Standard 2: Develop an understanding of equality and multiplication and division.

General Information
Number: MA.3.AR.2
Title: Develop an understanding of equality and multiplication and division.
Type: Standard
Subject: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Grade: 3
Strand: Algebraic Reasoning

Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

Access Points

MA.3.AR.2.AP.1
Explore division as multiplication with a missing factor using the relationship between multiplication and division.
MA.3.AR.2.AP.2
Determine if multiplication or division equations with no more than three terms are true or false. Multiplication may not exceed two single-digit whole numbers and their related division facts.
MA.3.AR.2.AP.3
Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation, relating three whole numbers, with the product or quotient unknown (e.g., 2 × 5 = __, 10 ÷ 5 = __). Multiplication may not exceed two single-digit whole numbers and their related division facts.

Related Resources

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Formative Assessments

Using Multiplication to Solve Division Problems:

Students are asked to solve a division problem using a calculator but without using the division key.

Type: Formative Assessment

Multiplication and Division Equations:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 100 and asked to find the missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Missing Numbers In Multiplication Equations:

Students are given multiplication equations with products within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Missing Numbers In Division Equations:

Students are given division equations involving numbers within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Find the Unknown Number:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Changing Division Equations into Multiplication Equations:

Students consider a division fact that they are likely to know and are asked to turn it into a multiplication fact. If successful, they are asked to rewrite a basic division fact that they are not likely to know and which has a symbol for the unknown number.

Type: Formative Assessment

Multiplication as the Inverse of Division:

Students are given a word problem and asked to write an equation for the problem. Then the students are to select a multiplication equation that can also be used to solve the problem.

Type: Formative Assessment

Does It Work for Division?:

Students are asked if the Commutative Property holds for division.

Type: Formative Assessment

Alien Math:

Students are told of a visiting alien from a planet where division is not taught, and asked to rewrite four division problems as multiplication problems so the alien can do them. The students are also asked to explain why it might be easier to do the multiplication problems than the given division problem.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Cupid's Carnival Rides:

In this lesson, students will look at different carnival rides and will determine which ride will make the most profit by looking at factors such as number of tickets per ride, the cost per ticket, the length of the ride, the number of hours the ride is open and the cost to operate the ride. Students will need to use different operations in order to solve the tasks and will be required to do multi-steps.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Spin Beyblades:

Students will get to evaluate data and create a process for which bey blade would be the "best" for Mr. Brown's toy store. Data will include customer feedback, price, style and revolutions per minute. Students will apply understanding of division in problem-solving. They will write a letter explaining their procedure using grade-appropriate language conventions.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Arrays Show the Way to the Multiplication Chart:

This is an introductory lesson to explore the use of arrays to solve multiplication problems. Students build arrays and save the arrays in a class Multiplication Chart. They learn to use arrays to find products and factors, and by placing them in the Multiplication Chart, they learn how to read the chart. They learn how to write equations to represent situations that are modeled with arrays. An overall theme is the organization of the multiplication chart and how it includes arrays within.

Type: Lesson Plan

Giddy Up, Round Up: Relating Division to Multiplication:

In this lesson, students will learn to solve division problems by relating them to multiplication facts. Practice materials focus on the 6's and 8's multiplication facts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Three is NOT a Crowd!:

This lesson will provide students with practical application activities to help them understand how division is simply solving a problem with an unknown factor. This activity includes opportunities for students to use fact families when identifying unknown factors and a tic-tac-toe game to provide whole group practice as well as to be used at a center, or for independent reinforcement of the skills.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tasty Algebra: Using toasted O cereal to find the missing factor in a multiplication equation.:

In this lesson students will use Cheerios to solve multiplication equations relating 3 whole numbers from word problems that include missing factors ranging from one through ten. Students will also argue the validity of multiplication equations that include missing factors and products with corresponding word problems.

Type: Lesson Plan

Teaching Idea

A Square of Numbers (problem to solve using addition, subtraction, multiplication, division):

A problem for students to solve using students' understanding of the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The problem presents an opportunity for students to appreciate the value of approaching a solution in a systematic way using what they know about the structure of operations.

Type: Teaching Idea

Student Resources

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