimals, fractions, and percents.

Various levels of difficulty make this game appropriate for multiple age and ability levels.

Multiplication/Division: The multiplication and addition of fractions and decimals.

Percentages: Identify the percentage of a whole number.

Fractions: Multiply and divde a whole number by a fraction, as well as apply properties of operations.

Type: Educational Game

Flower Power: An Ordering of Rational Numbers Game:

This is a fun and interactive game that helps students practice ordering rational numbers, including decimals, fractions, and percents. You are planting and harvesting flowers for cash. Allow the bee to pollinate, and you can multiply your crops and cash rewards!

Type: Educational Game

This addition game uses mixed decimals to the tenths place. This game encourages some logical analysis as well as addition skills. There may be several ways to make the first couple of circles sum to 3, but there is only one way to combine all the given numbers so that every circle sums to 3.

Type: Educational Game

Fraction Quiz:

Test your fraction skills by answering questions on this site. This quiz asks you to simplify fractions, convert fractions to decimals and percentages, and answer algebra questions involving fractions. You can even choose difficulty level, question types, and time limit.

Type: Educational Game

Estimator Four:

In this activity, students play a game of connect four, but to place a piece on the board they have to correctly estimate an addition, multiplication, or percentage problem. Students can adjust the difficulty of the problems as well as how close the estimate has to be to the actual result. This activity allows students to practice estimating addition, multiplication, and percentages of large numbers (100s). This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Game

Estimator Quiz:

In this activity, students are quizzed on their ability to estimate sums, products, and percentages. The student can adjust the difficulty of the problems and how close they have to be to the actual answer. This activity allows students to practice estimating addition, multiplication, or percentages of large numbers. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Game

Change Maker:

This interactive applet gives students practice in making change in U.S. dollars and in four other currencies. Students are presented with a purchase amount and the amount paid, and they must enter the quantity of each denomination that make up the correct change. Students are rewarded for correct answers and are shown the correct change if they err. There are four levels of difficulty, ranging from amounts less than a dollar to amounts over \$100.

Type: Educational Game

Decimal and Fraction:

This interactive Flash applet has students match fractions with their equivalent one- or two-place decimals. Students have a chance to correct errors until all matches are made.

Type: Educational Game

Maze Game:

In this activity, students enter coordinates to make a path to get to a target destination while avoiding mines. This activity allows students to explore Cartesian coordinates and the Cartesian coordinate plane. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

Arithmetic Quiz:

In this activity, students solve arithmetic problems involving whole numbers, integers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This activity allows students to track their progress in learning how to perform arithmetic on whole numbers and integers. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

Computing Volume Progression 1:

Students are asked to determine the number of unit cubes needed to construct cubes with given dimensions.

Computing Volume Progression 2:

Students are asked to find the volume of water in a tank that is 3/4 of the way full.

Computing Volume Progression 3:

Students are asked to find the height of a rectangular prism when given the length, width and volume.

Computing Volume Progression 4:

Students are asked to apply knowledge of volume of rectangular prisms to find the volume of an irregularly shaped object using the principle of displacement.

Lines of symmetry for triangles:

This activity provides students an opportunity to recognize these distinguishing features of the different types of triangles before the technical language has been introduced. For finding the lines of symmetry, cut-out models of the four triangles would be helpful so that the students can fold them to find the lines.

This task provides students a chance to experiment with reflections of the plane and their impact on specific types of quadrilaterals. It is both interesting and important that these types of quadrilaterals can be distinguished by their lines of symmetry.

Lines of symmetry for circles:

This is an instructional task that gives students a chance to reason about lines of symmetry and discover that a circle has an an infinite number of lines of symmetry. Even though the concept of an infinite number of lines is fairly abstract, fourth graders can understand infinity in an informal way.

The purpose of this task is adding fractions being with a focus on tenths and hundredths. Each part of this task emphasizes a unique aspect of 4.NF.5.

Making 22 Seventeenths in Different Ways:

This task is a straightforward task related to adding fractions with the same denominator. The main purpose is to emphasize that there are many ways to decompose a fraction as a sum of fractions, similar to decompositions of whole numbers that students should have seen in earlier grades (see e.g. K.OA.3).

How Many Tenths and Hundredths?:

The purpose of this task is for students to finish the equations to make true statements. Parts (a) and (b) have the same solution, which emphasizes that the order in which we add doesn't matter (because addition is commutative), while parts (c) and (d) emphasize that the position of a digit in a decimal number is critical. The student must really think to encode the quantity in positional notation. In parts (e), (f), and (g), the base-ten units in 14 hundredths are bundled in different ways. In part (e), "hundredths" are thought of as units: 14 things = 10 things + 4 things. Part (h) addresses the notion of equivalence between hundredths and tenths.

Fraction Equivalence:

Students may not articulate every detail, but the basic idea for a case like the one shown here is that when you have equivalent fractions, you have just cut the pieces that represent the fraction into more but smaller pieces. Explaining fraction equivalences at higher grades can be a bit more involved (e.g. 6/8=9/12), but it can always be framed as subdividing the same quantity in different ways.

Expanded Fractions and Decimals:

The purpose of this task is for students to show they understand the connection between fraction and decimal notation by writing the same numbers both ways. Comparing and contrasting the two solutions shown below shows why decimal notation can be confusing. The first solution shows the briefest way to represent each number, and the second solution makes all the zeros explicit.

Dimes and Pennies:

The purpose of this task is to help students gain a better understanding of fractions through the use of dimes and pennies.

Comparing two different pizzas:

The focus of this task is on understanding that fractions, in an explicit context, are fractions of a specific whole. In this this problem there are three different wholes: the medium pizza, the large pizza, and the two pizzas taken together. This task is best suited for instruction. Students can practice explaining their reasoning to each other in pairs or as part of a whole group discussion.

Comparing Sums of Unit Fractions:

The purpose of this task is to help develop students' understanding of addition of fractions; it is intended as an instructional task. Notice that students are not asked to find the sum because in grade 4, students are limited to computing sums of fractions with the same denominator. Rather, they need to apply a firm understanding of unit fractions (fractions with one in the numerator) and reason about their relative size.

Writing a Mixed Number as an Equivalent Fraction:

The purpose of this task is to help students understand and articulate the reasons for the steps in the usual algorithm for converting a mixed number into an equivalent fraction. Step two shows that the algorithm is merely a shortcut for finding a common denominator between two fractions. This concept is an important precursor to adding mixed numbers and fractions with like denominators and as such, step two should be a point of emphasis. This task is appropriate for either instruction or formative assessment.

Using Place Value:

Each part of this task highlights a slightly different aspect of place value as it relates to decimal notation. More than simply being comfortable with decimal notation, the point is for students to be able to move fluidly between and among the different ways that a single value can be represented and to understand the relative size of the numbers in each place.

Sugar in six cans of soda:

This task provides a familiar context allowing students to visualize multiplication of a fraction by a whole number. This task could form part of a very rich activity which includes studying soda can labels.

Peaches:

This task provides a context where it is appropriate for students to subtract fractions with a common denominator; it could be used for either assessment or instructional purposes. For this particular task, teachers should anticipate two types of solution approaches: one where students subtract the whole numbers and the fractions separately and one where students convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions and then proceed to subtract.

Comparing Growth, Variation 2:

The purpose of this task is to assess students' understanding of multiplicative and additive reasoning. We would hope that students would be able to see identify that Student A is just looking at how many feet are being added on, while the Student B is comparing how much the snakes grew in comparison to how long they were to begin with.

Double Plus One:

The purpose of this task is to help students gain a better understanding of patterns. This task is meant to be used in an instructional setting.

Video Game Scores:

This task asks students to exercise both of these complementary skills, writing an expression in part (a) and interpreting a given expression in (b). The numbers given in the problem are deliberately large and "ugly" to discourage students from calculating Eric's and Leila's scores. The focus of this problem is not on numerical answers, but instead on building and interpreting expressions that could be entered in a calculator or communicated to another student unfamiliar with the context.

Box of Clay:

This purpose of this task is to help students understand what happens when you scale the dimensions of a right rectangular solid. This task provides an opportunity to compare the relative volumes of boxes in order to calculate the mass of clay required to fill them. These relative volumes can be calculated geometrically, filling the larger box with smaller boxes, or arithmetically using the given dimensions.

What is 23 ÷ 5?:

When a division problem involving whole numbers does not result in a whole number quotient, it is important for students to be able to decide whether the context requires the result to be reported as a whole number with remainder (as with Part (b)) or a mixed number/decimal (as with Part (c)). Part (a) presents two variations on a context that require these two different responses to highlight the distinction between them.

How Much Pie?:

The purpose of this task is to help students see the connection between a÷b and ab in a particular concrete example. The relationship between the division problem 3÷8 and the fraction 3/8 is actually very subtle. This task is probably best suited for instruction or formative assessment.

How many servings of oatmeal?:

This task provides a context for performing division of a whole number by a unit fraction. This problem is a "How many groups?'' example of division: the "groups'' in this case are the servings of oatmeal and the question is asking how many servings (or groups) there are in the package.

Painting a room:

The purpose of this task is to provide students with a situation in which it is natural for them to divide a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number. Determining the amount of paint that Kulani needs for each wall illustrates an understanding of the meaning of dividing a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number.

Painting a Wall:

The purpose of this task is for students to find the answer to a question in context that can be represented by fraction multiplication. This task is appropriate for either instruction or assessment depending on how it is used and where students are in their understanding of fraction multiplication.

Origami Stars:

The purpose of this task is to present students with a situation in which they need to divide a whole number by a unit fraction in order to find a solution. Calculating the number of origami stars that Avery and Megan can make illustrates students' understanding of the process of dividing a whole number by a unit fraction.

Mixed Numbers with Unlike Denominators:

The purpose of this task is to help students realize there are different ways to add mixed numbers and is most appropriate for use in an instructional setting. The two primary ways one can expect students to add are converting the mixed numbers to fractions greater than 1 or adding the whole numbers and fractional parts separately. It is good for students to develop a sense of which approach would be better in a particular context.

Making S'Mores:

The purpose of this instructional task is to motivate a discussion about adding fractions and the meaning of the common denominator. The different parts of the task have students moving back and forth between the abstract representation of the fractions and the meaning of the fractions in the context.

This tasks lends itself very well to multiple solution methods. Students may learn a lot by comparing different methods. Students who are already comfortable with fraction multiplication can go straight to the numeric solutions given below. Students who are still unsure of the meanings of these operations can draw pictures or diagrams.

Jog-A-Thon:

The purpose of this task is to present students with a situation where it is natural to add fractions with unlike denominators; it can be used for either assessment or instructional purposes. Teachers should anticipate two types of solutions: one where students calculate the distance Alex ran to determine an answer, and one where students compare the two parts of his run to benchmark fractions.

To Multiply or not to multiply?:

The purpose of this task is to familiarize students with multiplying fractions with real-world questions.

Seeing is Believing:

The purpose of this task is to help students see that 4×(9+2) is four times as big as (9+2). Though this task may seem very simple, it provides students and teachers with a very useful visual for interpreting an expression without evaluating it because they can see for themselves that 4×(9+2) is four times as big as (9+2).

The purpose of this task is to have students add fractions with unlike denominators and divide a unit fraction by a whole number. This accessible real-life context provides students with an opportunity to apply their understanding of addition as joining two separate quantities.

Running to School:

Since tasks such as this will be among the first that students see, solutions which involve (sub)dividing a quantity into equal parts in order to find a fraction of the quantity should be emphasized. In particular, such solutions should be introduced if students do not generate them on their own. Students benefit from reasoning through the solution to such word problems before they are told that they can be solved by multiplying the fractions; this helps them develop meaning for fraction multiplication.

Running a Mile:

The two solutions reflect different competencies described in 5.NF.5. The first solution uses the idea that multiplying by a fraction less than 1 results in a smaller value. The second actually uses the meaning of multiplying by 89 to explain why multiplying by that fraction will result in a smaller value.

This is a good task to work with kids to try to explain their thinking clearly and precisely, although teachers should be willing to work with many different ways of explaining the relationship between the magnitude of the factors and the magnitude of the product.

Comparing Products:

The purpose of this task is to generate a classroom discussion that helps students synthesize what they have learned about multiplication in previous grades. It builds on 3.OA.5 Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide and 4.OA.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison.

Words to Expressions 1:

This problem allows student to see words that can describe the expression from part (c) of "5.OA Watch out for Parentheses." Additionally , the words (add, sum) and (product, multiply) are all strategically used so that the student can see that these words have related meanings.

Watch Out for Parentheses 1:

This problem asks the student to evaluate six numerical expressions that contain the same integers and operations yet have differing results due to placement of parentheses. This type of problem helps students to see structure in numerical expressions. In later grades they will be working with similar ideas in the context of seeing and using structure in algebraic expressions.

Minutes and Days:

This task requires division of multi-digit numbers in the context of changing units and so illustrates 5.NBT.6 and 5.MD.1. In addition, the conversion problem requires two steps since 2011 minutes needs to be converted first to hours and minutes and then to days, hours, and minutes.

Half of a Recipe:

This is the third problem in a series of three tasks involving fraction multiplication that can be solved with pictures or number lines. The first, 5.NF Running to school, does not require that the unit fractions that comprise 3/4 be subdivided in order to find 1/3 of 3/4. The second task, 5.NF Drinking Juice, does require students to subdivide the unit fractions that comprise 1/2 in order to find 3/4 of 1/2. This task also requires subdivision and involves multiplying a fraction and a mixed number.

Grass Seedlings:

The purpose of this task is to gain a better understanding of multiplying and dividing with fractions. Students should use the diagram provided to support their findings.

Fundraising:

This problem helps students gain a better understanding of dividing with fractions.

Folding Strips of Paper:

The purpose of this task is to provide students with a concrete experience they can relate to fraction multiplication. Perhaps more importantly, the task also purposefully relates length and locations of points on a number line, a common trouble spot for students. This task is meant for instruction and would be a useful as part of an introductory unit on fraction multiplication.

Finding Common Denominators to Subtract:

Part (a) of this task asks students to use two different denominators to subtract fractions. The purpose of this is to help students realize that any common denominator will work, not just the least common denominator. Part (b) does not ask students to do it in more than one way; the purpose is to give them an opportunity to choose a denominator and possibly compare with another student who chose a different denominator. The purpose of part (c) is to help students move away from a reliance on drawing pictures. Students can draw a picture if they want, but this subtraction problem is easier to do symbolically, which helps students appreciate the power of symbolic notation.

Part (a) of this task asks students to find and use two different common denominators to add the given fractions. The purpose of this question is to help students realize that they can use any common denominator to find a solution, not just the least common denominator. Part (b) does not ask students to solve the given addition problem in more than one way. Instead, the purpose of this question is to give students an opportunity to choose a denominator and possibly to compare their solution method with another student who chose a different denominator.  The purpose of part (c) is to give students who are ready to work symbolically a chance to work more efficiently.

Converting Fractions of a Unit into a Smaller Unit:

The purpose of this task is to help students gain a better understanding of fractions and the conversion of fractions into smaller units.

How many marbles?:

This task is intended to complement "5.NF How many servings of oatmeal?" and "7.RP Molly's run.'' All three tasks address the division problem 4÷1/3 but from different points of view. This task provides a how many in each group version of 4÷1/3. This task should be done together with the "How many servings of oatmeal" task with specific attention paid to the very different pictures representing the two situations.

Egyptian Fractions:

One goal of this task is to help students develop comfort and ease with adding fractions with unlike denominators. Another goal is to help them develop fraction number sense by having students decompose fractions.

Drinking Juice:

This is the second problem in a series of three tasks involving fraction multiplication that can be solved with pictures or number lines. This task does require students to subdivide the unit fractions that comprise 1/2 in order to find 3/4 of 1/2.

This task addresses common errors that students make when adding fractions. It is very important for students to recognize that they only add fractions when the fractions refer to the same whole, and also when the fractions of the whole being added do not overlap. This set of questions is designed to enhance a student's understanding of when it is and is not appropriate to add fractions.

Dividing by One-Half:

This task requires students to recognize both "number of groups unknown" (part (a)) and "group size unknown" (part (d)) division problems in the context of a whole number divided by a unit fraction. It also addresses a common misconception that students have where they confuse dividing by 2 or multiplying by 1/2 with dividing by 1/2.

Connor and Makayla Discuss Multiplication:

The purpose of this task is to have students think about the meaning of multiplying a number by a fraction, and use this burgeoning understanding of fraction multiplication to make sense of the commutative property of multiplication in the case of fractions.

Comparing a Number and a Product:

The purpose of this task is for students to compare a number and its product with other numbers that are greater than and less than one. As written, this task could be used in a summative assessment context, but it might be more useful in an instructional setting where students are asked to explain their answers either to a partner or in a whole class discussion.

Calculator Trouble:

This particular problem deals with multiplication. Even though students can solve this problem by multiplying, it is unlikely they will. Here it is much easier to answer the question if you can think of multiplying a number by a factor as scaling the number.

Banana Pudding:

The purpose of this task is to provide students with a concrete situation they can model by dividing a whole number by a unit fraction. For students who are just beginning to think about the meaning of division by a unit fraction (or students who have never cooked), the teacher can bring in a 1/4 cup measuring cup so that students can act it out. If students can reason through parts (a) and (b) successfully, they will be well-situated to think about part (c) which could yield different solution methods.

Plastic Building Blocks:

The purpose of this task is to have students add mixed numbers with like denominators. This task illustrates the different kinds of solution approaches students might take to such a task. Two general approaches should be anticipated: one where students calculate exactly how many buckets of blocks the boys have to determine an answer, and one where students compare the given numbers to benchmark numbers.

Models for the Multiplication and Division of Fractions:

This site uses visual models to better understand what is actually happening when students multiply and divide fractions. Using area models -- one that superimposes squares that are partitioned into the appropriate number of regions, and shaded as needed -- students multiply, divide, and translate the processes to decimals. The lesson uses an interactive simulation that allows students to create their own area models and is embedded with problems throughout for students to solve.

Measuring Henry's Cabin:

This resource introduces students to the aspects a builder must think about before constructing a building. Students will study the cabin blueprint of Henry David Thoreau and then will find the surface area of the walls and how much paint would be needed. Then, students will find the volume of the cabin to determine the home heating needs. Third, students will study the blueprint and will create a 1/10 scale of it on graph paper and then will use art supplies to create a model of the cabin. Last, students will design and create models of furniture to scale for the cabin.

## Tutorials

Multiplying a Decimal by a Power of 10:

This Khan Academy tutorial video explains patterns in the placement of the decimal point, when a decimal is multiplied by a power of 10.

Type: Tutorial

Multiply and Divide Powers of 10: Zero Patterns:

This Khan Academy tutorial video presents the methodology of understanding and using patterns in the number of zeros of products that have a factor that is a power of 10.

Type: Tutorial

Powers of 10: Patterns:

This Khan Academy tutorial video presents the pattern, when multiplying tens, that develops when we compare the number of factors of tens with the number of zeros in the product. The vocabulary, exponent and base, are introduced.

Type: Tutorial

Translating Expressions with Parentheses:

This Khan Academy tutorial video interprets written statements and writes them as mathematical expressions.

Type: Tutorial

Evaluate an Expression With and Without Parentheses:

This Khan Academy tutorial video presents the application of parentheses notation in an expression.

Type: Tutorial

Constructing a Numerical Expression Example:

This Khan Academy tutorial video demonstrates how to write a simple expression from a word problem.

Type: Tutorial

Metric System: Units of Volume:

This Khan Academy tutorial video illustrates the conversion equivalence of liters, milliliters, and kiloliters.

Type: Tutorial

Coordinate Plane: Graphing Points Word Problem:

This Khan Academy tutorial video presentation represents a word problem's solution on a coordinate plane to determine the number of blocks walked from a home to a school.

Type: Tutorial

Coordinate Plane: Graphing Points in Quadrant I:

This Khan Academy tutorial video presents how to graph an ordered pair of positive numbers on the x- and y-axis of a coordinate plane.

Type: Tutorial

Redistributing Trail Mix:

This Khan Academy tutorial video presents a strategy for solving the following problem: given a dot plot with different measurements of trail mix in bags, find the amount of trail mix each bag would contain, if the total amount in all the bags was equally redistributed.

Type: Tutorial

Unit Measurement Word Problem: Distance (US Customary):

This Khan Academy tutorial video develops a visual diagram to use to solve a distance problem that requires converting feet to yards and other computations.

Type: Tutorial

Unit Conversion: Ordering Metric Distances Example:

This Khan Academy tutorial video demonstrates a strategy for ordering four different-sized metric units.

Type: Tutorial

Volume through Decomposition:

This Khan Academy tutorial video illustrates how to find the volume of an irregular solid figure by dividing the figure into two rectangular prisms and finding the volume of each.

Type: Tutorial

Volume: Decomposing a Solid Figure Example:

This Khan Academy tutorial video illustrates finding the volume of an irregular figure made up of unit cubes by separating the figure into two rectangular prisms and finding the volume of each part.

Type: Tutorial

Volume: Four Examples of Counting Unit Cubes:

This Khan Academy tutorial video illustrates measuring volume by counting unit cubes.

Type: Tutorial

Volume: How to Measure It:

This Khan Academy tutorial video describes measurement in one, two, and three dimensions.

Type: Tutorial

Number Pattern Example: Growing Sequence:

In this Khan Academy tutorial video a table is used to track a growing sequence of design.

Type: Tutorial

Adding Two Fractions with Denominators 10 and 100:

The Khan Academy tutorial video presents a visual fraction model for adding 3/10 + 7/100 .

Type: Tutorial

Type: Tutorial

Units of Measurement Word Problem: Making Change:

This Khan Academy tutorial video presents a strategy for computing the amount of change to be received after making a purchase.

Type: Tutorial

Time Word Problem: When to Leave to Get Home on Time:

In this Khan Academy tutorial video Chris is told to be home by 6:15. You know the number of minutes it takes him to get home. What time should he leave?

Type: Tutorial

How to convert gallons to quarts, quarts to pints, pints to cups, and cups to ounces:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, explore converting between gallons, quarts, pints, cups, and fluid ounces.

Type: Tutorial

How to convert hours to minutes and minutes to seconds:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, explore conversion of units of time between hours, minutes and seconds.

Type: Tutorial

Comparing Two Decimals with a Visual Model:

In this Khan Academy tutorial video two decimals are compared using grid diagrams.

Type: Tutorial

Comparing Two Decimals to Thousandths:

This Khan Academy tutorial video presents using place-value to compare two decimals expressed to thousandths.

Type: Tutorial

Decimals as Words:

In this Khan Academy video decimals are written and spoken in words.

Type: Tutorial

Decimals and Fractions from Grid and Number-Line Representations:

The Khan Academy video uses grid diagrams and number-line representations to say and write equivalent decimals and fractions.

Type: Tutorial

Grid Representations of Decimals:

The Khan Academy video illustrates how to determine and write the decimal represented by shaded grids.

Type: Tutorial

Visually Converting from Tenths to Hundredths:

In this Khan Academy video a fraction is converted from tenths to hundredths using grid diagrams.

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying a Fraction by a Whole Number:

In this Khan Academy video visual fraction models are used to represent the expressions and the products.

Type: Tutorial

What Fraction of Spider Eyes are Looking at Me?:

This Khan Academy video uses authentic pictures to present addition of two fractions with common denominators.

Type: Tutorial

Figuring Out How Much of a Pizza is Left:

This Khan Academy video solves two word problems using visual fraction models.

Type: Tutorial

Order of Operations Example (No Exponents):

In this video, you will work through an example to correctly use the order of operations.

Type: Tutorial

Introduction to the Order of Operations:

In this video, you will see why it is important to have one agreed upon order of operations.

Type: Tutorial

Division: The importance of place value:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, learn about the importance of place value when dividing. Being able to perform the standard algorithm is the end goal, but it helps to understand how and why this process works.

Type: Tutorial

Division: Intro to remainders:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, you will get an introduction to the meaning of remainders.

Type: Tutorial

How to use an abacus (to represent multi-digit numbers):

In this tutorial video from Khan Academy, learn to use an abacus to represent multi-digit numbers. This video will explain how the beads on an abacus can each represent ten times the value of the bead to its right.

Type: Tutorial

Arithmetic Operations with Fractions:

In this tutorial, the four operations are applied to fractions with the visualization of the number line. This tutorial starts by adding fractions with the same denominators and explains the logic behind multiplication of fractions. This tutorial also highlights the application and extension of previous understandings of mulitplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.

a. Interpret the product (a/b) x q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a x qb. In general, (a/b) x (c/d) = ac/bd.

Type: Tutorial

Creating Common Denominators:

This tutorial explores the addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators. Performing these operations on fractions with unlike denominators requires the creation of a 'common' denominator. Using the number line, this mathematical process can be easily visualized and connected to the final strategy of multiplying the denominators (a/b + c/d = ad +bc/bd).

Type: Tutorial

Least Common Denominators:

In this tutorial, students will be exposed to the strategy of finding the least common denominator for certain cases. Sometimes when finding a common denominator, an unnecessarily large common denominator is created (a/b x c/d = ad + bc/bd). This chapter explains how to find the smallest possible common denominator. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12.

Type: Tutorial

The Cartesian Coordinate System:

The Cartesian Coordinate system, formed from the Cartesian product of the real number line with itself, allows algebraic equations to be visualized as geometric shapes in two or three dimensions.

Type: Tutorial

Introduction to Decimals:

This tutorial for student audiences will provide a basic introduction to decimals. The tutorial presents a decimal as another way to represent a fraction. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer gaining an orange circle and a wrong answer graying out. Some "Try This" sections will read the decimal to the students as well.

Type: Tutorial

Comparing Fractions:

This tutorial for student audiences will assist learners with a further understanding that fractions are a way of showing part of a whole. Yet some fractions are larger than others. So this tutorial will help to refresh the understanding for the comparison of fractions. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer turning orange and a wrong answer dissolving.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial for student audiences will assist learners with a further understanding of the rules for adding and subtracting with decimals. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer turning orange and a wrong answer dissolving.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial for student audiences will assist learners with a further understanding of the rules for adding and subtracting fractions. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer turning orange and a wrong answer dissolving.

Type: Tutorial

Volume:

This interactive applet demonstrates volume as the number of unit cubes needed to fill a rectangular solid. The learner sees an animation and answers questions about the capacity of a box. The student can then ask for other problems where just the 3D dimensions are given and the volume is requested.

Type: Tutorial

Converting Speed Units:

In this lesson, students will be viewing a Khan Academy video that will show how to convert ratios using speed units.

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying Fractions:

The video describes how to multiply fractions and state the answer in lowest terms.

Type: Tutorial

## Virtual Manipulatives

This virtual manipulative will help the students in understanding parts in relation to a whole group. Students will also learn to distinguish between characteristics of shapes, create and describe patterns in shapes, and identify lines of symmetry and create symmetrical patterns.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Time - What Time Will It Be?:

This clock manipulative allows the user control of the hands of the clock and tell the elapsed time on both digital and analog clocks.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Geoboard:

This extremely versatile manipulative can be used by learners of different grades. At early grades, this manipulative will help the students recognize, name, build, draw, and compare two-dimensional shapes. As they progress students can classify and understand relationships among types of two-dimensional objects using their defining properties. The application computes perimeter and area allowing students to explore patterns as dimensions change.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Place Value Number Line:

With this interactive applet students can develop their understanding of place value and the relative position and magnitude of numbers in the base-10 number system. Users drag given numbers to their position on a number line, zooming in and out to increase precision. They can select from six levels of difficulty (Tens, Hundreds, Thousands, Millions, Billions, Decimals) and from 1 to 3 dots. There are three modes: Explore, Practice, Test.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Base Blocks Decimals:

With this virtual manipulative, students can explore the meaning of place value and grouping as they add and subtract decimals. Base blocks consist of individual units, longs, flats, and blocks (ten of each set for base 10). These blocks can represent negative as well as positive numbers with one to four decimal places and in five different bases. Students exchange and group the blocks as needed to solve the problem. Problems can be presented to or created by the students. All material is available in Spanish and French as well as English, including instructions for using the manipulative, information about bases and place value, and suggested questions for classroom use.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Fractions--Rectangle Multiplication:

This interactive applet provides a visual model of fraction multiplication using rectangular arrays. The applet offers both a demonstration/exploration mode ("show me") and a practice mode ("test me") in which students arrange the rectangle to display a given multiplication problem. Teaching ideas and applet instructions are available through the links at the top of the page.

This virtual manipulative offers students the opportunity to explore the process of fraction by fraction multiplication. Students will gain a conceptual understanding of the process, as well as be able to visualize the rationale behind why a fraction multiplied by a fraction results in a product that is smaller than the factors, a concept that is counter-intuitive to many students understanding of multiplication.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Fractions - Adding (with Unlike Denominators):

This resource from the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives shows students how to rename fractions to have a common denominator and then add them. It is appealing because it visually engages the students by showing them what happens to a unit (a rectangle is used here) as the denominator increases or decreases. As the denominator increases or decreases, the partitions are shown accordingly, and the effect on the numerator is shown as well. This is a convenient, visual way to show students how to manipulate fractions for adding.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Houses with Height Numbers:

This applet allows students to freely build shapes by stacking cubes and "explore the relation between a building (house) consisting of cubes and the height numbers representing the height of the different parts of the building." This exercise helps students visualize and understand the concepts of volume and three-dimensional, measurable space

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Base Blocks:

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction. Also allows for representation of decimal numbers.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Fractal Tool:

Students investigate shapes that grow and change using an iterative process. Fractals are characterized by self-similarity, smaller sections that resemble the larger figure. From NCTM's Illuminations.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Fraction Game:

This virtual manipulative allows individual students to work with fraction relationships. (There is also a link to a two-player version.)

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Shape Tool:

This virtual manipulative allows you to create, color, enlarge, shrink, rotate, reflect, slice, and glue geometric shapes, such as: squares, triangles, rhombi, trapezoids and hexagons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Follow the Pattern. Which shapes go next?:

Students select the shape that goes next in the pattern and place it in the row, then identify the overall pattern.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Diffy Virtual Manipulative:

Diffy is a virtual manipulative that allows students to practice their subtraction facts with whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, or money. It is a puzzle of sorts with four black numbers placed at the corners of a black square. The first goal is to fill in the four blanks in the blue circles in the middle of each side of the black square.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Order of Operations Quiz:

In this activity, students practice solving algebraic expressions using order of operations. The applet records their score so the student can track their progress. This activity allows students to practice applying the order of operations when solving problems. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this course.

## Educational Games

This addition game uses mixed decimals to the tenths place. This game encourages some logical analysis as well as addition skills. There may be several ways to make the first couple of circles sum to 3, but there is only one way to combine all the given numbers so that every circle sums to 3.

Type: Educational Game

BattleGraph:

A game that is an off-shoot of the classic game Battleship, for practice with coordinate graphing, complete with reproducible templates and animated powerpoint introduction.

Type: Educational Game

All Things Being Equal:

In this game, learners strategize to win the most cards by building number equations. Learners practice operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) to construct their equations. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Type: Educational Game

## Image/Photograph

Clipart: Geometric Shapes:

In this lesson, you will find clip art and various illustrations of polygons, circles, ellipses, star polygons, and inscribed shapes.

Type: Image/Photograph

Computing Volume Progression 1:

Students are asked to determine the number of unit cubes needed to construct cubes with given dimensions.

Computing Volume Progression 2:

Students are asked to find the volume of water in a tank that is 3/4 of the way full.

Computing Volume Progression 3:

Students are asked to find the height of a rectangular prism when given the length, width and volume.

Computing Volume Progression 4:

Students are asked to apply knowledge of volume of rectangular prisms to find the volume of an irregularly shaped object using the principle of displacement.

Lines of symmetry for triangles:

This activity provides students an opportunity to recognize these distinguishing features of the different types of triangles before the technical language has been introduced. For finding the lines of symmetry, cut-out models of the four triangles would be helpful so that the students can fold them to find the lines.

This task provides students a chance to experiment with reflections of the plane and their impact on specific types of quadrilaterals. It is both interesting and important that these types of quadrilaterals can be distinguished by their lines of symmetry.

Lines of symmetry for circles:

This is an instructional task that gives students a chance to reason about lines of symmetry and discover that a circle has an an infinite number of lines of symmetry. Even though the concept of an infinite number of lines is fairly abstract, fourth graders can understand infinity in an informal way.

The purpose of this task is adding fractions being with a focus on tenths and hundredths. Each part of this task emphasizes a unique aspect of 4.NF.5.

Making 22 Seventeenths in Different Ways:

This task is a straightforward task related to adding fractions with the same denominator. The main purpose is to emphasize that there are many ways to decompose a fraction as a sum of fractions, similar to decompositions of whole numbers that students should have seen in earlier grades (see e.g. K.OA.3).

How Many Tenths and Hundredths?:

The purpose of this task is for students to finish the equations to make true statements. Parts (a) and (b) have the same solution, which emphasizes that the order in which we add doesn't matter (because addition is commutative), while parts (c) and (d) emphasize that the position of a digit in a decimal number is critical. The student must really think to encode the quantity in positional notation. In parts (e), (f), and (g), the base-ten units in 14 hundredths are bundled in different ways. In part (e), "hundredths" are thought of as units: 14 things = 10 things + 4 things. Part (h) addresses the notion of equivalence between hundredths and tenths.

Fraction Equivalence:

Students may not articulate every detail, but the basic idea for a case like the one shown here is that when you have equivalent fractions, you have just cut the pieces that represent the fraction into more but smaller pieces. Explaining fraction equivalences at higher grades can be a bit more involved (e.g. 6/8=9/12), but it can always be framed as subdividing the same quantity in different ways.

Expanded Fractions and Decimals:

The purpose of this task is for students to show they understand the connection between fraction and decimal notation by writing the same numbers both ways. Comparing and contrasting the two solutions shown below shows why decimal notation can be confusing. The first solution shows the briefest way to represent each number, and the second solution makes all the zeros explicit.

Dimes and Pennies:

The purpose of this task is to help students gain a better understanding of fractions through the use of dimes and pennies.

Comparing two different pizzas:

The focus of this task is on understanding that fractions, in an explicit context, are fractions of a specific whole. In this this problem there are three different wholes: the medium pizza, the large pizza, and the two pizzas taken together. This task is best suited for instruction. Students can practice explaining their reasoning to each other in pairs or as part of a whole group discussion.

Comparing Sums of Unit Fractions:

The purpose of this task is to help develop students' understanding of addition of fractions; it is intended as an instructional task. Notice that students are not asked to find the sum because in grade 4, students are limited to computing sums of fractions with the same denominator. Rather, they need to apply a firm understanding of unit fractions (fractions with one in the numerator) and reason about their relative size.

Writing a Mixed Number as an Equivalent Fraction:

The purpose of this task is to help students understand and articulate the reasons for the steps in the usual algorithm for converting a mixed number into an equivalent fraction. Step two shows that the algorithm is merely a shortcut for finding a common denominator between two fractions. This concept is an important precursor to adding mixed numbers and fractions with like denominators and as such, step two should be a point of emphasis. This task is appropriate for either instruction or formative assessment.

Using Place Value:

Each part of this task highlights a slightly different aspect of place value as it relates to decimal notation. More than simply being comfortable with decimal notation, the point is for students to be able to move fluidly between and among the different ways that a single value can be represented and to understand the relative size of the numbers in each place.

Sugar in six cans of soda:

This task provides a familiar context allowing students to visualize multiplication of a fraction by a whole number. This task could form part of a very rich activity which includes studying soda can labels.

Peaches:

This task provides a context where it is appropriate for students to subtract fractions with a common denominator; it could be used for either assessment or instructional purposes. For this particular task, teachers should anticipate two types of solution approaches: one where students subtract the whole numbers and the fractions separately and one where students convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions and then proceed to subtract.

Comparing Growth, Variation 2:

The purpose of this task is to assess students' understanding of multiplicative and additive reasoning. We would hope that students would be able to see identify that Student A is just looking at how many feet are being added on, while the Student B is comparing how much the snakes grew in comparison to how long they were to begin with.

Double Plus One:

The purpose of this task is to help students gain a better understanding of patterns. This task is meant to be used in an instructional setting.

Video Game Scores:

This task asks students to exercise both of these complementary skills, writing an expression in part (a) and interpreting a given expression in (b). The numbers given in the problem are deliberately large and "ugly" to discourage students from calculating Eric's and Leila's scores. The focus of this problem is not on numerical answers, but instead on building and interpreting expressions that could be entered in a calculator or communicated to another student unfamiliar with the context.

Box of Clay:

This purpose of this task is to help students understand what happens when you scale the dimensions of a right rectangular solid. This task provides an opportunity to compare the relative volumes of boxes in order to calculate the mass of clay required to fill them. These relative volumes can be calculated geometrically, filling the larger box with smaller boxes, or arithmetically using the given dimensions.

Battle Ship Using Grid Paper:

The purpose of this task is to give students practice plotting points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane and naming coordinates of points. It could be easily adapted to plotting points with negative coordinates. It also provides teachers with a good opportunity to assess how well their students understand how to plot ordered pairs and identify the coordinates of points.

What is 23 ÷ 5?:

When a division problem involving whole numbers does not result in a whole number quotient, it is important for students to be able to decide whether the context requires the result to be reported as a whole number with remainder (as with Part (b)) or a mixed number/decimal (as with Part (c)). Part (a) presents two variations on a context that require these two different responses to highlight the distinction between them.

How Much Pie?:

The purpose of this task is to help students see the connection between a÷b and ab in a particular concrete example. The relationship between the division problem 3÷8 and the fraction 3/8 is actually very subtle. This task is probably best suited for instruction or formative assessment.

How many servings of oatmeal?:

This task provides a context for performing division of a whole number by a unit fraction. This problem is a "How many groups?'' example of division: the "groups'' in this case are the servings of oatmeal and the question is asking how many servings (or groups) there are in the package.

Painting a room:

The purpose of this task is to provide students with a situation in which it is natural for them to divide a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number. Determining the amount of paint that Kulani needs for each wall illustrates an understanding of the meaning of dividing a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number.

Painting a Wall:

The purpose of this task is for students to find the answer to a question in context that can be represented by fraction multiplication. This task is appropriate for either instruction or assessment depending on how it is used and where students are in their understanding of fraction multiplication.

Origami Stars:

The purpose of this task is to present students with a situation in which they need to divide a whole number by a unit fraction in order to find a solution. Calculating the number of origami stars that Avery and Megan can make illustrates students' understanding of the process of dividing a whole number by a unit fraction.

Mixed Numbers with Unlike Denominators:

The purpose of this task is to help students realize there are different ways to add mixed numbers and is most appropriate for use in an instructional setting. The two primary ways one can expect students to add are converting the mixed numbers to fractions greater than 1 or adding the whole numbers and fractional parts separately. It is good for students to develop a sense of which approach would be better in a particular context.

Making S'Mores:

The purpose of this instructional task is to motivate a discussion about adding fractions and the meaning of the common denominator. The different parts of the task have students moving back and forth between the abstract representation of the fractions and the meaning of the fractions in the context.

This tasks lends itself very well to multiple solution methods. Students may learn a lot by comparing different methods. Students who are already comfortable with fraction multiplication can go straight to the numeric solutions given below. Students who are still unsure of the meanings of these operations can draw pictures or diagrams.

Jog-A-Thon:

The purpose of this task is to present students with a situation where it is natural to add fractions with unlike denominators; it can be used for either assessment or instructional purposes. Teachers should anticipate two types of solutions: one where students calculate the distance Alex ran to determine an answer, and one where students compare the two parts of his run to benchmark fractions.

To Multiply or not to multiply?:

The purpose of this task is to familiarize students with multiplying fractions with real-world questions.

Seeing is Believing:

The purpose of this task is to help students see that 4×(9+2) is four times as big as (9+2). Though this task may seem very simple, it provides students and teachers with a very useful visual for interpreting an expression without evaluating it because they can see for themselves that 4×(9+2) is four times as big as (9+2).

The purpose of this task is to have students add fractions with unlike denominators and divide a unit fraction by a whole number. This accessible real-life context provides students with an opportunity to apply their understanding of addition as joining two separate quantities.

Running to School:

Since tasks such as this will be among the first that students see, solutions which involve (sub)dividing a quantity into equal parts in order to find a fraction of the quantity should be emphasized. In particular, such solutions should be introduced if students do not generate them on their own. Students benefit from reasoning through the solution to such word problems before they are told that they can be solved by multiplying the fractions; this helps them develop meaning for fraction multiplication.

Running a Mile:

The two solutions reflect different competencies described in 5.NF.5. The first solution uses the idea that multiplying by a fraction less than 1 results in a smaller value. The second actually uses the meaning of multiplying by 89 to explain why multiplying by that fraction will result in a smaller value.

This is a good task to work with kids to try to explain their thinking clearly and precisely, although teachers should be willing to work with many different ways of explaining the relationship between the magnitude of the factors and the magnitude of the product.

Comparing Products:

The purpose of this task is to generate a classroom discussion that helps students synthesize what they have learned about multiplication in previous grades. It builds on 3.OA.5 Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide and 4.OA.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison.

Bowling for Numbers:

The purpose of this game is to help students think flexibly about numbers and operations and to record multiple operations using proper notation. Students eager to knock down all of the pins quickly develop patterns in their expressions. They may re-use parts of an expression, perhaps changing just the final operation.

Words to Expressions 1:

This problem allows student to see words that can describe the expression from part (c) of "5.OA Watch out for Parentheses." Additionally , the words (add, sum) and (product, multiply) are all strategically used so that the student can see that these words have related meanings.

Watch Out for Parentheses 1:

This problem asks the student to evaluate six numerical expressions that contain the same integers and operations yet have differing results due to placement of parentheses. This type of problem helps students to see structure in numerical expressions. In later grades they will be working with similar ideas in the context of seeing and using structure in algebraic expressions.

Minutes and Days:

This task requires division of multi-digit numbers in the context of changing units and so illustrates 5.NBT.6 and 5.MD.1. In addition, the conversion problem requires two steps since 2011 minutes needs to be converted first to hours and minutes and then to days, hours, and minutes.

Half of a Recipe:

This is the third problem in a series of three tasks involving fraction multiplication that can be solved with pictures or number lines. The first, 5.NF Running to school, does not require that the unit fractions that comprise 3/4 be subdivided in order to find 1/3 of 3/4. The second task, 5.NF Drinking Juice, does require students to subdivide the unit fractions that comprise 1/2 in order to find 3/4 of 1/2. This task also requires subdivision and involves multiplying a fraction and a mixed number.

Grass Seedlings:

The purpose of this task is to gain a better understanding of multiplying and dividing with fractions. Students should use the diagram provided to support their findings.

Fundraising:

This problem helps students gain a better understanding of dividing with fractions.

Folding Strips of Paper:

The purpose of this task is to provide students with a concrete experience they can relate to fraction multiplication. Perhaps more importantly, the task also purposefully relates length and locations of points on a number line, a common trouble spot for students. This task is meant for instruction and would be a useful as part of an introductory unit on fraction multiplication.

Finding Common Denominators to Subtract:

Part (a) of this task asks students to use two different denominators to subtract fractions. The purpose of this is to help students realize that any common denominator will work, not just the least common denominator. Part (b) does not ask students to do it in more than one way; the purpose is to give them an opportunity to choose a denominator and possibly compare with another student who chose a different denominator. The purpose of part (c) is to help students move away from a reliance on drawing pictures. Students can draw a picture if they want, but this subtraction problem is easier to do symbolically, which helps students appreciate the power of symbolic notation.

Part (a) of this task asks students to find and use two different common denominators to add the given fractions. The purpose of this question is to help students realize that they can use any common denominator to find a solution, not just the least common denominator. Part (b) does not ask students to solve the given addition problem in more than one way. Instead, the purpose of this question is to give students an opportunity to choose a denominator and possibly to compare their solution method with another student who chose a different denominator.  The purpose of part (c) is to give students who are ready to work symbolically a chance to work more efficiently.

Converting Fractions of a Unit into a Smaller Unit:

The purpose of this task is to help students gain a better understanding of fractions and the conversion of fractions into smaller units.

How many marbles?:

This task is intended to complement "5.NF How many servings of oatmeal?" and "7.RP Molly's run.'' All three tasks address the division problem 4÷1/3 but from different points of view. This task provides a how many in each group version of 4÷1/3. This task should be done together with the "How many servings of oatmeal" task with specific attention paid to the very different pictures representing the two situations.

Egyptian Fractions:

One goal of this task is to help students develop comfort and ease with adding fractions with unlike denominators. Another goal is to help them develop fraction number sense by having students decompose fractions.

Drinking Juice:

This is the second problem in a series of three tasks involving fraction multiplication that can be solved with pictures or number lines. This task does require students to subdivide the unit fractions that comprise 1/2 in order to find 3/4 of 1/2.

This task addresses common errors that students make when adding fractions. It is very important for students to recognize that they only add fractions when the fractions refer to the same whole, and also when the fractions of the whole being added do not overlap. This set of questions is designed to enhance a student's understanding of when it is and is not appropriate to add fractions.

Dividing by One-Half:

This task requires students to recognize both "number of groups unknown" (part (a)) and "group size unknown" (part (d)) division problems in the context of a whole number divided by a unit fraction. It also addresses a common misconception that students have where they confuse dividing by 2 or multiplying by 1/2 with dividing by 1/2.

Connor and Makayla Discuss Multiplication:

The purpose of this task is to have students think about the meaning of multiplying a number by a fraction, and use this burgeoning understanding of fraction multiplication to make sense of the commutative property of multiplication in the case of fractions.

Comparing a Number and a Product:

The purpose of this task is for students to compare a number and its product with other numbers that are greater than and less than one. As written, this task could be used in a summative assessment context, but it might be more useful in an instructional setting where students are asked to explain their answers either to a partner or in a whole class discussion.

Calculator Trouble:

This particular problem deals with multiplication. Even though students can solve this problem by multiplying, it is unlikely they will. Here it is much easier to answer the question if you can think of multiplying a number by a factor as scaling the number.

Banana Pudding:

The purpose of this task is to provide students with a concrete situation they can model by dividing a whole number by a unit fraction. For students who are just beginning to think about the meaning of division by a unit fraction (or students who have never cooked), the teacher can bring in a 1/4 cup measuring cup so that students can act it out. If students can reason through parts (a) and (b) successfully, they will be well-situated to think about part (c) which could yield different solution methods.

Plastic Building Blocks:

The purpose of this task is to have students add mixed numbers with like denominators. This task illustrates the different kinds of solution approaches students might take to such a task. Two general approaches should be anticipated: one where students calculate exactly how many buckets of blocks the boys have to determine an answer, and one where students compare the given numbers to benchmark numbers.

## Tutorials

How to convert gallons to quarts, quarts to pints, pints to cups, and cups to ounces:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, explore converting between gallons, quarts, pints, cups, and fluid ounces.

Type: Tutorial

How to convert hours to minutes and minutes to seconds:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, explore conversion of units of time between hours, minutes and seconds.

Type: Tutorial

Division: The importance of place value:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, learn about the importance of place value when dividing. Being able to perform the standard algorithm is the end goal, but it helps to understand how and why this process works.

Type: Tutorial

Division: Intro to remainders:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, you will get an introduction to the meaning of remainders.

Type: Tutorial

How to use an abacus (to represent multi-digit numbers):

In this tutorial video from Khan Academy, learn to use an abacus to represent multi-digit numbers. This video will explain how the beads on an abacus can each represent ten times the value of the bead to its right.

Type: Tutorial

Introduction to Decimals:

This tutorial for student audiences will provide a basic introduction to decimals. The tutorial presents a decimal as another way to represent a fraction. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer gaining an orange circle and a wrong answer graying out. Some "Try This" sections will read the decimal to the students as well.

Type: Tutorial

Comparing Fractions:

This tutorial for student audiences will assist learners with a further understanding that fractions are a way of showing part of a whole. Yet some fractions are larger than others. So this tutorial will help to refresh the understanding for the comparison of fractions. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer turning orange and a wrong answer dissolving.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial for student audiences will assist learners with a further understanding of the rules for adding and subtracting with decimals. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer turning orange and a wrong answer dissolving.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial for student audiences will assist learners with a further understanding of the rules for adding and subtracting fractions. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer turning orange and a wrong answer dissolving.

Type: Tutorial

How Do You Divide Fractions?:

This five-minute video answers the question "Must one always invert and multiply?" when dividing fractions. An alternative algorithm is presented which works well in certain cases. The video focuses on sense-making in using either method, and on judging the reasonableness of answers.

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying Fractions:

The video describes how to multiply fractions and state the answer in lowest terms.

Type: Tutorial

Subtracting Fractions:

In this web-based tutorial, students learn procedures for subtracting fractions. The tutorial includes visual representations of the problems using pizzas, animations of the algorithm, and links to related lessons, worksheets, and practice problems.

Type: Tutorial

## Virtual Manipulatives

This virtual manipulative will help the students in understanding parts in relation to a whole group. Students will also learn to distinguish between characteristics of shapes, create and describe patterns in shapes, and identify lines of symmetry and create symmetrical patterns.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Time - What Time Will It Be?:

This clock manipulative allows the user control of the hands of the clock and tell the elapsed time on both digital and analog clocks.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Geoboard:

This extremely versatile manipulative can be used by learners of different grades. At early grades, this manipulative will help the students recognize, name, build, draw, and compare two-dimensional shapes. As they progress students can classify and understand relationships among types of two-dimensional objects using their defining properties. The application computes perimeter and area allowing students to explore patterns as dimensions change.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Place Value Number Line:

With this interactive applet students can develop their understanding of place value and the relative position and magnitude of numbers in the base-10 number system. Users drag given numbers to their position on a number line, zooming in and out to increase precision. They can select from six levels of difficulty (Tens, Hundreds, Thousands, Millions, Billions, Decimals) and from 1 to 3 dots. There are three modes: Explore, Practice, Test.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Base Blocks Decimals:

With this virtual manipulative, students can explore the meaning of place value and grouping as they add and subtract decimals. Base blocks consist of individual units, longs, flats, and blocks (ten of each set for base 10). These blocks can represent negative as well as positive numbers with one to four decimal places and in five different bases. Students exchange and group the blocks as needed to solve the problem. Problems can be presented to or created by the students. All material is available in Spanish and French as well as English, including instructions for using the manipulative, information about bases and place value, and suggested questions for classroom use.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Fractions - Adding (with Unlike Denominators):

This resource from the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives shows students how to rename fractions to have a common denominator and then add them. It is appealing because it visually engages the students by showing them what happens to a unit (a rectangle is used here) as the denominator increases or decreases. As the denominator increases or decreases, the partitions are shown accordingly, and the effect on the numerator is shown as well. This is a convenient, visual way to show students how to manipulate fractions for adding.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Base Blocks:

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction. Also allows for representation of decimal numbers.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Shape Tool:

This virtual manipulative allows you to create, color, enlarge, shrink, rotate, reflect, slice, and glue geometric shapes, such as: squares, triangles, rhombi, trapezoids and hexagons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Diffy Virtual Manipulative:

Diffy is a virtual manipulative that allows students to practice their subtraction facts with whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, or money. It is a puzzle of sorts with four black numbers placed at the corners of a black square. The first goal is to fill in the four blanks in the blue circles in the middle of each side of the black square.

Type: Virtual Manipulative