A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.
B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.
C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.
D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.
Annually assessed on Biology EOC. Also assesses SC.912.L.16.8; SC.912.L.16.14; SC.912.L.16.16.
TEST ITEM SPECIFICATIONS
- Clarification :
Students will differentiate the processes of mitosis and meiosis.
Students will describe the role of mitosis in asexual reproduction, and/or the role of meiosis in sexual reproduction, including how these processes may contribute to or limit genetic variation.
Students will describe specific events occurring in each of the stages of the cell cycle and/or phases of mitosis.
Students will explain how mitosis forms new cells and its role in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
Students will explain how cancer (uncontrolled cell growth) may result from mutations that affect the proteins that regulate the cell cycle.
Students will describe the process of meiosis, including independent assortment and crossing over.
Students will explain how meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes or spores.
- Content Limits :
Items will focus on the relationship between mutations and uncontrolled cell growth, rather than a specific mutation that may result in uncontrolled cell growth.
Items may address the presence and location of centrioles but may not require knowledge of the function of centrioles.
Items referring to mutation will focus on the general concepts of uncontrolled cell growth and not require specific knowledge of cancers or diseases resulting from that growth.
Items will not assess the specific proteins associated with regulating the cell cycle.
Items addressing mitosis or meiosis are limited to identification of phases, structures, and major events of each phase.
- Stimulus Attributes :
- Response Attributes :
- Prior Knowledge :
Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.7.L.16.3.
SC.912.L.16.8 Explain the relationship between mutation, cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth potentially resulting in cancer.
SC.912.L.16.14 Describe the cell cycle, including the process of mitosis. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
SC.912.L.16.16 Describe the process of meiosis, including independent assortment and crossing over. Explain how reduction division results in the formation of haploid gametes or spores.