# MA.K.GR.1.2

Compare two-dimensional figures based on their similarities, differences and positions. Sort two-dimensional figures based on their similarities and differences. Figures are limited to circles, triangles, rectangles and squares.

### Examples

A triangle can be compared to a rectangle by stating that they both have straight sides, but a triangle has 3 sides and vertices, and a rectangle has 4 sides and vertices.

### Clarifications

Clarification 1: Instruction includes exploring figures in a variety of sizes and orientations.

Clarification 2: Instruction focuses on using informal language to describe relative positions and the similarities or differences between figures when comparing and sorting.

General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Strand: Geometric Reasoning
Status: State Board Approved

## Benchmark Instructional Guide

• Circle
• Rectangle
• Square
• Triangle

### Vertical Alignment

Previous Benchmarks

Next Benchmarks

### Purpose and Instructional Strategies

The purpose of this benchmark is for students to build on their understanding of classification of two-dimensional figures by finding similarities and differences between shapes (MTR.5.1).
• Instruction includes opportunities for students to sort images based on various criteria, such as same number of sides, and figures with all straight sides (MTR.2.1, MTR.5.1).
• Instruction includes helping students describe objects based on relative positions. Relative position refers to students identifying left/right, in front of/behind, apart and above/below. When comparing figures students should understand that relative position can change even though the other features of the figures stay the same.
• Instruction includes figures of various sizes and orientations, and may include figures that are not triangles, circles, rectangles or squares (MTR.2.1).
• Instruction includes examples of squares when discussing rectangles.
• Right angles are technically not addressed until grade 4, but it is appropriate to discuss “square corners” and corners that are not square in an informal way in Kindergarten.

### Common Misconceptions or Errors

• Students may not understand that all squares are also classified as rectangles; however, only specific rectangles (with sides that are the same length) are also classified as squares.
• Students may sort figures separately because of orientation and/or size rather than the identified attributes of the figures.

### Strategies to Support Tiered Instruction

• Teacher provides plane shapes (circles, squares, triangles, rectangles) for students to sort.
• For example, instruction includes sorting shapes by how they are the same or by how they are different. The teacher asks follow up questions such as, “How did you decide to sort the shapes? How many sides does this group have?”

• Teacher provides the following plane figures in multiple sizes: squares, circles, triangles, rectangles. Shapes are scattered in the workspace. Students work to match the squares with the squares, the circles with the circles, etc., until all shapes are grouped. The focus is on students recognizing that shapes of different sizes go in the same group (i.e., all circles large and small should be together).
• Teacher provides instruction by doing a “Shape Show.” The teacher shows and names a large rectangle. Walk fingers around its perimeter, describing and exaggerating the actions (straight side...turn, straight side...turn, straight side...turn, straight side...stop), while asking students how many sides the rectangle has and count the sides with him or her. Repeat the actions for a large square, drawing connections between the similarities. The teacher explains that squares are a special kind of rectangle.

Using the figures below, create sorting cards for students. Provide each student in a group with their own set of figures to sort. Ask each student to sort the figures in any way they choose. Once students have sorted their figures, give each student time to share about their choices, and explain how they sorted their figures (by shape, straight sides and circles, filled and not filled or number of sides). Once students have shared, ask them to sort their figures in a new way. Give time for sorting and sharing again. Repeat the task as needed.

Identify which of the figures below are rectangles and describe their relative positions.

### Instructional Items

Instructional Item 1

Circle all of the figures that have 4 sides.

Instructional Item 2

How many figures have straight sides?

*The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.

## Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5012020: Grade Kindergarten Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712015: Access Mathematics - Grade Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012005: Foundational Skills in Mathematics K-2 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

## Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MA.K.GR.1.AP.2a: Sort two-dimensional figures based on their similarities. Figures are limited to circles, triangles, rectangles and squares.
MA.K.GR.1.AP.2b: Use informal spatial language to describe the relative positions of two-dimensional figures (e.g., above, below, beside, next to, under).

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Formative Assessments

How Are These Shapes Alike?:

Students compare and contrast two shapes based on their attributes.

Type: Formative Assessment

Compare Rectangles and Triangles:

Students compare a triangle to a rectangle based on attributes of these figures.

Type: Formative Assessment

## Lesson Plans

Hide and Seek those Shapes:

In this lesson, students will discover the names of different two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes and their attributes through activities such as playing "Hide and Seek" with shapes and playing "Hot and Cold" to find shapes in the classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Shape Detective:

The students will identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, and rectangles, ) regardless of their orientations or overall size by becoming detectives and going on a "hunt" to find the given shapes.

Type: Lesson Plan

Shape the Shapes:

In this lesson, students will learn to identify, describe, and sort two-dimensional shapes (circles, triangles, rectangles, and squares) through music, movement, and hands-on exploration.

Type: Lesson Plan

Shape Up!:

In this lesson students will compare two-dimensional shapes to other two- dimensional shapes (circle, square, triangle, and rectangle) and three-dimensional shapes to other three-dimensional shapes (cone, cylinder, sphere, cube) by differentiating them according to attributes. Students describe attributes of shapes by exploring real world objects.

Type: Lesson Plan

Where's that shape? Where am I?:

The lesson focus will be a kinesthetic approach to understanding relative positions in the environment. The lesson begins with a critical input experience, as students move around their surrounding, looking for shapes around them. Basic shapes include circle, square, triangle, rectangle. Students will explore shapes in the real world setting. As the lesson progresses, students will learn to describe the position of objects in relation to their own bodies using positional language such as: left/right, in front of/behind, apart and above/below. The lesson will be followed by guided instruction portion using hands-on manipulatives to transfer learned skills. The learning sequence will conclude with an informal assessment of student understanding.

Type: Lesson Plan

Every Group Counts!:

The students will be working in whole group, small group and individually to discover measurable attributes of objects and sort the objects into categories. Students will also count and compare the number of objects in each category.

Type: Lesson Plan

Shape Hunt:

Students will go on a shape hunt in the classroom or designated area. During the shape hunt, students will find real-world objects that can be modeled by two- and three-dimensional figures. After the shape hunt, students will use Timed-Pair-Share to explain to peers what objects they found and their relative positions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sorting It All Out:

In this lesson, kindergarten students will learn to sort objects familiar to them by different attributes. They will justify their decisions for classification when objects have more than one similar characteristic.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorials

Farm Baby Rescue Part 1: Up and Down Positions:

Relative positions include up and down, top and bottom, over, on, and under, and above and below. Learn different types of up and down positions to rescue eight chicks in this farm-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Search for Shapes: Recognizing Rectangles and Squares:

Identify and name rectangles and squares based on their defining attributes, even if they have different sizes or positions. Join King Geo and his scout, Quad, as they search for rectangles and squares in this interactive tutorial.

This is part of a series on the defining attributes of shapes. Click the links below.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Search for Shapes: Tracking Triangles:

Track down triangles based on their defining attributes for King Geo in this interactive tutorial.  Learn what makes a triangle a triangle.

This is part of a series on the defining attributes of shapes. Click the links below.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Briana's Shape Playground:

Learn how to identify the similarities and differences in the number of sides of two-dimensional shapes in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Connecting Geometry to Numbers:

Unlock an effective teaching strategy for connecting geometry and numbers in order to build number sense in this Teacher Perspectives video for educators.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

## MFAS Formative Assessments

Compare Rectangles and Triangles:

Students compare a triangle to a rectangle based on attributes of these figures.

How Are These Shapes Alike?:

Students compare and contrast two shapes based on their attributes.

## Original Student Tutorials Mathematics - Grades K-5

Briana's Shape Playground:

Learn how to identify the similarities and differences in the number of sides of two-dimensional shapes in this interactive tutorial.

Farm Baby Rescue Part 1: Up and Down Positions:

Relative positions include up and down, top and bottom, over, on, and under, and above and below. Learn different types of up and down positions to rescue eight chicks in this farm-themed, interactive tutorial.

The Search for Shapes: Recognizing Rectangles and Squares:

Identify and name rectangles and squares based on their defining attributes, even if they have different sizes or positions. Join King Geo and his scout, Quad, as they search for rectangles and squares in this interactive tutorial.

This is part of a series on the defining attributes of shapes. Click the links below.

The Search for Shapes: Tracking Triangles:

Track down triangles based on their defining attributes for King Geo in this interactive tutorial.  Learn what makes a triangle a triangle.

This is part of a series on the defining attributes of shapes. Click the links below.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Original Student Tutorials

Farm Baby Rescue Part 1: Up and Down Positions:

Relative positions include up and down, top and bottom, over, on, and under, and above and below. Learn different types of up and down positions to rescue eight chicks in this farm-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Search for Shapes: Recognizing Rectangles and Squares:

Identify and name rectangles and squares based on their defining attributes, even if they have different sizes or positions. Join King Geo and his scout, Quad, as they search for rectangles and squares in this interactive tutorial.

This is part of a series on the defining attributes of shapes. Click the links below.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Search for Shapes: Tracking Triangles:

Track down triangles based on their defining attributes for King Geo in this interactive tutorial.  Learn what makes a triangle a triangle.

This is part of a series on the defining attributes of shapes. Click the links below.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Briana's Shape Playground:

Learn how to identify the similarities and differences in the number of sides of two-dimensional shapes in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.