# MA.3.M.1.2

Solve real-world problems involving any of the four operations with whole-number lengths, masses, weights, temperatures or liquid volumes.

### Examples

Ms. Johnson’s class is having a party. Eight students each brought in a 2-liter bottle of soda for the party. How many liters of soda did the class have for the party?

### Clarifications

Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, it is the expectation that responses include appropriate units.

Clarification 2: Problem types are not expected to include measurement conversions.

Clarification 3: Instruction includes the comparison of attributes measured in the same units.

Clarification 4: Units are limited to yards, feet, inches; meters, centimeters; pounds, ounces; kilograms, grams; degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius; gallons, quarts, pints, cups; and liters, milliliters.

General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Strand: Measurement
Status: State Board Approved

## Benchmark Instructional Guide

• NA

### Vertical Alignment

Previous Benchmarks

Next Benchmarks

### Purpose and Instructional Strategies

The purpose of this benchmark is for students to apply what they have learned about measurement to solve real-world problems.
• When solving real-world problems, instruction should facilitate students’ understandings of contexts and quantities (MTR.4.1, MTR.5.1, MTR.7.1).
• Recommendations for helping students comprehend and solve real-world problems can be found in this document for benchmark MA.3.AR.1.2.

### Common Misconceptions or Errors

• Students who struggle to identify benchmarks on number lines can also struggle to measure units of length, liquid volume, and temperature. Allow students to measure often and receive feedback. Students can also use error and reasoning analysis activities to identify this common measurement difficulty.
• Students may have difficulty creating effective models (e.g., drawings, equations) that will help them solve real-world problems. To assist students, provide opportunities for them to estimate solutions and try different models before solving. Beginning instruction by showing problems without their quantities is a strategy for helping students determine what steps and operations will be used to solve.
• Students can struggle to identify when real-world problems require two steps to solve and will complete only one of the steps. Focusing on comprehension of real-world problems helps students determine what step(s) are required to solve.

### Strategies to Support Tiered Instruction

• Instruction includes providing opportunities to estimate solutions and try different models before solving. Instruction begins by showing problems without their quantities to determine what steps and operations will be used to solve. Teaching problem-solving strategies should focus on the comprehension of problem contexts and what quantities represent in them.
• For example, “For a science experiment in Mr. Thomas’s 3rd grade class, each student needs some milliliters of water. If there are some students in Mr. Thomas’s class, how many milliliters will be needed in all?” Students will notice that the quantities have been removed from the problem. This will help them to determine what the quantities represent and which operation to choose to solve the problem. The numberless word problem may also be written as ______ students × _______ milliliters of water = ______ milliliters needed in all.
• Teacher encourages exploration of estimation strategies to determine reasonable ranges for solutions (e.g., rounding, finding low and high estimates) and teach problem-solving strategies that build comprehension.
• For example, the 3-Reads Protocol is a close reading strategy for solving problems that focuses on comprehension of the word problem.
• The problem is read 3 times, each for a different purpose.
• What is the problem, context, or story about?
• What are we trying to find out?
• What information is important in the problem?

• Instruction includes opportunities to measure often and provide feedback. Use error and reasoning analysis activities to address common measurement difficulties.
• Instruction includes opportunities to find the locations of points on number lines. Number lines should be represented vertically and horizontally. Instruction includes whole number values and fractions, including fractions greater than one.
• For example, number lines should be included with benchmarks instead of every number in the sequence included. The blue line below extends from the 0 mark on the number line to the first hashmark beyond 2. The dot plotted on the number line identifies the end of the blue line. Since each whole number interval is partitioned into four equal parts, the first hashmark beyond 2 is represented as 2$\frac{\text{1}}{\text{4}}$

• For example, number lines can also have all numbers included to represent the values between the benchmarks.
• For example, teaching problem-solving strategies should focus on the comprehension of problem contexts and what quantities represent in them.
• Instruction includes an emphasis on teaching problem-solving strategies, focusing on the comprehension of problem contexts and what quantities represent in them.
• For example, questions that help students comprehend word problems are:
• What is happening in the real-world problem?
• What do you need to find out?
• What do the quantities represent in the problem?
• What will the solution represent in the problem?
• For example, “For a science experiment in Mr. Thomas’s 3rd grade class, each student needs 8 milliliters of water. If there are 23 students in Mr. Thomas’s class, how many milliliters will be needed in all?”

• Teacher guides exploration in estimation strategies to determine reasonable ranges for solutions (e.g., rounding, finding low and high estimates) and teaches problem-solving strategies that build comprehension (e.g., Three Reads).
• For example, the 3-Reads Protocol is a close reading strategy for solving problems that focuses on comprehension of the word problem.
• The problem is read 3 times, each for a different purpose.
• What is the problem, context, or story about?
• What are we trying to find out?
• What information is important in the problem?

Each year, the Tallahassee Pumpkin Festival hosts a contest to find the largest pumpkin grown that season. The winner of the competition has the greatest mass, in grams. The masses of the contest entries are in the table below.

• Part A. Which pumpkin won the contest?
• Part B. What is the difference of the mass, in grams, between the first and second place winning pumpkins?

### Instructional Items

Instructional Item 1

For a science experiment in Mr. Thomas’s 3rd grade class, each student needs 8 milliliters of water. If there are 23 students in Mr. Thomas’s class, how many milliliters will be needed in all?

*The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.

## Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5012050: Grade Three Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712040: Access Mathematics Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012055: Grade 3 Accelerated Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012015: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

## Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MA.3.M.1.AP.2a: Solve one- and two-step addition and subtraction real-world problems within 100 with whole number lengths (i.e., inches, feet, yards), temperatures (i.e., degrees Fahrenheit) or liquid volumes (i.e., gallons, quarts, pints, cups).
MA.3.M.1.AP.2b: Solve one-step multiplication and division real-world problems with whole number lengths (i.e., inches, feet, yards), temperatures (i.e., degrees Fahrenheit) or liquid volumes (i.e., gallons, quarts, pints and cups). Multiplication may not exceed two single-digit whole numbers and their related division facts.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Formative Assessments

Students determine the distance walked by a student on her way home from her friend's house.

Type: Formative Assessment

Measurement Problems:

Students are asked to model a multiplication and a division problem that involve measurement quantities with multiplication and division equations and then solve each problem.

Type: Formative Assessment

Addition and Subtraction with Mass and Volume:

Students solve two one-step word problems about mass and volume.

Type: Formative Assessment

Multiplication and Division with Mass and Volume:

Students solve two one-step word problems about mass and volume.

Type: Formative Assessment

## Lesson Plans

Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation Lesson 1 Observations:

Students learn that making observations is an important aspect of scientific study. Students will review concepts about water by making observations based on different properties and states of matter of water. Students will also review how to measure volume, mass and temperature as they will use these skills throughout the unit.

This is a lesson in the Grade 3 Physical Science Unit on Water. This is a themed unit of SaM-1's adventures while on a Beach Vacation.  To see all the lessons in the unit please visit  https://www.cpalms.org/page818.aspx.

Type: Lesson Plan

Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation Lesson 5 Evaporation Experiment:

Students set up an experiment and gather data to investigate the evaporation of water.

This is a lesson in the Grade 3 Physical Science Unit on Water. This is a themed unit ofSaM-1's adventures while on a Beach Vacation.  To see all the lessons in the unit please visit https://www.cpalms.org/page818.aspx.

.

Type: Lesson Plan

Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation Lesson 4 Melting Experiment:

Students set up an experiment and gather data to investigate the melting of solid water.

This is a lesson in the Grade 3 Physical Science Unit on Water. This is a themed unit ofSaM-1's adventures while on a Beach Vacation.  To see all the lessons in the unit please visit https://www.cpalms.org/page818.aspx.

.

Type: Lesson Plan

Zoom, Zoom, Vroom Vroom!:

In this lesson, students will explore forces, mechanical energy by engineering their own vehicles utilizing via the engineering design process.

Type: Lesson Plan

What's the Matter with a Crayon?:

In this lesson, students will cooperatively measure the mass and volume of three different-colored crayons as a solid. After recording measurements, students will place their crayons in molds in order to change the state of matter from a solid to a liquid through heating. The teacher will pour the liquefied crayon into a graduated cylinder to measure the volume. Following the measurements recording, the liquid will be poured back into the molds and placed in a cool/shaded environment so the crayons will change back into a solid state. Once the crayons re-solidify, the students will take their student-made, tie-dye crayon out of the mold and re-measure it. Lastly, the students will measure and compare their final measurements to the initial measurements.

Type: Lesson Plan

Let's Go, H2O!:

This STEM challenge will engage 3rd grade students in thinking about the ways that a drought can affect a region or nation and how to find a solution to this problem. Students will construct a pipeline to transport water from point A to point B while overcoming gravity and will measure the volume of liquid before and after it travels through the pipeline. This STEM challenge combines architectural engineering with life science and mathematical measurement skills.

Type: Lesson Plan

Is that Estimate Correct?:

In this lesson, students will estimate water volume in three containers and record observations. Following estimations, students will directly measure the volumes using an appropriate method. After comparing those measurements to the estimates, students will be given a known volume of water and will be asked to divide the water into three predetermined volumes, again using estimation skills. A following measurement will be used to determine the difference between their volume estimate and the actual measured volume as distributed across three vessels.

Type: Lesson Plan

Not that Hot Anymore:

The students will rank companies offering canopies to a school for their Physical Education area.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Florida Fish Aquarium Challenge:

This task involves having students look at three different fish tank sizes and determine, using a data list, which fish will fit in these fish tanks based on their size. They will also need to look at other characteristics to determine how to group the fish together. Students will have to either multiply, divide or add repeatedly in order to find different solutions on how to place the fish in each tank size.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Kick The Can Man:

Students are asked to compare group observations, measure and estimate content of liquids, and prepare and participate in a range of conversations in order to design a method for choosing the healthiest beverage to supply to school children.

Type: Lesson Plan

Same Perimeter, Different Area:

In this lesson, students are presented with a problem that requires them to create rectangles with the same perimeter but different areas.  Students also search for relationships among the perimeters and areas of different rectangles and find which characteristics produce a rectangle with the greatest area.

Type: Lesson Plan

In this model eliciting activity students use data about the temperature and water requirements of plants to figure out when the plants should be planted. They also use data such as space requirements and time until harvest to make judgments about which plants would best suit the needs of students planning a school garden in Florida.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Celebrity Floor Plan Frenzy:

Students will help an architect find the area of each room in a celebrity home and then determine the best location to build the home based on qualitative data about the locations.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Plant Package:

The Plant Package MEA provides students with an engineering problem in which they are asked to rank different plant containers using recycled materials.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

## Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) STEM Lessons

Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation Lesson 15 Beat the Heat MEA Part 2: Cooler Experiment:

In this MEA, students will have the opportunity to apply what they learned about describing
the changes water undergoes when it changes state through heating and cooling. This MEA
is divided into four parts. In part 1, students will develop their hypothesis and receive
information on how to set up the cooler experiment. In part 2, students will use ice to test
the coolers they designed in Beat the Heat Engineering Design Lessons. Students will take
measurements and collect data on their cooler. In part 3, students will analyze the data
they collected. Finally, in part 4 they will develop a procedure for selecting the most
effective cooler to keep water frozen the longest at the beach. In the optional twist,
students will need to take the mass of the cooler into account.

This is a lesson in the Grade 3 Physical Science Unit on Water. This is a themed unit of SaM-1's adventures while on a Beach Vacation.  To see all the lessons in the unit please visit https://www.cpalms.org/page818.aspx.

Type: Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) STEM Lesson

Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation Lesson 16 Beat the Heat MEA Part 3: Analyzing Cooler Data:

In this MEA, students will have the opportunity to apply what they learned about describing
the changes water undergoes when it changes state through heating and cooling. This MEA
is divided into four parts. In part 1, students will develop their hypothesis and receive
information on how to set up the cooler experiment. In part 2, students will be asked to use
ice to test the coolers they designed in Beat the Heat Engineering Design Lessons.
Students will take measurements and collect data on their cooler. In Part 3 of this activity,
students will analyze the data they collected in Part 2 by drawing and interpreting a scaled
bar graph and line graph. Students will participate in a discussion about how to interpret the
data that was collected. Finally, in part 4 they will develop a procedure for selecting the best
cooler to keep water frozen the longest at the beach. In the optional twist, students will
need to take the mass of the cooler into account.

This is a lesson in the Grade 3 Physical Science Unit on Water. This is a themed unit of SaM-1's adventures while on a Beach Vacation.  To see all the lessons in the unit please visit https://www.cpalms.org/page818.aspx.

Type: Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) STEM Lesson

Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation Lesson 17 Beat the Heat MEA Part 4: Ranking Procedure:

In this MEA, students will have the opportunity to apply what they learned about describing
the changes water undergoes when it changes state through heating and cooling. This MEA
is divided into four parts. In part 1, students will develop their hypothesis and receive
information on how to set up the cooler experiment. In part 2, students will be asked to use
ice to test the coolers they designed in Beat the Heat Engineering Design Lessons.
Students will take measurements and collect data on their cooler. In part 3, students will
analyze the data they collected. Finally, in part 4 they will develop a procedure for selecting
the best cooler to keep water frozen the longest at the beach. They will communicate their
findings and procedure via a letter to next year’s class. In the optional twist, students will
need to take the mass of the cooler into account.

This is a lesson in the Grade 3 Physical Science Unit on Water. This is a themed unit of SaM-1's adventures while on a Beach Vacation.  To see all the lessons in the unit please visit https://www.cpalms.org/page818.aspx.

Type: Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) STEM Lesson

## Original Student Tutorials

Devin in the Bakery Part 1: Measuring the Mass of Solids:

Learn to measure and compare the mass of solids as Devin helps Chef Kyle in the bakery with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation Lesson 17 Video:

This SaM-1 video provides the students with the optional "twist" for Lesson 17 and the Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) they have been working on in the Grade 3 Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation.

To see all the lessons in the unit please visit https://www.cpalms.org/page818.aspx.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Celebrity Floor Plan Frenzy:

Students will help an architect find the area of each room in a celebrity home and then determine the best location to build the home based on qualitative data about the locations.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Florida Fish Aquarium Challenge:

This task involves having students look at three different fish tank sizes and determine, using a data list, which fish will fit in these fish tanks based on their size. They will also need to look at other characteristics to determine how to group the fish together. Students will have to either multiply, divide or add repeatedly in order to find different solutions on how to place the fish in each tank size.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Kick The Can Man:

Students are asked to compare group observations, measure and estimate content of liquids, and prepare and participate in a range of conversations in order to design a method for choosing the healthiest beverage to supply to school children.

Not that Hot Anymore:

The students will rank companies offering canopies to a school for their Physical Education area.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Plant Package:

The Plant Package MEA provides students with an engineering problem in which they are asked to rank different plant containers using recycled materials.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

In this model eliciting activity students use data about the temperature and water requirements of plants to figure out when the plants should be planted. They also use data such as space requirements and time until harvest to make judgments about which plants would best suit the needs of students planning a school garden in Florida.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

## MFAS Formative Assessments

Addition and Subtraction with Mass and Volume:

Students solve two one-step word problems about mass and volume.

Students determine the distance walked by a student on her way home from her friend's house.

Measurement Problems:

Students are asked to model a multiplication and a division problem that involve measurement quantities with multiplication and division equations and then solve each problem.

Multiplication and Division with Mass and Volume:

Students solve two one-step word problems about mass and volume.

## Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades K-8

Devin in the Bakery Part 1: Measuring the Mass of Solids:

Learn to measure and compare the mass of solids as Devin helps Chef Kyle in the bakery with this interactive tutorial.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Original Student Tutorials

Devin in the Bakery Part 1: Measuring the Mass of Solids:

Learn to measure and compare the mass of solids as Devin helps Chef Kyle in the bakery with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation Lesson 17 Video:

This SaM-1 video provides the students with the optional "twist" for Lesson 17 and the Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) they have been working on in the Grade 3 Physical Science Unit: Water Beach Vacation.

To see all the lessons in the unit please visit https://www.cpalms.org/page818.aspx.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.