# Advanced Algebra with Financial Applications   (#1200500)

The course was/will be terminated at the end of School Year 2014 - 2015

## General Course Information and Notes

### General Information

Course Number: 1200500
Course Path:
Abbreviated Title: ADV ALG W/FIN APP
Course Length: Year (Y)
Course Attributes:
• Florida Standards Course
Course Level: 2
Course Status: Terminated

## Educator Certifications

One of these educator certification options is required to teach this course.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this course.

## Original Student Tutorials

Solving Rational Equations: Cross Multiplying:

Learn how to solve rational linear and quadratic equations using cross multiplication in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Solving Inequalities and Graphing Solutions Part 2:

Learn how to solve and graph compound inequalities and determine if solutions are viable in part 2 of this interactive tutorial series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Writing Equations in Two Variables:

Learn how to write equations in two variables in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Solving Inequalities and Graphing Solutions: Part 1:

Learn how to solve and graph one variable inequalities, including compound inequalities, in part 1 of this interactive tutorial series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Year-Round School Debate: Identifying Faulty Reasoning — Part Two:

Practice identifying faulty reasoning in this two-part, interactive, English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations.

Make sure to complete Part One before Part Two! Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Year-Round School Debate: Identifying Faulty Reasoning – Part One:

Learn to identify faulty reasoning in this two-part interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations.

Make sure to complete both parts of this series! Click HERE to open Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part Four: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence.

In Part Four, you'll use what you've learned throughout this series to evaluate Kennedy's overall argument.

Make sure to complete the previous parts of this series before beginning Part 4.

• Click HERE to launch Part One.
• Click HERE to launch Part Two.
• Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part Three: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument.

In Part Three, you will read more of Kennedy's speech and identify a smaller claim in this section of his speech. You will also evaluate this smaller claim's relevancy to the main claim and evaluate Kennedy's reasons and evidence.

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series!

• Click HERE to launch Part One.
• Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ready for Takeoff! -- Part Two:

Want to learn about Amelia Earhart, one of the most famous female aviators of all time? If so, then this interactive tutorial is for YOU! This tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series. In this series, you will study a speech by Amelia Earhart. You will practice identifying the purpose of her speech and practice identifying her use of rhetorical appeals (ethos, logos, pathos, Kairos). You will also evaluate the effectiveness of Earhart's rhetorical choices based on the purpose of her speech.

Please complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to view Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ready for Takeoff! -- Part One:

Want to learn about Amelia Earhart, one of the most famous female aviators of all time? If so, then this interactive tutorial is for YOU! This tutorial is Part One of a two-part series. In this series, you will study a speech by Amelia Earhart. You will practice identifying the purpose of her speech and practice identifying her use of rhetorical appeals (ethos, logos, pathos, Kairos). You will also evaluate the effectiveness of Earhart's rhetorical choices based on the purpose of her speech.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Untangling Food Webs:

Learn how living organisms can be organized into food webs and how energy is transferred through a food web from producers to consumers to decomposers. This interactive tutorial also includes interactive knowledge checks.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis:

Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis in this interactive tutorial. You'll also relate them to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Changing Rates:

Learn how to calculate and interpret an average rate of change over a specific interval on a graph.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The graph of a quadratic equation is called a parabola [puh-ra-bow-luh]. The key features we will focus on in this tutorial are the vertex (a maximum or minimum extreme) and the direction of its opening. You will learn how to examine a quadratic equation written in vertex form in order to distinguish each of these key features.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cancer: Mutated Cells Gone Wild!:

Explore the relationship between mutations, the cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth which may result in cancer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Climbing Around the Hominin Family Tree:

Learn to identify basic trends in the evolutionary history of humans, including walking upright, brain size, jaw size, and tool use in "Climbing Around the Hominin Family Tree" online tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Writing Inequalities with Money, Money, Money:

Write linear inequalities for different money situations in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Software / Tool

Savings Calculator:

This manipulative is a versatile online savings calculator that calculates both simple and compounding interest. This free online calculator calculates and graphs accrued interest and total savings balance. The calculator allows for a variety of variables including interest rates, initial investment, time, compounded interest, and whether there are regular deposits made.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Perspectives Video: Experts

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Mathematically Exploring the Wakulla Caves:

The tide is high!  How can we statistically prove there is a relationship between the tides on the Gulf Coast and in a fresh water spring 20 miles from each other?

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

MicroGravity Sensors & Statistics:

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Problem Solving with Project Constraints:

It's important to stay inside the lines of your project constraints to finish in time and under budget. This NASA systems engineer explains how constraints can actually promote creativity and help him solve problems!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Base 16 Notation in Computing:

Listen in as a computing enthusiast describes how hexadecimal notation is used to express big numbers in just a little space.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Students explore the structure of the operation s/(vn). This question provides students with an opportunity to see expressions as constructed out of a sequence of operations: first taking the square root of n, then dividing the result of that operation into s.

Coffee and Crime:

This problem solving task asks students to examine the relationship between shops and crimes by using a correlation coefficient.

Algae Blooms:

In this example, students are asked to write a function describing the population growth of algae. It is implied that this is exponential growth.

As the Wheel Turns:

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Snail Invasion:

The purpose of this task is to give students experience modeling a real-world example of exponential growth, in a context that provides a vivid illustration of the power of exponential growth, for example the cost of inaction for a year. There is an opportunity for further discussion based on part (c), since the ratio of costs from one year to the next is the same in each part.

Newton's Law of Cooling:

The coffee cooling experiment is a popular example of an exponential model with immediate appeal. The model is realistic and provides a good context for students to practice work with exponential equations.

Carbon 14 Dating in Practice II:

This problem introduces the method used by scientists to date certain organic material. It is based not on the amount of the Carbon 14 isotope remaining in the sample but rather on the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. This ratio decreases, hypothetically, at a constant exponential rate as soon as the organic material has ceased to absorb Carbon 14, that is, as soon as it dies.

Carbon 14 Dating:

The task requires the student to use logarithms to solve an exponential equation in the realistic context of carbon dating, important in archaeology and geology, among other places. Students should be guided to recognize the use of the natural logarithm when the exponential function has the given base of e, as in this problem. Note that the purpose of this task is algebraic in nature -- closely related tasks exist which approach similar problems from numerical or graphical stances.

Bacteria Populations:

This task provides a real world context for interpreting and solving exponential equations. There are two solutions provided for part (a). The first solution demonstrates how to deduce the conclusion by thinking in terms of the functions and their rates of change. The second approach illustrates a rigorous algebraic demonstration that the two populations can never be equal.

Cash Box:

The given solutions for this task involve the creation and solving of a system of two equations and two unknowns, with the caveat that the context of the problem implies that we are interested only in non-negative integer solutions. Indeed, in the first solution, we must also restrict our attention to the case that one of the variables is further even. This aspect of the task is illustrative of mathematical practice standard MP4 (Model with mathematics), and crucial as the system has an integer solution for both situations, that is, whether or not we include the dollar on the floor in the cash box or not.

The purpose of this instructional task is to give students an opportunity to construct and find the value of a geometric series (A-SSE.4) in a financial literacy context. The task assumes that students have already developed the formula for a geometric series themselves; having them recognize the need for this formula (and look up if necessary) allows them to engage in MP 5, Use appropriate tools strategically. The task also provides students with an opportunity to look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning (MP 8), as the solution shows. This task also asks students to interpret the variables in the future value formula in the context of the problem (A-SSE.1).

Finding Parabolas through Two Points:

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Which Function?:

The task addresses knowledge related to interpreting forms of functions derived by factoring or completing the square. It requires students to pay special attention to the information provided by the way the equation is represented as well as the sign of the leading coefficient, which is not written out explicitly, and then to connect this information to the important features of the graph.

Warming and Cooling:

This task is meant to be a straight-forward assessment task of graph reading and interpreting skills. This task helps reinforce the idea that when a variable represents time, t = 0 is chosen as an arbitrary point in time and positive times are interpreted as times that happen after that.

Throwing Baseballs:

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Average Cost:

This task asks students to find the average, write an equation, find the domain, and create a graph of the cost of producing DVDs.

Springboard Dive:

The problem presents a context where a quadratic function arises. Careful analysis, including graphing of the function, is closely related to the context. The student will gain valuable experience applying the quadratic formula and the exercise also gives a possible implementation of completing the square.

Temperatures in Degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius:

Temperature conversions provide a rich source of linear functions which are encountered not only in science but also in our every day lives when we travel abroad. The first part of this task provides an opportunity to construct a linear function given two input-output pairs. The second part investigates the inverse of a linear function while the third part requires reasoning about quantities and/or solving a linear equation.

The High School Gym:

This task asks students to consider functions in regard to temperatures in a high school gym.

Telling a Story with Graphs:

In this task students are given graphs of quantities related to weather. The purpose of the task is to show that graphs are more than a collection of coordinate points; they can tell a story about the variables that are involved, and together they can paint a very complete picture of a situation, in this case the weather. Features in one graph, like maximum and minimum points, correspond to features in another graph. For example, on a rainy day, the solar radiation is very low, and the cumulative rainfall graph is increasing with a large slope.

Oakland Coliseum:

This deceptively simple task asks students to find the domain and range of a function from a given context. The function is linear and if simply looked at from a formulaic point of view, students might find the formula for the line and say that the domain and range are all real numbers.

Logistic Growth Model, Explicit Version:

This problem introduces a logistic growth model in the concrete settings of estimating the population of the U.S. The model gives a surprisingly accurate estimate and this should be contrasted with linear and exponential models.

Logistic Growth Model, Abstract Version:

This task is for instructional purposes only and students should already be familiar with some specific examples of logistic growth functions. The goal of this task is to have students appreciate how different constants influence the shape of a graph.

How Is the Weather?:

This task can be used as a quick assessment to see if students can make sense of a graph in the context of a real world situation. Students also have to pay attention to the scale on the vertical axis to find the correct match. The first and third graphs look very similar at first glance, but the function values are very different since the scales on the vertical axes are very different. The task could also be used to generate a group discussion on interpreting functions given by graphs.

Equations and Formulas:

In this task, students will use inverse operations to solve the equations for the unknown variable or for the designated variable if there is more than one.

Writing Constraints:

The purpose of this task is to give students practice writing a constraint equation for a given context. Instruction accompanying this task should introduce the notion of a constraint equation as an equation governing the possible values of the variables in question (i.e., "constraining" said values). In particular, it is worth differentiating the role of constraint equations from more functional equations, e.g., formulas to convert from degrees Celsius to degree Fahrenheit. The task has students interpret the context and choose variables to represent the quantities, which are governed by the constraint equation and the fact that they are non-negative (allowing us to restrict the graphs to points in the first quadrant only).

The four parts are independent and can be used as separate tasks.

Bernardo and Sylvia Play a Game:

This task presents a simple but mathematically interesting game whose solution is a challenging exercise in creating and reasoning with algebraic inequalities. The core of the task involves converting a verbal statement into a mathematical inequality in a context in which the inequality is not obviously presented, and then repeatedly using the inequality to deduce information about the structure of the game.

Dimes and Quarters:

Students are given a word problem that can be solved by using a pair of linear equations. This task does not actually require that the student solve the system but that they recognize the pairs of linear equations in two variables that would be used to solve the system. This is an important step in the process of solving systems.

Regular Tessellations of the Plane:

This task examines the ways in which the plane can be covered by regular polygons in a very strict arrangement called a regular tessellation. These tessellations are studied here using algebra, which enters the picture via the formula for the measure of the interior angles of a regular polygon (which should therefore be introduced or reviewed before beginning the task). The goal of the task is to use algebra in order to understand which tessellations of the plane with regular polygons are possible.

Compounding with a 100% Interest Rate:

This task provides an approximation, and definition, of e, in the context of more and more frequent compounding of interest in a bank account. The approach is computational.

A Sum of Functions:

In this example, students are given the graph of two functions and are asked to sketch the graph of the function that is their sum. The intent is that students develop a conceptual understanding of function addition.

Triangle Series:

Students consider a diagram of five nested equilateral triangles diminishing in size according to a geometric series. The purpose of this task is to emphasize the adjective "geometric" in the "geometric" series, namely, that the algebraic notion of a common ratio between terms corresponds to the geometric notion of a repeated similarity transformation. Specifically, since the black triangles are all similar with the same scale factor, the total area of the black triangles is a geometric series. This task could be used either to introduce the geometric series as a worthy object of study, or as a geometric application of its use.

Course of Antibiotics:

In this task, students consider a real-world problem involving the decay of a drug in a patient's body. This task presents a real world application of finite geometric series. The context can lead into several interesting follow-up questions and projects. Many drugs only become effective after the amount in the body builds up to a certain level. This can be modeled very well with geometric series.

Cantor Set:

This task leads to the generation of finite geometric series with a common ratio less than one as a means to explore properties of the Cantor Set. The Cantor Set is a fascinating set with many intriguing properties. It contains uncountably many points, which means that there are "as many" points in it as on the real line, yet the set contains no intervals of real numbers and it has length zero. All that is necessary to show that it has length zero is to look at what happens to a geometric series as we add more and more terms.

Harvesting the Fields:

This is a challenging task, suitable for extended work, and reaching into a deep understanding of units. Students are given a scenario and asked to determine the number of people required to complete the amount of work in the time described. The task requires students to exhibit MAFS.K12.MP.1.1, Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. An algebraic solution is possible but complicated; a numerical solution is both simpler and more sophisticated, requiring skilled use of units and quantitative reasoning. Thus the task aligns with either MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 or MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1, depending on the approach.

Throwing a Ball:

Students manipulate a given equation to find specified information.

Paying the Rent:

Students solve problems tracking the balance of a checking account used only to pay rent. This simple conceptual task focuses on what it means for a number to be a solution to an equation, rather than on the process of solving equations.

Students extrapolate the list price of a car given a total amount paid in states with different tax rates. The emphasis in this task is not on complex solution procedures. Rather, the progression of equations, from two that involve different values of the sales tax, to one that involves the sales tax as a parameter, is designed to foster the habit of looking for regularity in solution procedures, so that students don't approach every equation as a new problem but learn to notice familiar types.

Graphs of Compositions:

This task addresses an important issue about inverse functions. In this case the function f is the inverse of the function g but g is not the inverse of f unless the domain of f is restricted.

Planes and Wheat:

In this resource, students refer to given information which defines 5 variables in the context of real world government expenses. They are then asked to write equations based upon specific known values for some of the variables. The emphasis is on setting up, rather than solving, the equations.

Exponentials and Logarithms I:

The purpose of this task is to help students see the "why" behind properties of logs that are familiar but often just memorized (and quickly forgotten or misremembered). The task focuses on the verbal definition of the log, helping students to concentrate on understanding that a logarithm is an exponent, as opposed to completing a more computational approach.

Crude Oil and Gas Mileage:

This task asks students to write expressions for various problems involving distance per units of volume.

Flu on Campus:

The context of this example is the spread of a flu virus on campus and the related sale of tissue boxes sold. Students interpret the composite function and determine values simply by using the tables of values.

Compounding with a 5% Interest Rate:

This task develops reasoning behind the general formula for balances under continuously compounded interest. While this task itself specifically address the standard (F-BF), building functions from a context, an auxiliary purpose is to introduce and motivate the number e, which plays a significant role in the (F-LE) domain of tasks.

Sum of Even and Odd:

Students explore and manipulate expressions based on the following statement:

A function f defined for -a < x < a is even if f(-x)=f(x) and is odd if f(-x)=-f(x) when -a < x < a. In this task we assume f is defined on such an interval, which might be the full real line (i.e., a=8).

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)2+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Students are asked to interpret the effect on the value of an expression given a change in value of one of the variables.

Mixing Fertilizer:

Students examine and answer questions related to a scenario similar to a "mixture" problem involving two different mixtures of fertilizer. In this example, students determine and then compare expressions that correspond to concentrations of various mixtures. Ultimately, students generalize the problem and verify conclusions using algebraic rather than numerical expressions.

Mixing Candies:

Students are asked to interpret expressions and equations within the context of the amounts of caramels and truffles in a box of candy.

Kitchen Floor Tiles:

This problem asks students to consider algebraic expressions calculating the number of floor tiles in given patterns. The purpose of this task is to give students practice in reading, analyzing, and constructing algebraic expressions, attending to the relationship between the form of an expression and the context from which it arises. The context here is intentionally thin; the point is not to provide a practical application to kitchen floors, but to give a framework that imbues the expressions with an external meaning.

Delivery Trucks:

This resource describes a simple scenario which can be represented by the use of variables. Students are asked to examine several variable expressions, interpret their meaning, and describe what quantities they each represent in the given context.

Animal Populations:

In this task students interpret the relative size of variable expressions involving two variables in the context of a real world situation. All given expressions can be interpreted as quantities that one might study when looking at two animal populations.

Seeing Dots:

The purpose of this task is to identify the structure in the two algebraic expressions by interpreting them in terms of a geometric context. Students will have likely seen this type of process before, so the principal source of challenge in this task is to encourage a multitude and variety of approaches, both in terms of the geometric argument and in terms of the algebraic manipulation.

Graphs of Power Functions:

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Temperature Conversions:

Unit conversion problems provide a rich source of examples both for composition of functions (when several successive conversions are required) and inverses (units can always be converted in either of two directions).

Susita's Account:

This task asks students to determine a recursive process from a context. Students who study computer programming will make regular use of recursive processes.

Summer Intern:

This task asks students to use proportions of mass and volume to create ideal brine for saltwater fish tanks. It also asks students to compare graphs.

Skeleton Tower:

This problem is a quadratic function example. The other tasks in this set illustrate MAFS.912.F.BF.1.1.a in the context of linear, exponential, and rational functions.

Growing Coffee:

This task is designed to make students think about the meaning of the quantities presented in the context and choose which ones are appropriate for the two different constraints presented. In particular, note that the purpose of the task is to have students generate the constraint equations for each part (though the problem statements avoid using this particular terminology), and not to have students solve said equations. If desired, instructors could also use this task to touch on such solutions by finding and interpreting solutions to the system of equations created in parts (a) and (b).

Lake Algae:

The purpose of this task is to introduce students to exponential growth. While the context presents a classic example of exponential growth, it approaches it from a non-standard point of view.

The Canoe Trip, Variation 2:

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

The Canoe Trip, Variation 1:

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

## Tutorials

Graphs and Solutions of Functions in Quadratic Equations:

You will learn how the parent function for a quadratic function is affected when f(x) = x2.

Type: Tutorial

Constructing an Equations with Two Variables - Yoga Plan:

This video provides a real-world scenario and step-by-step instructions to constructing equations using two variables. Possible follow-up videos include Plotting System of Equations - Yoga Plan, Solving System of Equations with Substitution - Yoga Plan, and Solving System of Equations with Elimination - Yoga Plan.

Type: Tutorial

Geometric sequence or progression:

We will learn how to write a geometric sequence.

Type: Tutorial

Geometric series:

Geometric series

Type: Tutorial

Finding the nth term in a recursively defined sequence:

Finding the 5th term in recursively defined sequence

Type: Tutorial

Graphing Quadractic Functions in Vertex Form:

This tutorial will help the students to identify the vertex of a parabola from the equation, and then graph the parabola.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners to graph the equation of the quadratic function using the coordinates of the vertex of a parabola adn its x- intercepts.

Type: Tutorial

Example: Evaluating expressions with 2 variables:

Evaluating Expressions with Two Variables

Type: Tutorial

Graphing Exponential Equations:

This tutorial will help you to learn about the exponential functions by graphing various equations representing exponential growth and decay.

Type: Tutorial

How to evaluate an expression using substitution:

In this example we have a formula for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit. Let's substitute the variable with a value (Celsius temp) to get the degrees in Fahrenheit. Great problem to practice with us!

Type: Tutorial

How to evaluate an expression with variables:

Learn how to evaluate an expression with variables using a technique called substitution (or "plugging in").

Type: Tutorial

Why aren't we using the multiplication sign?:

Great question. In algebra, we do indeed avoid using the multiplication sign. We'll explain it for you here.

Type: Tutorial

What is a variable?:

Our focus here is understanding that a variable is just a letter or symbol (usually a lower case letter) that can represent different values in an expression. We got this. Just watch.

Type: Tutorial

Power of a Power Property:

This tutorial demonstrates how to use the power of a power property with both numerals and variables.

Type: Tutorial

Solving Logarithmic equations:

This 4 minute video gives step by step instruction of solving logarithmic equations.

Type: Tutorial

Population Demographic Lab:

This lab simulation allows you to use real demographic data, collected by the US Census Bureau, to analyze and make predictions centered around demographic trends. You will explore factors that impact the birth, death and immigration rate of a population and learn how the population transitions having taken place globally.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

Solving Quadratic Equations using Square Roots:

This video will demonstrate how to solve a quadratic equation using square roots.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Relations and Functions:

This video demonstrates how to determine if a relation is a function and how to identify the domain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Solving Mixture Problems with Linear Equations:

Mixture problems can involve mixtures of things other than liquids. This video shows how Algebra can be used to solve problems involving mixtures of different types of items.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Using Systems of Equations Versus One Equation:

When should a system of equations with multiple variables be used to solve an Algebra problem, instead of using a single equation with a single variable?

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables:

The points of intersection of two graphs represent common solutions to both equations. Finding these intersection points is an important tool in analyzing physical and mathematical systems.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Slope:

"Slope" is a fundamental concept in mathematics. Slope is often defined as " the rise over the run"....but why?

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Point-Slope Form:

Th point-slope form of the equation for a line can describe any non-vertical line in the Cartesian plane, given the slope and the coordinates of a single point which lies on the line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Two Point Form:

The two point form of the equation for a line can describe any non-vertical line in the Cartesian plane, given the coordinates of two points which lie on the line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Solving Literal Equations:

Literal equations are formulas for calculating the value of one unknown quantity from one or more known quantities. Variables in the formula are replaced by the actual or 'literal' values corresponding to a specific instance of the relationship.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Introduction to Dangers of Using Credit:

This episode of Warren Buffet's Secret Millionaire's Club (4 minutes) introduces the dangers of using credit and only making the minimum monthly payment.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Example of Solving for a Variable - Khan Academy:

This video takes a look at rearranging a formula to highlight a quantity of interest.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Basic Linear Function:

This video demonstrates writing a function that represents a real-life scenario.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video gives a more in-depth look at graphing quadratic functions than previously offered in Quadratic Functions 1.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Graphing Lines 1:

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Fitting a Line to Data:

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Averages:

This Khan Academy video tutorial introduces averages and algebra problems involving averages.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Loan Calculator:

This virtual manipulative allows the user to explore scenarios of a loan repayment by manipulating the amount of the loan, interest rate, payment amount, frequency of payments, and length of the loan in years.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Scatterplot:

This manipulative will help students in understanding scatter plots which are particularly useful when investigating whether there is a relationship between two variables. Students could develop a systematic plan for collecting and entering data into the scatter plot manipulative and set appropriate ranges for the x and y scales.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Slope Slider:

In this activity, students adjust slider bars which adjust the coefficients and constants of a linear function and examine how their changes affect the graph. The equation of the line can be in slope-intercept form or standard form. This activity allows students to explore linear equations, slopes, and y-intercepts and their visual representation on a graph. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The Power of 72:

This is a quick way to calculate how long it will take to double your money if it is invested at a particular interest rate. It is all about the power of time. This site provides the formulas for finding how long it will take for your investment to double by inputting an interest rate. Another formula allows users to see at what interest rate their investment would double when the number of years is the input.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Graphing Equations Using Intercepts:

This resource provides linear functions in standard form and asks the user to graph it using intercepts on an interactive graph below the problem. Immediate feedback is provided, and for incorrect responses, each step of the solution is thoroughly modeled.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Graphing Lines:

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Data Flyer:

Using this virtual manipulative, students are able to graph a function and a set of ordered pairs on the same coordinate plane. The constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted using slider bars, so the student can explore the affect on the graph as the function parameters are changed. Students can also examine the deviation of the data from the function. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Function Flyer:

In this online tool, students input a function to create a graph where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is an online graphing utility that can be used to create box plots, bubble graphs, scatterplots, histograms, and stem-and-leaf plots.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Number Cruncher:

In this activity, students enter inputs into a function machine. Then, by examining the outputs, they must determine what function the machine is performing. This activity allows students to explore functions and what inputs are most useful for determining the function rule. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Curve Fitting:

With a mouse, students will drag data points (with their error bars) and watch the best-fit polynomial curve form instantly. Students can choose the type of fit: linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic. Best fit or adjustable fit can be displayed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Equation Grapher:

This interactive simulation investigates graphing linear and quadratic equations. Users are given the ability to define and change the coefficients and constants in order to observe resulting changes in the graph(s).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Tool to Explore Exponential Functions:

This is an interactive applet in which students or teachers can visualize how changes in the parameters of the exponential function, y = a(b) x + c, affect the shape of the graph.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Geometric and Harmonic Series- Limits:

This applet allows users to set up various geometric series with a visual representation of the successive terms, and the corresponding sum of those terms.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this course.

## Educational Software / Tool

Savings Calculator:

This manipulative is a versatile online savings calculator that calculates both simple and compounding interest. This free online calculator calculates and graphs accrued interest and total savings balance. The calculator allows for a variety of variables including interest rates, initial investment, time, compounded interest, and whether there are regular deposits made.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Perspectives Video: Expert

Problem Solving with Project Constraints:

It's important to stay inside the lines of your project constraints to finish in time and under budget. This NASA systems engineer explains how constraints can actually promote creativity and help him solve problems!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Base 16 Notation in Computing:

Listen in as a computing enthusiast describes how hexadecimal notation is used to express big numbers in just a little space.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Students explore the structure of the operation s/(vn). This question provides students with an opportunity to see expressions as constructed out of a sequence of operations: first taking the square root of n, then dividing the result of that operation into s.

Coffee and Crime:

This problem solving task asks students to examine the relationship between shops and crimes by using a correlation coefficient.

Algae Blooms:

In this example, students are asked to write a function describing the population growth of algae. It is implied that this is exponential growth.

As the Wheel Turns:

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Snail Invasion:

The purpose of this task is to give students experience modeling a real-world example of exponential growth, in a context that provides a vivid illustration of the power of exponential growth, for example the cost of inaction for a year. There is an opportunity for further discussion based on part (c), since the ratio of costs from one year to the next is the same in each part.

Newton's Law of Cooling:

The coffee cooling experiment is a popular example of an exponential model with immediate appeal. The model is realistic and provides a good context for students to practice work with exponential equations.

Carbon 14 Dating in Practice II:

This problem introduces the method used by scientists to date certain organic material. It is based not on the amount of the Carbon 14 isotope remaining in the sample but rather on the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. This ratio decreases, hypothetically, at a constant exponential rate as soon as the organic material has ceased to absorb Carbon 14, that is, as soon as it dies.

Carbon 14 Dating:

The task requires the student to use logarithms to solve an exponential equation in the realistic context of carbon dating, important in archaeology and geology, among other places. Students should be guided to recognize the use of the natural logarithm when the exponential function has the given base of e, as in this problem. Note that the purpose of this task is algebraic in nature -- closely related tasks exist which approach similar problems from numerical or graphical stances.

Bacteria Populations:

This task provides a real world context for interpreting and solving exponential equations. There are two solutions provided for part (a). The first solution demonstrates how to deduce the conclusion by thinking in terms of the functions and their rates of change. The second approach illustrates a rigorous algebraic demonstration that the two populations can never be equal.

Cash Box:

The given solutions for this task involve the creation and solving of a system of two equations and two unknowns, with the caveat that the context of the problem implies that we are interested only in non-negative integer solutions. Indeed, in the first solution, we must also restrict our attention to the case that one of the variables is further even. This aspect of the task is illustrative of mathematical practice standard MP4 (Model with mathematics), and crucial as the system has an integer solution for both situations, that is, whether or not we include the dollar on the floor in the cash box or not.

The purpose of this instructional task is to give students an opportunity to construct and find the value of a geometric series (A-SSE.4) in a financial literacy context. The task assumes that students have already developed the formula for a geometric series themselves; having them recognize the need for this formula (and look up if necessary) allows them to engage in MP 5, Use appropriate tools strategically. The task also provides students with an opportunity to look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning (MP 8), as the solution shows. This task also asks students to interpret the variables in the future value formula in the context of the problem (A-SSE.1).

Finding Parabolas through Two Points:

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Which Function?:

The task addresses knowledge related to interpreting forms of functions derived by factoring or completing the square. It requires students to pay special attention to the information provided by the way the equation is represented as well as the sign of the leading coefficient, which is not written out explicitly, and then to connect this information to the important features of the graph.

Warming and Cooling:

This task is meant to be a straight-forward assessment task of graph reading and interpreting skills. This task helps reinforce the idea that when a variable represents time, t = 0 is chosen as an arbitrary point in time and positive times are interpreted as times that happen after that.

Throwing Baseballs:

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Average Cost:

This task asks students to find the average, write an equation, find the domain, and create a graph of the cost of producing DVDs.

Springboard Dive:

The problem presents a context where a quadratic function arises. Careful analysis, including graphing of the function, is closely related to the context. The student will gain valuable experience applying the quadratic formula and the exercise also gives a possible implementation of completing the square.

Temperatures in Degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius:

Temperature conversions provide a rich source of linear functions which are encountered not only in science but also in our every day lives when we travel abroad. The first part of this task provides an opportunity to construct a linear function given two input-output pairs. The second part investigates the inverse of a linear function while the third part requires reasoning about quantities and/or solving a linear equation.

Sum of Angles in a Polygon:

This problem provides students with an opportunity to discover algebraic structure in a geometric context. More specifically, the student will need to divide up the given polygons into triangles and then use the fact that the sum of the angles in each triangle is 180°.

The High School Gym:

This task asks students to consider functions in regard to temperatures in a high school gym.

Telling a Story with Graphs:

In this task students are given graphs of quantities related to weather. The purpose of the task is to show that graphs are more than a collection of coordinate points; they can tell a story about the variables that are involved, and together they can paint a very complete picture of a situation, in this case the weather. Features in one graph, like maximum and minimum points, correspond to features in another graph. For example, on a rainy day, the solar radiation is very low, and the cumulative rainfall graph is increasing with a large slope.

Oakland Coliseum:

This deceptively simple task asks students to find the domain and range of a function from a given context. The function is linear and if simply looked at from a formulaic point of view, students might find the formula for the line and say that the domain and range are all real numbers.

Logistic Growth Model, Explicit Version:

This problem introduces a logistic growth model in the concrete settings of estimating the population of the U.S. The model gives a surprisingly accurate estimate and this should be contrasted with linear and exponential models.

Logistic Growth Model, Abstract Version:

This task is for instructional purposes only and students should already be familiar with some specific examples of logistic growth functions. The goal of this task is to have students appreciate how different constants influence the shape of a graph.

How Is the Weather?:

This task can be used as a quick assessment to see if students can make sense of a graph in the context of a real world situation. Students also have to pay attention to the scale on the vertical axis to find the correct match. The first and third graphs look very similar at first glance, but the function values are very different since the scales on the vertical axes are very different. The task could also be used to generate a group discussion on interpreting functions given by graphs.

Equations and Formulas:

In this task, students will use inverse operations to solve the equations for the unknown variable or for the designated variable if there is more than one.

Writing Constraints:

The purpose of this task is to give students practice writing a constraint equation for a given context. Instruction accompanying this task should introduce the notion of a constraint equation as an equation governing the possible values of the variables in question (i.e., "constraining" said values). In particular, it is worth differentiating the role of constraint equations from more functional equations, e.g., formulas to convert from degrees Celsius to degree Fahrenheit. The task has students interpret the context and choose variables to represent the quantities, which are governed by the constraint equation and the fact that they are non-negative (allowing us to restrict the graphs to points in the first quadrant only).

The four parts are independent and can be used as separate tasks.

Bernardo and Sylvia Play a Game:

This task presents a simple but mathematically interesting game whose solution is a challenging exercise in creating and reasoning with algebraic inequalities. The core of the task involves converting a verbal statement into a mathematical inequality in a context in which the inequality is not obviously presented, and then repeatedly using the inequality to deduce information about the structure of the game.

Dimes and Quarters:

Students are given a word problem that can be solved by using a pair of linear equations. This task does not actually require that the student solve the system but that they recognize the pairs of linear equations in two variables that would be used to solve the system. This is an important step in the process of solving systems.

Regular Tessellations of the Plane:

This task examines the ways in which the plane can be covered by regular polygons in a very strict arrangement called a regular tessellation. These tessellations are studied here using algebra, which enters the picture via the formula for the measure of the interior angles of a regular polygon (which should therefore be introduced or reviewed before beginning the task). The goal of the task is to use algebra in order to understand which tessellations of the plane with regular polygons are possible.

Compounding with a 100% Interest Rate:

This task provides an approximation, and definition, of e, in the context of more and more frequent compounding of interest in a bank account. The approach is computational.

A Sum of Functions:

In this example, students are given the graph of two functions and are asked to sketch the graph of the function that is their sum. The intent is that students develop a conceptual understanding of function addition.

Triangle Series:

Students consider a diagram of five nested equilateral triangles diminishing in size according to a geometric series. The purpose of this task is to emphasize the adjective "geometric" in the "geometric" series, namely, that the algebraic notion of a common ratio between terms corresponds to the geometric notion of a repeated similarity transformation. Specifically, since the black triangles are all similar with the same scale factor, the total area of the black triangles is a geometric series. This task could be used either to introduce the geometric series as a worthy object of study, or as a geometric application of its use.

Course of Antibiotics:

In this task, students consider a real-world problem involving the decay of a drug in a patient's body. This task presents a real world application of finite geometric series. The context can lead into several interesting follow-up questions and projects. Many drugs only become effective after the amount in the body builds up to a certain level. This can be modeled very well with geometric series.

Cantor Set:

This task leads to the generation of finite geometric series with a common ratio less than one as a means to explore properties of the Cantor Set. The Cantor Set is a fascinating set with many intriguing properties. It contains uncountably many points, which means that there are "as many" points in it as on the real line, yet the set contains no intervals of real numbers and it has length zero. All that is necessary to show that it has length zero is to look at what happens to a geometric series as we add more and more terms.

Harvesting the Fields:

This is a challenging task, suitable for extended work, and reaching into a deep understanding of units. Students are given a scenario and asked to determine the number of people required to complete the amount of work in the time described. The task requires students to exhibit MAFS.K12.MP.1.1, Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. An algebraic solution is possible but complicated; a numerical solution is both simpler and more sophisticated, requiring skilled use of units and quantitative reasoning. Thus the task aligns with either MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 or MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1, depending on the approach.

Throwing a Ball:

Students manipulate a given equation to find specified information.

Paying the Rent:

Students solve problems tracking the balance of a checking account used only to pay rent. This simple conceptual task focuses on what it means for a number to be a solution to an equation, rather than on the process of solving equations.

Students extrapolate the list price of a car given a total amount paid in states with different tax rates. The emphasis in this task is not on complex solution procedures. Rather, the progression of equations, from two that involve different values of the sales tax, to one that involves the sales tax as a parameter, is designed to foster the habit of looking for regularity in solution procedures, so that students don't approach every equation as a new problem but learn to notice familiar types.

Graphs of Compositions:

This task addresses an important issue about inverse functions. In this case the function f is the inverse of the function g but g is not the inverse of f unless the domain of f is restricted.

Planes and Wheat:

In this resource, students refer to given information which defines 5 variables in the context of real world government expenses. They are then asked to write equations based upon specific known values for some of the variables. The emphasis is on setting up, rather than solving, the equations.

Exponentials and Logarithms I:

The purpose of this task is to help students see the "why" behind properties of logs that are familiar but often just memorized (and quickly forgotten or misremembered). The task focuses on the verbal definition of the log, helping students to concentrate on understanding that a logarithm is an exponent, as opposed to completing a more computational approach.

Crude Oil and Gas Mileage:

This task asks students to write expressions for various problems involving distance per units of volume.

Flu on Campus:

The context of this example is the spread of a flu virus on campus and the related sale of tissue boxes sold. Students interpret the composite function and determine values simply by using the tables of values.

Compounding with a 5% Interest Rate:

This task develops reasoning behind the general formula for balances under continuously compounded interest. While this task itself specifically address the standard (F-BF), building functions from a context, an auxiliary purpose is to introduce and motivate the number e, which plays a significant role in the (F-LE) domain of tasks.

Sum of Even and Odd:

Students explore and manipulate expressions based on the following statement:

A function f defined for -a < x < a is even if f(-x)=f(x) and is odd if f(-x)=-f(x) when -a < x < a. In this task we assume f is defined on such an interval, which might be the full real line (i.e., a=8).

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)2+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Students are asked to interpret the effect on the value of an expression given a change in value of one of the variables.

Mixing Fertilizer:

Students examine and answer questions related to a scenario similar to a "mixture" problem involving two different mixtures of fertilizer. In this example, students determine and then compare expressions that correspond to concentrations of various mixtures. Ultimately, students generalize the problem and verify conclusions using algebraic rather than numerical expressions.

Mixing Candies:

Students are asked to interpret expressions and equations within the context of the amounts of caramels and truffles in a box of candy.

Kitchen Floor Tiles:

This problem asks students to consider algebraic expressions calculating the number of floor tiles in given patterns. The purpose of this task is to give students practice in reading, analyzing, and constructing algebraic expressions, attending to the relationship between the form of an expression and the context from which it arises. The context here is intentionally thin; the point is not to provide a practical application to kitchen floors, but to give a framework that imbues the expressions with an external meaning.

Delivery Trucks:

This resource describes a simple scenario which can be represented by the use of variables. Students are asked to examine several variable expressions, interpret their meaning, and describe what quantities they each represent in the given context.

Animal Populations:

In this task students interpret the relative size of variable expressions involving two variables in the context of a real world situation. All given expressions can be interpreted as quantities that one might study when looking at two animal populations.

Seeing Dots:

The purpose of this task is to identify the structure in the two algebraic expressions by interpreting them in terms of a geometric context. Students will have likely seen this type of process before, so the principal source of challenge in this task is to encourage a multitude and variety of approaches, both in terms of the geometric argument and in terms of the algebraic manipulation.

Graphs of Power Functions:

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Temperature Conversions:

Unit conversion problems provide a rich source of examples both for composition of functions (when several successive conversions are required) and inverses (units can always be converted in either of two directions).

Susita's Account:

This task asks students to determine a recursive process from a context. Students who study computer programming will make regular use of recursive processes.

Summer Intern:

This task asks students to use proportions of mass and volume to create ideal brine for saltwater fish tanks. It also asks students to compare graphs.

Skeleton Tower:

This problem is a quadratic function example. The other tasks in this set illustrate MAFS.912.F.BF.1.1.a in the context of linear, exponential, and rational functions.

Growing Coffee:

This task is designed to make students think about the meaning of the quantities presented in the context and choose which ones are appropriate for the two different constraints presented. In particular, note that the purpose of the task is to have students generate the constraint equations for each part (though the problem statements avoid using this particular terminology), and not to have students solve said equations. If desired, instructors could also use this task to touch on such solutions by finding and interpreting solutions to the system of equations created in parts (a) and (b).

Lake Algae:

The purpose of this task is to introduce students to exponential growth. While the context presents a classic example of exponential growth, it approaches it from a non-standard point of view.

The Canoe Trip, Variation 2:

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

The Canoe Trip, Variation 1:

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

## Tutorial

Power of a Power Property:

This tutorial demonstrates how to use the power of a power property with both numerals and variables.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

Graphing Lines 1:

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Fitting a Line to Data:

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Averages:

This Khan Academy video tutorial introduces averages and algebra problems involving averages.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Loan Calculator:

This virtual manipulative allows the user to explore scenarios of a loan repayment by manipulating the amount of the loan, interest rate, payment amount, frequency of payments, and length of the loan in years.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Scatterplot:

This manipulative will help students in understanding scatter plots which are particularly useful when investigating whether there is a relationship between two variables. Students could develop a systematic plan for collecting and entering data into the scatter plot manipulative and set appropriate ranges for the x and y scales.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Graphing Lines:

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative