MAFS.3.OA.3.7

Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

Clarifications

Fluency Expectations or Examples of Culminating Standards

Students fluently multiply and divide within 100. By the end of grade 3, they know all products of two one-digit numbers from memory. Multiplication and division are new in grade 3, and meeting the multiplication and division fluency standard 3.OA.3.7 with understanding is a major portion of students’ work in grade 3.

Examples of Opportunities for In-Depth Focus

Finding single-digit products and related quotients is a required fluency for grade 3. Reaching fluency will take much of the year for many students. These skills and the understandings that support them are crucial; students will rely on them for years to come as they learn to multiply and divide with multidigit whole numbers and to add, subtract, multiply, and divide with fractions. After multiplication and division situations have been established, reasoning about patterns in products (e.g., products involving factors of 5 or 9) can help students remember particular products and quotients. Practice — and if necessary, extra support — should continue all year for those who need it to attain fluency.
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics
Grade: 3
Domain-Subdomain: Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster: Level 1: Recall
Cluster: Multiply and divide within 100. (Major Cluster) -

Clusters should not be sorted from Major to Supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting clusters.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/14
Content Complexity Rating: Level 1: Recall - More Information
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications

  • Assessment Limits :
    All values in items may not exceed whole number multiplication facts of 10 x 10 or the related division facts.
  • Calculator :

    No

  • Context :

    No context

Sample Test Items (2)

  • Test Item #: Sample Item 2
  • Question:

    A. What number multiplied by 7 equals 42?

     

     

    B. The number 42 divided by what number equals 7?

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: EE: Equation Editor

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5012050: Grade Three Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7712040: Access Mathematics Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
5012055: Grade 3 Accelerated Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5012015: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MAFS.3.OA.3.AP.7a: Fluently multiply and divide within 20.
MAFS.3.OA.3.AP.7b: Fluently multiply 2, 5 or 10 within 100.
MAFS.3.OA.3.AP.7c: Fluently divide by 2, 5, or 10 using dividends within 100 that are multiples of 2, 5, or 10.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Assessments

Sample 4 - Third Grade Math State Interim Assessment:

This is a State Interim Assessment for third grade.

Type: Assessment

Sample 2 - Third Grade Math State Interim Assessment:

This is a State Interim Assessment for third grade.

Type: Assessment

Educational Games

Arithmetic Workout:

This tutorial will help you to brush up on your multiplication, division and factoring skills with this exciting game. 

Type: Educational Game

Sundae Times: A Whole Number Multiplication Game:


You are trying to build the tallest ice cream cone by multiplying 2 whole numbers! Be careful! You are competing against to other kids! Go as fast as you can, but use the special powers to help you get ahead!

Type: Educational Game

Multiplication Tables - Matching Cards:

This interactive Flash version of the familiar Concentration game ("pelmanism" in the UK) helps a single user practice fluency and memory of multiplication facts. The player can choose an array of 16, 20, or 24 cards, which appear face down. The goal is to flip two cards at a time to match all the pairs of factors with their products as efficiently as possible. A scoring feature discourages random guessing. Users can select to work with factors in three ranges. By selecting 2x-10x, the game addresses part of the standard: By the end of Grade 3, students will know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers. Printable versions of the game cards are available to download.

Type: Educational Game

Online Multiplication Practice Resource:

This is a basic 10 by 10 multiplication box presented in an easy to use, online setting. All the answers are given like a jumble of puzzle pieces. It has a timer and keeps score of correct answers. Incorrect answers simply do not "stick" to the grid.

Type: Educational Game

Alien Munchtime - Division Game:

This is an online game where students review division facts while feeding hungry aliens. The user can set the amount of fact families they want to play with from 2 - 12.

Type: Educational Game

Arithmetic Workout:

This interactive Flash applet offers three ways for students to practice basic fact skills related to multiplication and division. Users control the challenge level by choosing the size of the blank multiplication grid displayed by the applet. In Multiply mode users type in the product that completes a multiplication sentence. In Factor mode users click a grid cell that matches a given product. In Divide mode users type in a missing factor in the displayed multiplication sentence. A sound effect and timing feature are optional.

Type: Educational Game

Number Facts Bingo:

This Flash applet generates number fact questions for the game of Bingo. Each of the six levels focuses on a different range of number facts (addition, subtraction, and multiplication), which are displayed one at a time in a variety of question formats. The applet is intended for use in a class/group setting with a projector or interactive whiteboard. Downloadable cards for each level are available from the menu page. At any time in a game the "number facts so far" feature will reveal all the questions presented in the current round to facilitate review or verification of a winning board.

Type: Educational Game

Product Game (Factors and Multiples):

This interactive game for two players develops students' fluency with multiplication facts, their understanding of the relationship between factors and products, and their strategic thinking. On a board displaying all the factors of the numbers 1-9, players take turns moving markers on the factor list and claiming their products. The first player to get four in a row wins the game.

Type: Educational Game

Educational Software / Tool

Arithmetic Quiz:

In this activity, students solve arithmetic problems involving whole numbers, integers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This activity allows students to track their progress in learning how to perform arithmetic on whole numbers and integers. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

Formative Assessments

Fluency with Multiplication:

Students are assessed for fluency with multiplication.

Type: Formative Assessment

Fluency with Division:

Students are assessed for fluency with division.

Type: Formative Assessment

Using Flexible Strategies:

Students are asked to describe two different ways to find the product of two numbers.

Type: Formative Assessment

Fluency with Basic Multiplication Facts:

Students are assessed on their fluency with multiplication facts for the products of two one-digit numbers.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Skip Counting to Multiplying (2's, 3's, 5's and 10's):

Students will build a conceptual understanding of multiplication by creating a hundreds chart, using different colors to assist them with skip counting by 2, 3, 5 and 10. Students will discuss, "How many groups of (2,3,5 and/or 10)?" are in each number.

Type: Lesson Plan

Making Sense of Multiplication to Build Fluency of 6's, 7's, 8's, and 9's:

This lesson will help students multiply numbers with factors of 6, 7, 8, or 9 through decomposing numbers in an array and applying the distributive property. Many times, these factors are difficult for students to recall from memory. Teaching students how to use an array can give them a visual representation of the final product. This visual can also help students to make the connection that multiplying whole numbers is a sum of equal groups. Decomposing the numbers and using the distributive property is a strategy for students to use who are having trouble solving these higher factor multiplication facts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Party Planning: Using Multiplication:

As the end of the year approaches, and your students have already learned several multiplication strategies, this party planning activity can help put all of that hard work into action. Students will be asked to use a menu and catalog to purchase food, decorations and goody bag items for an upcoming party. (I use this right before our end of the year 3rd Grade Luau Party, and have students purchase items that correlate with that theme. However, it can be used to plan an ideal birthday party, 4th of July Celebration, family reunion, etc.) After working together as a whole group, children will work with a partner and, ultimately independently, to solve one and two-digit multiplication and addition problems. Your students will get a chance to be creative and apply multiplication strategies to real world scenarios.

Type: Lesson Plan

Rift Raft Floating:

In this pool of floating rafts, students will divide to find the cost of each flotation device. They must then determine which raft is the best for public use based on cost, warranty, and assembly. Students will submit a letter to the client explaining their procedure for ranking the flotation devices.

Type: Lesson Plan

Spin Beyblades:

Students will get to evaluate data and create a process for which bey blade would be the "best" for Mr. Brown's toy store. Data will include customer feedback, price, style and revolutions per minute. Students will apply understanding of division in problem-solving. They will write a letter explaining their procedure using grade-appropriate language conventions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Amazing Arrays:

This is a hands-on lesson for introducing and practicing building arrays to create models that represent the distributive property of multiplication, and then using those arrays to draw models of the equations they represent.

Type: Lesson Plan

Introduction to Multiplication using Literature :

This lesson plan can be used to introduce the concept of multiplication to students through the use of literature. The story Amanda Bean's Amazing Dream is used to demonstrate the different ways to count items and how multiplication can make that process much faster.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson Study Resource Kit

Operations and Algebraic Thinking Lesson Study Resource Kit – Third Grade:

This lesson study resource kit can be used to guide and support teams of third grade teachers as they engage in lesson study focused on the Florida Standards in the Operations and Algebraic Thinking domain.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Original Student Tutorials

Birthday at Home: Multiplication & Division Fluency Part 2:

Help Jaliah continue to plan her birthday party and be fluent in her math facts using helpful facts she already knows, and the relationship between multiplication and division in Part 2 of this interactive tutorial.  

This is part 2 of 2-part series, click  to view part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Birthday at Home: Multiplication & Division Fluency Part 1:

Jaliah is ready to celebrate her birthday and use strategies of doubling and halving and relating multiplication and division for building fluency with multiplication and division facts in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of 2-part series, click  to view part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Fly Me to the Moon: Multiplication & Division:

Explore how multiplication can help you solve division problems during this moon-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Student Center Activity

Edcite: Mathematics Grade 3:

Students can practice answering mathematics questions on a variety of topics. With an account, students can save their work and send it to their teacher when complete.

Type: Student Center Activity

Teaching Ideas

Fact of the Day:

This article proposes a structured set of lively, brief, daily exercises designed to help children master number facts and mental math skills. Each day's practice focuses on a small, highly focused, manageable, and strategically selected set of facts or skills that builds directly on the previous days' learning. Related resources (Practice and videos) are cataloged separately.

Type: Teaching Idea

Shamu Math-SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

In this activity, the students demonstrate that numbers can be used to describe various quantities and relationships between quantities. Students gain experience adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing - building their understanding of how numbers are put together and taken apart. Students connect what they know to symbolic representation using number sentences.

Type: Teaching Idea

Tutorial

Multiplying 2- and 3-Digit Numbers:

This tutorial for student audiences will assist learners in furthering their understanding of multiplying with the use of a times table. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer turning orange and a wrong answer dissolving. On the 5th section of the tutorial students are provided with additional practice problems that self-check as well.

Type: Tutorial

Unit/Lesson Sequences

All About Multiplication:

This four-lesson unit from NCTM's Illuminations has students explore several meaning and representations of multiplication (number line, equal sets, arrays, and balanced equations). Other multiplication topics covered include: the commutative (order) property, the results of multiplying by 1 and 0, and the inverse property. Students will write and solve multiplication story problems, and convert word problems into equations. A bibliography of children's literature with a focus on multiplication is provided, which can be integrated so that students can connect through literature.

Individual Lessons

    • Students are shown how to generate products on a number line, highlighting the measurement aspect of addition. After some practice, they are asked to predict and then verify sums, and are also introduced to the commutative property.
  • Lesson 2: Exploring Equal Sets
    • Students explore the set model for multiplication. They find products using equal sets and present their results in a table. Next students apply their knowledge about multiplication in the creation of pictographs.
  • Lesson 3: Modeling Multiplication With Streets and Avenues
    • The array model of multiplication lays the foundation for the later study of area, and in this lesson, students will create arrays of the factors of 4 and 6 using toothpicks as representations of streets and avenues. The teacher will ask how many stoplights would be needed to fill each intersection. Zero and one will also be used as factors. Finally they will write their results as multiplication problems.
  • Lesson 4: Balance Beam Discoveries
    • The balance beam model of multiplication is examined in this lesson, along with another important relationship, the inverse of multiplication. This will lead naturally into the representation of multiplication facts as equations. Students will also practice multiplication facts by playing the Product Game.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Computation Through Literature :

This collection of 10 lessons uses children's literature to engage students in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The lesson arrangement is flexible and adaptable for any scope and sequence.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Virtual Manipulatives

The Multiplication Game:

This fun game lets the learners use their multiplication skills to beat the computer. Both the learner and the computer take turns moving one marker at a time. Whoever get 4 in a row first will win the game.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Quick Math:

This interesting game requires the learners to think fast and click on the correct symbol to complete the equation as quickly as possible.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Math Match - Concepts Review Game:

This interactive game allows students to review math concepts, including shapes, shape names, addition, multiplication, negative numbers, and equivalent expressions.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Four in a Row - Multiplication Game:

In this interactive game, players use multiplication facts to cover four squares in a row. Players must change one number from the previous player's turn to create a new fact. The products from each turn of play are covered on the game board.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Arithmetic:

The students will be given mutiplication and division problems which they must answer. They also have the option of being given a number then stating the factors of how that number was attained using either multiplication or division.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Rift Raft Floating:

In this pool of floating rafts, students will divide to find the cost of each flotation device. They must then determine which raft is the best for public use based on cost, warranty, and assembly. Students will submit a letter to the client explaining their procedure for ranking the flotation devices.

Spin Beyblades:

Students will get to evaluate data and create a process for which bey blade would be the "best" for Mr. Brown's toy store. Data will include customer feedback, price, style and revolutions per minute. Students will apply understanding of division in problem-solving. They will write a letter explaining their procedure using grade-appropriate language conventions.

MFAS Formative Assessments

Fluency with Basic Multiplication Facts:

Students are assessed on their fluency with multiplication facts for the products of two one-digit numbers.

Fluency with Division:

Students are assessed for fluency with division.

Fluency with Multiplication:

Students are assessed for fluency with multiplication.

Using Flexible Strategies:

Students are asked to describe two different ways to find the product of two numbers.

Original Student Tutorials Mathematics - Grades K-5

Birthday at Home: Multiplication & Division Fluency Part 1:

Jaliah is ready to celebrate her birthday and use strategies of doubling and halving and relating multiplication and division for building fluency with multiplication and division facts in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of 2-part series, click  to view part 2.

Birthday at Home: Multiplication & Division Fluency Part 2:

Help Jaliah continue to plan her birthday party and be fluent in her math facts using helpful facts she already knows, and the relationship between multiplication and division in Part 2 of this interactive tutorial.  

This is part 2 of 2-part series, click  to view part 1.

Fly Me to the Moon: Multiplication & Division:

Explore how multiplication can help you solve division problems during this moon-themed, interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Birthday at Home: Multiplication & Division Fluency Part 2:

Help Jaliah continue to plan her birthday party and be fluent in her math facts using helpful facts she already knows, and the relationship between multiplication and division in Part 2 of this interactive tutorial.  

This is part 2 of 2-part series, click  to view part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Birthday at Home: Multiplication & Division Fluency Part 1:

Jaliah is ready to celebrate her birthday and use strategies of doubling and halving and relating multiplication and division for building fluency with multiplication and division facts in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of 2-part series, click  to view part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Fly Me to the Moon: Multiplication & Division:

Explore how multiplication can help you solve division problems during this moon-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Educational Games

Arithmetic Workout:

This tutorial will help you to brush up on your multiplication, division and factoring skills with this exciting game. 

Type: Educational Game

Sundae Times: A Whole Number Multiplication Game:


You are trying to build the tallest ice cream cone by multiplying 2 whole numbers! Be careful! You are competing against to other kids! Go as fast as you can, but use the special powers to help you get ahead!

Type: Educational Game

Multiplication Tables - Matching Cards:

This interactive Flash version of the familiar Concentration game ("pelmanism" in the UK) helps a single user practice fluency and memory of multiplication facts. The player can choose an array of 16, 20, or 24 cards, which appear face down. The goal is to flip two cards at a time to match all the pairs of factors with their products as efficiently as possible. A scoring feature discourages random guessing. Users can select to work with factors in three ranges. By selecting 2x-10x, the game addresses part of the standard: By the end of Grade 3, students will know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers. Printable versions of the game cards are available to download.

Type: Educational Game

Online Multiplication Practice Resource:

This is a basic 10 by 10 multiplication box presented in an easy to use, online setting. All the answers are given like a jumble of puzzle pieces. It has a timer and keeps score of correct answers. Incorrect answers simply do not "stick" to the grid.

Type: Educational Game

Product Game (Factors and Multiples):

This interactive game for two players develops students' fluency with multiplication facts, their understanding of the relationship between factors and products, and their strategic thinking. On a board displaying all the factors of the numbers 1-9, players take turns moving markers on the factor list and claiming their products. The first player to get four in a row wins the game.

Type: Educational Game

Educational Software / Tool

Arithmetic Quiz:

In this activity, students solve arithmetic problems involving whole numbers, integers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This activity allows students to track their progress in learning how to perform arithmetic on whole numbers and integers. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

Student Center Activity

Edcite: Mathematics Grade 3:

Students can practice answering mathematics questions on a variety of topics. With an account, students can save their work and send it to their teacher when complete.

Type: Student Center Activity

Tutorial

Multiplying 2- and 3-Digit Numbers:

This tutorial for student audiences will assist learners in furthering their understanding of multiplying with the use of a times table. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer turning orange and a wrong answer dissolving. On the 5th section of the tutorial students are provided with additional practice problems that self-check as well.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulative

Arithmetic:

The students will be given mutiplication and division problems which they must answer. They also have the option of being given a number then stating the factors of how that number was attained using either multiplication or division.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Educational Game

Alien Munchtime - Division Game:

This is an online game where students review division facts while feeding hungry aliens. The user can set the amount of fact families they want to play with from 2 - 12.

Type: Educational Game

Tutorial

Multiplying 2- and 3-Digit Numbers:

This tutorial for student audiences will assist learners in furthering their understanding of multiplying with the use of a times table. Students will be able to navigate the teaching portion of the tutorial at their own pace and test their understanding after each step of the lesson with a "Try This" section. The "Try This" section will monitor students answers and self-check by a right answer turning orange and a wrong answer dissolving. On the 5th section of the tutorial students are provided with additional practice problems that self-check as well.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulatives

The Multiplication Game:

This fun game lets the learners use their multiplication skills to beat the computer. Both the learner and the computer take turns moving one marker at a time. Whoever get 4 in a row first will win the game.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Quick Math:

This interesting game requires the learners to think fast and click on the correct symbol to complete the equation as quickly as possible.

Type: Virtual Manipulative