LAFS.910.RI.2.5

Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 910
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , EBSR , MS , MC , OR , SHT , DDHT item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may be overarching questions about the structure/development of the entire text or about specific structural elements. Items should ask the student to analyze the author’s ideas or claims in the context of particular structural decisions made by the author. However, a two-part item may ask the student to determine the structure used and then analyze how it develops the ideas or claims.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing this standard may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Technology-Enhanced Item Descriptions section on pages 3 and 4 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice and Editing Task item types). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Analyze the way in which an author develops or refines a given claim or idea through structural decisions.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select portions of the text that develop or refine a given idea or claim. 

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to drag into the appropriate box(es) in a chart descriptions of the function of different text sections. 

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the correct analysis of how an author develops or refines ideas or claims. 
    • Requires the student to select a portion of the text that develops or refines a given idea or claim from the text. 

    Open Response

    • Requires the student to explain how an author develops or refines the ideas or claims in a text in one or two sentences. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple sentences from different points of the text that contribute to a given claim.

    Task Demand

    Analyze the way in which an author develops or refines a given claim or idea through structural decisions.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select a statement from the text that refines the author’s ideas and then to select an explanation of how it refines those ideas. 

    Table Match

    • Requires the student to complete a table by matching particular sentences, a paragraph, or larger portions of text to a concept they refine.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
0500300: Executive Internship 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0500310: Executive Internship 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1000400: Intensive Language Arts (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
1000410: Intensive Reading (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1001320: English Honors 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001350: English Honors 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002300: English 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002310: English 2 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002380: English Language Development (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1007300: Speech 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1007330: Debate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1007340: Debate 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1008300: Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008310: Reading 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008320: Reading Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1001310: English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001340: English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7910111: Access English 1/2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
1001315: English 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001345: English 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002305: English 1 Through ESOL for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
1002315: English 2 Through ESOL for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
1006375: Social Media 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1002381: Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.910.RI.2.AP.5a: Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed.
LAFS.910.RI.2.AP.5b: Identify key sentences or paragraphs that support claims.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Wear Sunscreen: A Satirical Take on the Time-Honored Graduation Speech:

This close reading lesson focuses on Mary Schmich's comical commencement speech essay, "Advice, like youth, probably just wasted on the young." Students will take an in-depth analysis to discover her powerful satirical style, as well as the power of social nuances. Students will focus on academic vocabulary and answer high-level text-dependent questions as a guide for their comprehension of the essay, evaluating if her choice of words and wisdom remain valid, relative, and sufficient for the youth of today. Graphic organizers and worksheets, along with teacher keys, and a writing rubric have been provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

A NanoDegree that Can Get You a Programmer Position with Google? Must Examine with CLOSE Reading!:

In this lesson, students will practice using close reading strategies as they read a high interest New York Times article about new methods companies are using to train and recruit skilled workers for entry-level positions. A vocabulary organizer, text-dependent questions, summative writing exercise, and extension ideas are all included to help students analyze the revolutionary potential of the NanoDegree.

Type: Lesson Plan

Buried in Ash: New Revelations of an Ancient Culture:

In this lesson, students read a non-fiction text as they learn of the artifacts unearthed from the remains of a Salvadoran village preserved in volcanic ash much like Pompeii. Students will discover how researchers piece together evidence to determine the significance the artifacts reveal in illustrating the daily lives of this ancient people. As students come to understand the researchers use the artifacts to infer religious, cultural and economic aspects of the Ceren village, they will answer text-dependent questions and compose a multi-paragraph writing response (sample answer keys included) asking students to describe the power of this natural disaster to destroy this ancient culture yet preserve its details for future generations to learn from.

Type: Lesson Plan

Looking Over the Mountaintop: Central Ideas:

This is the first lesson in a three-part series on Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech "I've Been to the Mountaintop." In this lesson, the speech has been divided into eight sections with text-dependent questions that are specific to each section. Throughout the course of the lesson students will determine a central idea for each section and examine King's ideas and claims and how they are developed and supported. At the end of the lesson, students will determine an overarching central idea of the speech and write an extended paragraph to explain the central idea and how it is developed and supported with specific evidence throughout the text. Text-dependent questions, graphic organizers, selected answer keys, and a writing rubric have been included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Surveillance Society – Is Privacy just an Illusion?:

"The line between private and public space is as porous as tissue paper." Students will explore issues of privacy through the TIME magazine article "The Surveillance Society" by David Von Drehle. This article will provide students with an opportunity to be up close and personal with delineating, evaluating, and explaining an author's claim. Students will read chunks of text while interacting with a graphic organizer to assist them in drawing conclusions and creating an original response to whether or not privacy has become an illusion due to our technological advances.

Type: Lesson Plan

One rotten apple spoils the bunch! An Argument Analysis of Disney's Guest Assistance Card Program:

In this lesson, students will conduct several close readings of the news article "Parents: Disney Policy Targeting Faux Disabled Punishes Truly Disabled Kids" by Jason Garcia. For the first close reading, students will focus on selected academic vocabulary. In the second reading, students will analyze the claims being made in the article, focusing on the validity of each claim being made. During the final close reading, students will analyze the arguments being presented, choose a side, and participate in a Philosophical Chair discussion. In the summative assessment, students will write a three paragraph argument in the form of a letter to the Disney corporation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Privacy: A Matter of National Security?:

In this lesson, students will embark upon a journey of espionage and inquire how the rights of one can become a barrier for the greater good of a nation.

Students will read two informational texts about former NSA agent Edward Snowden. This close reading activity will require students to use textual support, reasoning and relevancy of the text, and analyze an author's claims to engage in discourse through Philosophical Chairs. Students will also synthesize the arguments, information, and claims within the text to write an essay proving that Snowden is either a hero or a traitor.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring Immigration and America (Part 2) through Informational Text- Judge Learned Hand's Speech:

This lesson is the second of a unit comprised of 3 lessons. In this second lesson, students will use Text Coding and small group discussion to analyze informational text, a speech given by Judge Learned Hand entitled "The Spirit of Liberty," in terms of content and persuasive techniques. This lesson will help students to read informational text closely, think critically and write in response to text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Rhetoric From a Birmingham Jail:

In this lesson, students will learn how to define and identify examples of ethical appeals, pathetic appeals and logical appeals using an excerpt from Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" during the lesson and then through Patrick Henry's "Give Me Liberty or Give Me death" speech for a summative assessment. Students will determine the author/writer's purpose in these works, how they use rhetoric to develop their purpose, how the author/speaker's claims are developed in specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions, while citing textual evidence.

Type: Lesson Plan

I Have a Dream Today!:

Through multiple readings, students explore the craft of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr's "I Have a Dream" speech. Each reading leads students to more detailed analysis of the text by examining vocabulary, figurative language, author's purpose, inferences, and tone. Using the knowledge gleaned from these readings, students answer extended response questions requiring textual support.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Letter to My Daughter: How Ideas Are Developed:

Read excerpts from Maya Angelou's book of essays, Letter to My Daughter. In this interactive English Language Arts tutorial, you'll identify an important idea in each excerpt and examine how the author develops the important idea throughout the section of text. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing an Author’s Claims :

In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice determining an author's claim and how it's supported by specific details. You'll read several nonfiction texts, including excerpts by Sojourner Truth and Harriet Beecher Stowe. You'll analyze how each author effectively expresses her claim.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Idea

To Kill A Mockingbird: A Historical Perspective:

This is a 10 day overview from the Library of Congress on a Historical Perspective of the time period surrounding To Kill A Mockingbird. Includes a lot of primary resources and writing activities.

Type: Teaching Idea

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Sample English 2 Curriculum Plan Using CMAP:

This sample English II CMAP is a fully customizable resource and curriculum-planning tool that provides a framework for the English II course. This CMAP is divided into 14 English Language Arts units and includes every standard from Florida's official course description for English II. The units and standards are customizable, and the CMAP allows instructors to add lessons, class notes, homework sheets, and other resources as needed. This CMAP also includes a row that automatically filters and displays e-learning Original Student Tutorials that are aligned to the standards and available on CPALMS.

Learn more about the sample English II CMAP, its features, and its customizability by watching this video:

Using this CMAP

To view an introduction on the CMAP tool, please .

To view the CMAP, click on the "Open Resource Page" button above; be sure you are logged in to your iCPALMS account.

To use this CMAP, click on the "Clone" button once the CMAP opens in the "Open Resource Page." Once the CMAP is cloned, you will be able to see it as a class inside your iCPALMS My Planner (CMAPs) app.

To access your My Planner App and the cloned CMAP, click on the iCPALMS tab in the top menu.

All CMAP tutorials can be found within the iCPALMS Planner App or at the following URL: http://www.cpalms.org/support/tutorials_and_informational_videos.aspx

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Analyzing an Author’s Claims :

In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice determining an author's claim and how it's supported by specific details. You'll read several nonfiction texts, including excerpts by Sojourner Truth and Harriet Beecher Stowe. You'll analyze how each author effectively expresses her claim.

Letter to My Daughter: How Ideas Are Developed:

Read excerpts from Maya Angelou's book of essays, Letter to My Daughter. In this interactive English Language Arts tutorial, you'll identify an important idea in each excerpt and examine how the author develops the important idea throughout the section of text. 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Letter to My Daughter: How Ideas Are Developed:

Read excerpts from Maya Angelou's book of essays, Letter to My Daughter. In this interactive English Language Arts tutorial, you'll identify an important idea in each excerpt and examine how the author develops the important idea throughout the section of text. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing an Author’s Claims :

In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice determining an author's claim and how it's supported by specific details. You'll read several nonfiction texts, including excerpts by Sojourner Truth and Harriet Beecher Stowe. You'll analyze how each author effectively expresses her claim.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.