Benchmark Instructional Guide
Connecting Benchmarks/Horizontal Alignment
Terms from the K-12 Glossary
Purpose and Instructional Strategies
The purpose of this benchmark is to select and use tools to measure with precision. This concept builds on work to connect linear measurement to number lines (MA.3.M.1.1
- Students will measure using the customary units of linear measurement to the nearest and of an inch.
- Students will measure volume, weight, mass and temperature using fractions or decimals where appropriate. As students work with this benchmark, they will begin to see relationships between units. For example, they will see that 10 millimeters is equivalent to one centimeter so one millimeter is of a centimeter.
- For instruction of linear measurement, spend time showing students equivalent fractions on a number line and how that connects to rulers and tape measures. Students should also gain experience measuring things larger than their piece of paper or their textbook so they can make decisions about what the best tool to measure is.
- Students should be given multiple opportunities to measure the same object with different measuring units. For example, have the students measure the length of a room with one-inch tiles, one-foot rulers and yardsticks. Students should notice that it takes fewer yard sticks to measure the room than rulers or tiles and explain their reasoning.
- For instruction of liquid volume, give students experiences with real-world measuring cups and graduated cylinders.
- For instruction of mass and weight, give students opportunities to use real-world balances and scales so they understand how they work and how to read measurements.
- For measuring temperature, provide examples of digital and analog thermometers.
Examples of nonlinear scales include weight scales commonly used in grocery stores and many thermometers.
- Using protractors to measure angles provides the connection between MA.4.GR.2.1 and measurement with nonlinear scales.
Common Misconceptions or Errors
- Students who struggle to identify benchmarks on number lines can also struggle to
measure units of length, liquid volume, weight, mass and temperature. To assist students
with this misconception, during instruction teachers should allow students to measure
often and provide feedback. Students can also complete error and reasoning analysis
activities to identify this common measurement misconception
Strategies to Support Tiered Instruction
- Instruction includes opportunities to measure often and provide feedback. Use error and reasoning analysis activities to address common measurement difficulties.
- Instruction includes providing students with a variety of objects. Ask students which tool they would use to measure each object. Discussions would include asking which attribute of the object is to be measured.
- For example, objects could include a banana (where length or weight could be measured), water in a container (where temperature, volume or weight could be measured).
Instructional Task 1 (MTR.7.1)
Use a thermometer to measure the temperature to the nearest 0.1 degree Fahrenheit at 8:30 a.m., 11:00 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. every day for one week. Record each temperature in a table.
Instructional Items 1
A pencil is shown. Using the ruler provided, what is the length of the pencil to the nearest
inch? *The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.