### Clarifications

*Clarification 1:*Instruction focuses on matching, counting and the connection to addition and subtraction.

*Clarification 2: *Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to use the relational symbols =,> or <.

**Subject Area:**Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)

**Grade:**K

**Strand:**Number Sense and Operations

**Date Adopted or Revised:**08/20

**Status:**State Board Approved

## Benchmark Instructional Guide

### Connecting Benchmarks/Horizontal Alignment

### Terms from the K-12 Glossary

- NA

### Vertical Alignment

Previous Benchmarks

Next Benchmarks

### Purpose and Instructional Strategies

The purpose of this benchmark is to develop student understanding of comparing numbers and values relative to others. This benchmark may be used to connect to the counting sequence, forwards and backwards, and to addition and subtraction as strategies to compare numbers.- Instructions encourage students to explain “how they know” a number is greater than, less than or equal to (MTR.6.1).
- For example, a student could explain that 5 is after 3 so 5 is greater than 3. A student could also pair objects one-to-one to determine that 5 is greater than 3.

- Instruction allows for students to compare sets and demonstrate their thinking using various strategies, such as addition and subtraction, counting on or back, and manipulatives (MTR.2.1).
- For example, 7 is greater than 5 because 5 + 2 = 7 and because it is like starting at 5 and counting “5, 6, 7.”

- Instruction includes pairing objects in two sets one-to-one, students may observe that a set has more objects when there are no more to pair with (MTR.5.1).
- Instruction includes the language “which is greater,” “which is less,” and “are they equal,” to help students develop vocabulary.
- Instruction includes comparing sets of objects as well as numbers.

### Common Misconceptions or Errors

- Students may confuse the size of objects with the number of objects when comparing.

### Strategies to Support Tiered Instruction

- Instruction includes presenting students with two sets of objects to compare in which modeling of a matching strategy is used to determine precisely which set has more.
- For example, the teacher may use questions that can elicit student thinking about the relationship between quantity and size including
- “Do you think they have the same amount? How do you know?”
- “When we want to see if one group has more, less or the same, we will compare the groups by matching one from each group.”

- Students may record the numbers or drawings of their comparisons and describe how they determined which group was more, or less.

- For example, the teacher may use questions that can elicit student thinking about the relationship between quantity and size including

- Instruction includes a focus on “equal” by presenting students with two sets of objects with equal quantities in which the objects in one set are at least twice as large as the objects in the other set.
- For example, students will need to be introduced to the idea that larger items don’t necessarily mean they are “more” or that smaller items mean there are “less.”

- For example, the teacher may use the following questions to elicit student thinking about the relationship between quantity and size and can include,
- “Do you think they have the same amount? How do you know?”
- “When we want to see if one group has more, less or the same, we will compare the groups by matching one from each group.”
- “Each group has the same amount. Another word for same is ‘equal.’”

### Instructional Tasks

*Instructional Task 1 *

- Which number is greater?
- How do you know?
- Which number is less?
- How do you know?
- What’s the total number of objects?
- How many more is in one group than the other?

- 9 is greater than 5, because when I count, 9 comes after 5.
- I know 5 is less than 9, because 9 is greater than 5.
- I know that 9 is greater than 5, because I have to add 4 to 5 to get 9.
- I counted all of the objects.
- I subtracted the two numbers, I matched them and found the number left over.

*Instructional Task 2 *

### Instructional Items

*Instructional Item 1 *

*Who has more shirts? How do you know?*

**The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.*

## Related Courses

## Related Access Points

## Related Resources

## Formative Assessments

## Lesson Plans

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

## STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

This MEA is designed at a Kindergarten grade level. Students will work in teams to determine the best apple treat to showcase in a display at a farm stand. Students will use criteria such as smell, taste, and profit to make their determinations.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

In this open-ended question, students, in teams will make decisions about how to rank shoes based on various shoe characteristics (e.g., color, comfort, shoelaces, lights, and customer ratings).

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

This MEA is designed on a Kindergarten grade level. Students will work in teams to determine the best piece of playground equipment to add to the city playground. Students will use criteria such as safety, cost, degree of fun, and time to build to make their determinations.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Students will work in teams to help choose the best Popsicle to sell. They will develop a procedure based on the following criteria: taste, color, cost, and melting speed. They will reassess the Popsicles during the twist incorporating flavors and a fourth Popsicle choice. Students may arrange the criteria based on their team's interpretation of most important to least important. Students may have to make trade offs based on these interpretations.

In this MEA, students will help pick a flower that will be the focus of the Spring Festival. They will practice counting pictures and representing the number of pictures with a written numeral.

In teams, students will make decisions about how to select the best bakery based on various cupcake characteristics (e.g., taste, smell).

In this open-ended question, students, in teams will make decisions about how to rank new ice cream flavors for Frosty's based on various ice cream characteristics (e.g., taste, smell, color and fun factor). Students will practice analyzing data sets and their writing skills to record their process and thinking.

## MFAS Formative Assessments

Students are shown two cards with pictures of animals and asked to compare the number of animals on the two cards.

Students are asked to compare two numbers between 1 and 10 using playing cards.

Students work in pairs to compare 10 frame cards that contain both a numeral and a corresponding number of dots.

Students take handfuls of counters, count them, and use the terms *greater than*, *less than*, or *equal to* to compare the sets.

Students are asked to compare two numbers between 1 and 10 during a game of "Which is Greater?".

Students compare groups of objects to determine whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group.