Restate a subtraction problem as a missing addend problem using the relationship between addition and subtraction.

### Examples

*Example:*The equation 12-7=? can be restated as 7+?=12 to determine the difference is 5.

### Clarifications

*Clarification 1:*Addition and subtraction are limited to sums within 20 and related subtraction facts.

General Information

**Subject Area:**Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)

**Grade:**1

**Strand:**Algebraic Reasoning

**Date Adopted or Revised:**08/20

**Status:**State Board Approved

## Benchmark Instructional Guide

### Connecting Benchmarks/Horizontal Alignment

### Terms from the K-12 Glossary

- Equation
- Expression

### Vertical Alignment

Previous Benchmarks

Next Benchmarks

### Purpose and Instructional Strategies

The purpose of this benchmark is to get students thinking about the relationships between addition and subtraction. In Kindergarten, students explored equations and developed an understanding of the equal sign by explaining why addition and subtraction equations are true using objects and drawings.- Instruction may present equations in different forms such as
*a*+*b*=*c*or*c*=*a*+*b*. - Instruction may include students using a related addition fact or a part-part-whole mat to help them find the missing addend in a subtraction equation.

### Common Misconceptions or Errors

- Students may not recognize how an addition problem can help them solve a subtraction problem. Guided practice with related facts may be helpful for students who do not recognize this.
- Students may solve the equation and look for the solution in the answer choices rather than relying on reasoning.

### Strategies to Support Tiered Instruction

- Teacher provides opportunities to use number bonds to develop an understanding of fact families and inverse relationships.
- For example, students create a number bond for the number 9 using counters on a number bond work mat. Students then write the fact families for the number 9. Discussion should be focused on how the fact families are related and how knowing the addition facts can help the students solve a subtraction problem.

- Instruction provides opportunities to match a range of subtraction equations to their missing addend equation.
- For example, the teacher provides a variety of equations which may include: 11 – 4 = ____, 4 + ___ = 11, ___ + 4 = 11, ___ + 11 = 4, and 11 + ___ = 4. Students determine which missing addend equations will help them solve 11 – 4 = ____. The discussion should focus on reasoning about which missing addend equations will help them solve 11 – 4 = ____. The discussion should focus on reasoning about which equations will work and which will not.

- Instruction provides opportunities to solve problems that highlight the relationship between addition and subtraction using a linear ten frame.
- For example, students use two different colors to shade the addend on the ten frame. Students write the addition fact that is represented on the ten frame 5 + 3 = 8. They then subtract 3 from 8 by folding under the three “orange” blocks. Students are left with the 5 “blue” blocks, so 8 − 3 = 5. They should practice with multiple addition facts. Discussion should be focused on the relationship between addition and subtraction.

- Teacher provides opportunities to work in reverse of the benchmark to solve missing addend equations and then write the subtraction equation that matches the missing addend equation.
- For example, students use two-color counters to build the knowns of the following equation on a given empty equation mat 5 + ____ = 9.

- Teacher asks “How many do you need to put in the empty space to equal the other side of the equation of you already have 5? Can we write a subtraction equation to help us solve this problem?”

### Instructional Tasks

*Instructional Task 1* (MTR.7.1)

### Instructional Items

*Instruction Item 1*

- a. 3+10=13
- b. 5+3=8
- c. 7+3=10
- d. 11+3=14

*Instructional Item 2 *

**The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.*

## Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.

5012030: Mathematics - Grade One (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

7712020: Access Mathematics Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

5012005: Foundational Skills in Mathematics K-2 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

## Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

MA.1.AR.2.AP.1: Use the relationship between addition and subtraction to explore subtraction as addition with a missing addend.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Formative Assessments

## Lesson Plans

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

## MFAS Formative Assessments

Use Addition to Solve Subtraction:

Students are given a subtraction problem and asked to solve the problem using a related addition fact.

Using Addition to Solve Subtraction Problems:

Students use the relationship between addition and one subtraction to solve a subtraction equation.

Using Inverse Operations:

Students identify an addition equation that can be used to solve a subtraction problem.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.