# MA.3.AR.2.3

Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation, relating three whole numbers, with the unknown in any position.

### Clarifications

Clarification 1: Instruction extends the development of algebraic thinking skills where the symbolic representation of the unknown uses any symbol or a letter.
Clarification 2: Problems include the unknown on either side of the equal sign.
Clarification 3: Multiplication is limited to factors within 12 and related division facts. Refer to Situations Involving Operations with Numbers (Appendix A).
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Strand: Algebraic Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 08/20
Status: State Board Approved

## Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5012050: Grade Three Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712040: Access Mathematics Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012055: Grade 3 Accelerated Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012015: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

## Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MA.3.AR.2.AP.3: Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation, relating three whole numbers, with the product or quotient unknown (e.g., 2 × 5 = __, 10 ÷ 5 = __). Multiplication may not exceed two single-digit whole numbers and their related division facts.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Formative Assessments

Multiplication and Division Equations:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 100 and asked to find the missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Missing Numbers In Multiplication Equations:

Students are given multiplication equations with products within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Missing Numbers In Division Equations:

Students are given division equations involving numbers within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Find the Unknown Number:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

## Lesson Plans

Cupid's Carnival Rides:

In this lesson, students will look at different carnival rides and will determine which ride will make the most profit by looking at factors such as number of tickets per ride, the cost per ticket, the length of the ride, the number of hours the ride is open and the cost to operate the ride. Students will need to use different operations in order to solve the tasks and will be required to do multi-steps.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Arrays Show the Way to the Multiplication Chart:

This is an introductory lesson to explore the use of arrays to solve multiplication problems. Students build arrays and save the arrays in a class Multiplication Chart. They learn to use arrays to find products and factors, and by placing them in the Multiplication Chart, they learn how to read the chart. They learn how to write equations to represent situations that are modeled with arrays. An overall theme is the organization of the multiplication chart and how it includes arrays within.

Type: Lesson Plan

Giddy Up, Round Up: Relating Division to Multiplication:

In this lesson, students will learn to solve division problems by relating them to multiplication facts. Practice materials focus on the 6's and 8's multiplication facts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tasty Algebra: Using toasted O cereal to find the missing factor in a multiplication equation.:

In this lesson students will use Cheerios to solve multiplication equations relating 3 whole numbers from word problems that include missing factors ranging from one through ten. Students will also argue the validity of multiplication equations that include missing factors and products with corresponding word problems.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Teaching Idea

A Square of Numbers (problem to solve using addition, subtraction, multiplication, division):

A problem for students to solve using students' understanding of the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The problem presents an opportunity for students to appreciate the value of approaching a solution in a systematic way using what they know about the structure of operations.

Type: Teaching Idea

## STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Cupid's Carnival Rides:

In this lesson, students will look at different carnival rides and will determine which ride will make the most profit by looking at factors such as number of tickets per ride, the cost per ticket, the length of the ride, the number of hours the ride is open and the cost to operate the ride. Students will need to use different operations in order to solve the tasks and will be required to do multi-steps.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

## MFAS Formative Assessments

Find the Unknown Number:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Missing Numbers In Division Equations:

Students are given division equations involving numbers within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Missing Numbers In Multiplication Equations:

Students are given multiplication equations with products within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Multiplication and Division Equations:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 100 and asked to find the missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.