Cluster 2: Craft and Structure

General Information
Number: LAFS.910.RI.2
Title: Craft and Structure
Type: Cluster
Subject: English Language Arts
Grade: 910
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text

Related Standards

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

Access Points

LAFS.910.RI.2.AP.4a
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative (i.e., metaphors, similes and idioms) and connotative meanings.
LAFS.910.RI.2.AP.4b
Analyze the use of figurative, connotative or technical terms on the meaning or tone of text.
LAFS.910.RI.2.AP.5a
Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed.
LAFS.910.RI.2.AP.5b
Identify key sentences or paragraphs that support claims.
LAFS.910.RI.2.AP.6a
Determine the author’s point of view or purpose in a text.
LAFS.910.RI.2.AP.6b
Determine/identify the specific language/words that the author uses to advance the point of view or purpose.
LAFS.910.RI.2.AP.6c
Develop and explain ideas for why authors made specific word choices within text.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

Lesson Plans

Analyzing Political Cartoons:

The decisions students make about social and political issues are often influenced by what they hear, see, and read in the news. For this reason, it is important for them to learn about the techniques used to convey political messages and attitudes. In this lesson, high school students learn to evaluate political cartoons for their meaning, message, and persuasiveness. Students will learn about the artistic techniques cartoonists frequently use, and, for the summative project, will create their own political cartoon, analyze it, and give a presentation on their illustration.

Type: Lesson Plan

Wear Sunscreen: A Satirical Take on the Time-Honored Graduation Speech:

This close reading lesson focuses on Mary Schmich's comical commencement speech essay, "Advice, like youth, probably just wasted on the young." Students will take an in-depth analysis to discover her powerful satirical style, as well as the power of social nuances. Students will focus on academic vocabulary and answer high-level text-dependent questions as a guide for their comprehension of the essay, evaluating if her choice of words and wisdom remain valid, relative, and sufficient for the youth of today. Graphic organizers and worksheets, along with teacher keys, and a writing rubric have been provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

A NanoDegree that Can Get You a Programmer Position with Google? Must Examine with CLOSE Reading!:

In this lesson, students will practice using close reading strategies as they read a high interest New York Times article about new methods companies are using to train and recruit skilled workers for entry-level positions. A vocabulary organizer, text-dependent questions, summative writing exercise, and extension ideas are all included to help students analyze the revolutionary potential of the NanoDegree.

Type: Lesson Plan

Buried in Ash: New Revelations of an Ancient Culture:

In this lesson, students read a non-fiction text as they learn of the artifacts unearthed from the remains of a Salvadoran village preserved in volcanic ash much like Pompeii. Students will discover how researchers piece together evidence to determine the significance the artifacts reveal in illustrating the daily lives of this ancient people. As students come to understand the researchers use the artifacts to infer religious, cultural and economic aspects of the Ceren village, they will answer text-dependent questions and compose a multi-paragraph writing response (sample answer keys included) asking students to describe the power of this natural disaster to destroy this ancient culture yet preserve its details for future generations to learn from.

Type: Lesson Plan

Swagger: Shakespeare versus Jay Z:

This lesson provides students the opportunity to explore how the word ‘swagger’ has transformed over centuries through the writings of poets such as Shakespeare and rappers such as Jay Z. Students will read an article from NPR titled  “What do Jay Z and Shakespeare Have in Common? Swagger” and thereafter will be asked to analyze vocabulary from the article, respond to text-dependent questions, and complete a summary of the term swagger analyzing its previous and present day definitions. A vocabulary graphic organizer, answer key, text-dependent questions handout and answer key, a learning scale, and a writing rubric have been included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Looking Over the Mountaintop: Tone and Perspective:

This lesson is the third lesson in a three-part series on Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech. In this lesson, students will analyze King's speech, which has been broken up into eight sections, for his perspective and tone. At the end of the lesson, students will respond to a prompt and write an essay based on what they have analyzed throughout the lesson. A graphic organizer, suggested answer key, and writing rubric have been provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

Looking Over the Mountaintop: Figures of Speech and Rhetorical Devices:

This lesson is the 2nd part in a 3-part series on Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech "I've Been to the Mountaintop." This lesson focuses on some of the figures of speech and rhetorical devices used by Dr. King in his speech. The speech has been divided into eight sections. As students read through each section they will analyze some of the figures of speech and rhetorical devices King used, record their answers on a graphic organizer, and analyze how use of the figure of speech or rhetorical device impacted the meaning of that section of the speech. Students will write an extended paragraph using the quotation sandwich method as the summative assessment for the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Looking Over the Mountaintop: Central Ideas:

This is the first lesson in a three-part series on Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech "I've Been to the Mountaintop." In this lesson, the speech has been divided into eight sections with text-dependent questions that are specific to each section. Throughout the course of the lesson students will determine a central idea for each section and examine King's ideas and claims and how they are developed and supported. At the end of the lesson, students will determine an overarching central idea of the speech and write an extended paragraph to explain the central idea and how it is developed and supported with specific evidence throughout the text. Text-dependent questions, graphic organizers, selected answer keys, and a writing rubric have been included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Someone is Always Watching You:

In this lesson, students will read, paraphrase, and summarize an article that explores the benefits as well as the pitfalls of the unblinking, all-seeing basilisk gaze of extraordinary technology.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Surveillance Society – Is Privacy just an Illusion?:

"The line between private and public space is as porous as tissue paper." Students will explore issues of privacy through the TIME magazine article "The Surveillance Society" by David Von Drehle. This article will provide students with an opportunity to be up close and personal with delineating, evaluating, and explaining an author's claim. Students will read chunks of text while interacting with a graphic organizer to assist them in drawing conclusions and creating an original response to whether or not privacy has become an illusion due to our technological advances.

Type: Lesson Plan

One rotten apple spoils the bunch! An Argument Analysis of Disney's Guest Assistance Card Program:

In this lesson, students will conduct several close readings of the news article "Parents: Disney Policy Targeting Faux Disabled Punishes Truly Disabled Kids" by Jason Garcia. For the first close reading, students will focus on selected academic vocabulary. In the second reading, students will analyze the claims being made in the article, focusing on the validity of each claim being made. During the final close reading, students will analyze the arguments being presented, choose a side, and participate in a Philosophical Chair discussion. In the summative assessment, students will write a three paragraph argument in the form of a letter to the Disney corporation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Privacy: A Matter of National Security?:

In this lesson, students will embark upon a journey of espionage and inquire how the rights of one can become a barrier for the greater good of a nation.

Students will read two informational texts about former NSA agent Edward Snowden. This close reading activity will require students to use textual support, reasoning and relevancy of the text, and analyze an author's claims to engage in discourse through Philosophical Chairs. Students will also synthesize the arguments, information, and claims within the text to write an essay proving that Snowden is either a hero or a traitor.

Type: Lesson Plan

Analyzing Logos, Ethos, Pathos in "The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro":

This lesson supports the implementation of the academic standards in the 9-10 classroom. It includes a copy of the text, a student activity handout, and links for background information and definitions of key terms. The purpose of this lesson is for students to read, understand, and analyze a speech through close reading and scaffolded learning tasks. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will write an essay that prompts them to use textual evidence to support their analysis of the claim Douglass makes in his speech "The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro."

Type: Lesson Plan

Language of Letters: Analyzing the Change in Diction and Syntax from Civil War Times to the Present:

This lesson includes a close-reading and text-marking activity using two soldiers' letters, one from the Civil War and one from the Afghanistan War. Students will discover by looking as word choice and sentence structure how language styles have changed over time. After the reading lesson, students will write two RAFTs in the style of the times to show their understanding.

Type: Lesson Plan

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos (Part 3): Writing Persuasively:

In this lesson, students will identify and analyze rhetorical appeals in a speech and write a persuasive essay using multiple rhetorical appeals.

Type: Lesson Plan

Emily Dickinson: Poet Extraordinaire of Language, Time, and Space: Part 2:

In this lesson, the second in a three-lesson unit, students will explore Emily Dickinson's style by reading and analyzing a variety of her letters based on the historical context and audience of each. Students will use the letters, along with an Atlantic Monthly article, as sources for the summative assessment, a letter to the editor written in response to one or several of Dickinson's letters or topics.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring Immigration and America (Part 2) through Informational Text- Judge Learned Hand's Speech:

This lesson is the second of a unit comprised of 3 lessons. In this second lesson, students will use Text Coding and small group discussion to analyze informational text, a speech given by Judge Learned Hand entitled "The Spirit of Liberty," in terms of content and persuasive techniques. This lesson will help students to read informational text closely, think critically and write in response to text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos (Part 2): Statement Analysis:

This is the second lesson of a three-lesson unit on rhetoric and persuasion techniques. It is technology intensive.

Type: Lesson Plan

Rhetoric From a Birmingham Jail:

In this lesson, students will learn how to define and identify examples of ethical appeals, pathetic appeals and logical appeals using an excerpt from Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" during the lesson and then through Patrick Henry's "Give Me Liberty or Give Me death" speech for a summative assessment. Students will determine the author/writer's purpose in these works, how they use rhetoric to develop their purpose, how the author/speaker's claims are developed in specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions, while citing textual evidence.

Type: Lesson Plan

I Declare War: Part I:

In this lesson (part one of a three-part unit), students will use close reading strategies to analyze Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address and complete a written analysis of his speech.

Type: Lesson Plan

I Have a Dream Today!:

Through multiple readings, students explore the craft of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr's "I Have a Dream" speech. Each reading leads students to more detailed analysis of the text by examining vocabulary, figurative language, author's purpose, inferences, and tone. Using the knowledge gleaned from these readings, students answer extended response questions requiring textual support.

Type: Lesson Plan

What You Say: Language Context Matters:

In this lesson students will analyze three texts (Amy Tan's "Mother Tongue," Richard Rodriguez's "Se Habla Espanol," and Zora Neale Hurston's "How it Feels to be Colored Me") looking at language, tone, and style. Students will be scaffolded through use of graphic organizers and a Socratic Seminar to culminate in an essay about tone.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Remembering Selma: Analyzing the Use of Rhetorical Devices:

Learn to analyze the use of rhetorical devices in a nonfiction text. In this tutorial, you'll examine excerpts from President Obama's 50th Anniversary Speech of the March on Selma. You'll analyze his use of three specific rhetorical devices: antithesis, rhetorical questions, and anaphora. You'll also analyze how he uses these rhetorical devices to help achieve his specific purpose. Along the way, you'll brush up on some important American history. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Word Sleuth: Using Context Clues:

Learn to use context clues, including synonyms, antonyms, and inferences, to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Letter to My Daughter: How Ideas Are Developed:

Read excerpts from Maya Angelou's book of essays, Letter to My Daughter. In this interactive English Language Arts tutorial, you'll identify an important idea in each excerpt and examine how the author develops the important idea throughout the section of text. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Rhetoric and Point of View in "The Solitude of Self":

Examine excerpts from a powerful speech on women, equality, and individuality in this interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll study excerpts from "The Solitude of Self” by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and examine how her choice of words, descriptions, and observations help reveal her point of view. You'll also analyze how rhetoric, specifically the use of logos and pathos, can help express an author's point of view.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Metaphors and Imagery in E.B. White's "Once More to the Lake":

Explore the effect of metaphors and imagery within a text in this interactive tutorial. First, you’ll practice identifying the use of these literary devices within a text, and then you’ll examine how they contribute to the meaning and beauty of the text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Connotative Meaning in Annie Dillard's "Total Eclipse":

Learn to differentiate the connotative and denotative meanings of words in context. In this interactive tutorial, you'll  study excerpts from “Total Eclipse,” an essay written by Annie Dillard. You will analyze Dillard’s word choices throughout portions of her essay to better understand their impact and meanings. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Bermuda Triangle: Full of Mysterious Words! (Part Two):

Determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases in an informational text about the Bermuda Triangle in this three-part interactive tutorial. In Part 2, you'll practice determining the meaning of unknown vocabulary using context clues and dictionary skills.

Click below to complete all three parts!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Bermuda Triangle: Full of Mysterious Words! (Part Three):

Determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases in an informational text about the Bermuda Triangle in this three-part interactive tutorial. In Part 3, you'll practice determining the meaning of unknown vocabulary using context clues and dictionary skills.

Click below to open the first two parts.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Bermuda Triangle: Full of Mysterious Words! (Part One):

Determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases in an informational text about the Bermuda Triangle in this three-part interactive tutorial. In Part 1, you'll practice determining the meaning of unknown vocabulary using context clues and dictionary skills.

Click below to complete all three parts!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring and Gathering Vocabulary:

Learn several ways to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, including context clues, word parts, and dictionary skills. In this interactive tutorial, you'll apply these strategies to text passages from John Muir's book A Thousand-mile Walk to the Gulf, which includes vivid descriptions of Florida in the late 1800s.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Words and Phrases with the Gettysburg Address:

Read and examine Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in this interactive tutorial. First, you'll practice using context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in the famous text. Next, you'll analyze Lincoln's specific word choice throughout the speech and examine how it conveys his tone or attitude.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Powerful Rhetoric: Analyzing President Wilson's War Message to Congress :

Learn how speakers use rhetoric to achieve their purpose. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how speakers can achieve their purpose through the use of pathos, ethos, and logos. Using excerpts from President Wilson's "War Message to Congress," you'll analyze how speakers use rhetoric to make their case effectively.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing an Author’s Claims :

In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice determining an author's claim and how it's supported by specific details. You'll read several nonfiction texts, including excerpts by Sojourner Truth and Harriet Beecher Stowe. You'll analyze how each author effectively expresses her claim.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Power of Words: Analyzing the Use of Rhetoric:

Learn how to identify and analyze a speaker's use of rhetoric and rhetorical techniques. In this interactive tutorial, we'll examine the art of rhetoric as well as Aristotle's Rhetorical Triangle. We'll analyze the use of ethos, pathos, and logos in several historical speeches. We'll also analyze how speakers convey their point of view about a topic through the use of various rhetorical techniques, including repetition and rhetorical questions.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Ideas

Convince Me!: An Introduction to Argumentative Writing:

This lesson is intended to introduce students to the art of argumentative writing by familiarizing them with basic terms; allowing students to practice establishing the relationship between claims, reasons, and evidence; and analyzing an author's use of argument in a text.

Type: Teaching Idea

Dark Materials: Reflecting on Dystopian Themes in Young Adult Literature:

Are today's young adult novels darker in theme than in years past? What's behind the current wave of dystopia in young adult literature? In this teaching idea, students reflect on some of the reasons dystopian and post-apocalyptic stories appeal to young readers by engaging in one of six different activities.

Type: Teaching Idea

To Kill A Mockingbird: A Historical Perspective:

This is a 10 day overview from the Library of Congress on a Historical Perspective of the time period surrounding To Kill A Mockingbird. Includes a lot of primary resources and writing activities.

Type: Teaching Idea

Unit/Lesson Sequences

Sample English 2 Curriculum Plan Using CMAP:

This sample English II CMAP is a fully customizable resource and curriculum-planning tool that provides a framework for the English II course. This CMAP is divided into 14 English Language Arts units and includes every standard from Florida's official course description for English II. The units and standards are customizable, and the CMAP allows instructors to add lessons, class notes, homework sheets, and other resources as needed. This CMAP also includes a row that automatically filters and displays e-learning Original Student Tutorials that are aligned to the standards and available on CPALMS.

Learn more about the sample English II CMAP, its features, and its customizability by watching this video:

Using this CMAP

To view an introduction on the CMAP tool, please .

To view the CMAP, click on the "Open Resource Page" button above; be sure you are logged in to your iCPALMS account.

To use this CMAP, click on the "Clone" button once the CMAP opens in the "Open Resource Page." Once the CMAP is cloned, you will be able to see it as a class inside your iCPALMS My Planner (CMAPs) app.

To access your My Planner App and the cloned CMAP, click on the iCPALMS tab in the top menu.

All CMAP tutorials can be found within the iCPALMS Planner App or at the following URL: http://www.cpalms.org/support/tutorials_and_informational_videos.aspx

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Close Reading Exemplar: The Gettysburg Address:

This unit exemplar from Student Achievement Partner web resources has been developed to guide students and instructors in a close reading of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. The activities and actions follow a carefully developed set of steps that assist students in increasing their familiarity and understanding of Lincoln's speech through a series of text dependent tasks and questions that ultimately develop college and career ready skills identified in the Florida State Standards. This unit can be broken down into three sections of instruction and reflection on the part of students and their teachers, which is followed by additional activities, some designed for history/social studies and some for ELA classrooms.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Worksheet

Reading Comprehension Activity from Read Theory:

This activity provides a reading passage with a Lexile of 1470 and text-dependent questions (with multiple choice answers) that teachers can utilize to give students practice at making inferences based on evidence from the text, examining an author's argument, and determining the meaning of selected academic vocabulary.

Type: Worksheet

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Original Student Tutorials

Remembering Selma: Analyzing the Use of Rhetorical Devices:

Learn to analyze the use of rhetorical devices in a nonfiction text. In this tutorial, you'll examine excerpts from President Obama's 50th Anniversary Speech of the March on Selma. You'll analyze his use of three specific rhetorical devices: antithesis, rhetorical questions, and anaphora. You'll also analyze how he uses these rhetorical devices to help achieve his specific purpose. Along the way, you'll brush up on some important American history. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Word Sleuth: Using Context Clues:

Learn to use context clues, including synonyms, antonyms, and inferences, to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Letter to My Daughter: How Ideas Are Developed:

Read excerpts from Maya Angelou's book of essays, Letter to My Daughter. In this interactive English Language Arts tutorial, you'll identify an important idea in each excerpt and examine how the author develops the important idea throughout the section of text. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Rhetoric and Point of View in "The Solitude of Self":

Examine excerpts from a powerful speech on women, equality, and individuality in this interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll study excerpts from "The Solitude of Self” by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and examine how her choice of words, descriptions, and observations help reveal her point of view. You'll also analyze how rhetoric, specifically the use of logos and pathos, can help express an author's point of view.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Metaphors and Imagery in E.B. White's "Once More to the Lake":

Explore the effect of metaphors and imagery within a text in this interactive tutorial. First, you’ll practice identifying the use of these literary devices within a text, and then you’ll examine how they contribute to the meaning and beauty of the text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Connotative Meaning in Annie Dillard's "Total Eclipse":

Learn to differentiate the connotative and denotative meanings of words in context. In this interactive tutorial, you'll  study excerpts from “Total Eclipse,” an essay written by Annie Dillard. You will analyze Dillard’s word choices throughout portions of her essay to better understand their impact and meanings. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Bermuda Triangle: Full of Mysterious Words! (Part Two):

Determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases in an informational text about the Bermuda Triangle in this three-part interactive tutorial. In Part 2, you'll practice determining the meaning of unknown vocabulary using context clues and dictionary skills.

Click below to complete all three parts!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Bermuda Triangle: Full of Mysterious Words! (Part Three):

Determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases in an informational text about the Bermuda Triangle in this three-part interactive tutorial. In Part 3, you'll practice determining the meaning of unknown vocabulary using context clues and dictionary skills.

Click below to open the first two parts.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Bermuda Triangle: Full of Mysterious Words! (Part One):

Determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases in an informational text about the Bermuda Triangle in this three-part interactive tutorial. In Part 1, you'll practice determining the meaning of unknown vocabulary using context clues and dictionary skills.

Click below to complete all three parts!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring and Gathering Vocabulary:

Learn several ways to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, including context clues, word parts, and dictionary skills. In this interactive tutorial, you'll apply these strategies to text passages from John Muir's book A Thousand-mile Walk to the Gulf, which includes vivid descriptions of Florida in the late 1800s.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Words and Phrases with the Gettysburg Address:

Read and examine Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in this interactive tutorial. First, you'll practice using context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in the famous text. Next, you'll analyze Lincoln's specific word choice throughout the speech and examine how it conveys his tone or attitude.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Powerful Rhetoric: Analyzing President Wilson's War Message to Congress :

Learn how speakers use rhetoric to achieve their purpose. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how speakers can achieve their purpose through the use of pathos, ethos, and logos. Using excerpts from President Wilson's "War Message to Congress," you'll analyze how speakers use rhetoric to make their case effectively.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing an Author’s Claims :

In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice determining an author's claim and how it's supported by specific details. You'll read several nonfiction texts, including excerpts by Sojourner Truth and Harriet Beecher Stowe. You'll analyze how each author effectively expresses her claim.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Power of Words: Analyzing the Use of Rhetoric:

Learn how to identify and analyze a speaker's use of rhetoric and rhetorical techniques. In this interactive tutorial, we'll examine the art of rhetoric as well as Aristotle's Rhetorical Triangle. We'll analyze the use of ethos, pathos, and logos in several historical speeches. We'll also analyze how speakers convey their point of view about a topic through the use of various rhetorical techniques, including repetition and rhetorical questions.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.