## Course Standards

## General Course Information and Notes

### General Information

**Course Number:**2000440

**Course Path:**

**Abbreviated Title:**GENETICS HON

**Course Length:**Year (Y)

**Course Attributes:**

- Honors

**Course Type:**Core Academic Course

**Course Level:**3

**Course Status:**Course Approved

**Grade Level(s):**9,10,11,12

## Educator Certifications

## Student Resources

## Original Student Tutorials

Learn about different formats of quadratic equations and their graphs with experiments involving launching and shooting of balls in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 of a two-part series: Click **HERE** to open part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Join us as we watch ball games and explore how the height of a ball bounce over time is represented by quadratic functions, which provides opportunities to interpret key features of the function in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of a two-part series: Click **HERE** to open part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Follow Jake along as he relates box plots with other plots and identifies possible outliers in real-world data from surveys of moviegoers' ages in part 2 in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 of 2-part series, click HERE to view part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Follow Jake as he displays real-world data by creating box plots showing the 5 number summary and compares the spread of the data from surveys of the ages of moviegoers in part 1 of this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of 2-part series, click HERE to view part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about exponential decay as you calculate the value of used cars by examining equations, graphs, and tables in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to interpret key features of linear functions and translate between representations of linear functions through exploring jobs for teenagers in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about exponential growth in the context of interest earned as money is put in a savings account by examining equations, graphs, and tables in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about exponential functions and how they are different from linear functions by examining real world situations, their graphs and their tables in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Dive into genetic mutations and learn how they can alter the phenotypes of organisms.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Follow the life of a cell in the tightly controlled process called the cell cycle! In this interactive tutorial, you will learn how a single cell gives rise to two identical daughter cells during the cell cycle and mitosis.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the steps of mitosis and cell division in this interactive tutorial, and see how they result in the separation of a cell's genetic material and division of its contents into two identical daughter cells.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

See how non-native species can impact ecosystem biodiversity to create problems for native species in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore three conditions required for natural selection and see how these conditions lead to allele frequency shifts in a population.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address" and evaluate the effectiveness of his words by analyzing his use of reasoning and evidence.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine how genetic identification is aiding marine biologists studying organisms in deep ocean regions. This interactive tutorial also features a CPALMS Perspectives video.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of carbohydrates with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

- The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids
- The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins
- The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore consequences and challenges of reproductive strategies of sea anemones.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

See how data are interpreted to better understand the reproductive strategies taken by sea anemones with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore mechanisms of evolutionary change other than natural selection such as mutation, gene flow, and genetic drift in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine field sampling strategies used to gather data and avoid bias in ecology research. This interactive tutorial features the CPALMS Perspectives video *.*

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn strategies to help you solve genetics problems by applying your knowledge of inheritance patterns. You’ll encounter a few “mystery cases” that you’ll solve through your genetics analysis in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of lipids with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

- The Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates
- The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins
- The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about the first step of protein synthesis, transcription of DNA to RNA. In this interactive tutorial, you'll explore epigenetics as a mechanism to activate or inactivate gene expression.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to define, calculate, and interpret marginal frequencies, joint frequencies, and conditional frequencies in the context of the data with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

At any instant in your life, millions and millions of enzymes are hard at work in your body as well as all around you making your life easier!

By the end of this tutorial you should be able to describe how enzymes speed up most biochemical reactions as well as identify the various factors that affect enzyme activity like pH and temperature.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis in this interactive tutorial. You'll also relate them to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Describe the conditions required for natural selection and tell how it can result in changes in species over time. In this interactive tutorial, follow Charles Darwin through a life of exploration, observation, and experimentation to see how he developed his ideas.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of proteins with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 4 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

- The Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates
- The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids
- The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify and describe the leading scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how DNA is copied and explain how this process allows cells to have identical genetic information with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Follow as we discover key features of a quadratic equation written in vertex form in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to identify and describe the structural and functional features of nucleic acids, one of the 4 primary macromolecule groups in biological systems, with this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 3 in 5-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series:

- Macromolecules: Carbohydrates
- Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids
- Macromolecules: Lipids
- Macromolecules: Proteins

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to describe Meiosis, the process by which sex cells--the sperm and the egg--are created in living things. In this interactive tutorial, you will also discover how sexual reproduction results in genetically diverse offspring.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the relationship between mutations, the cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth which may result in cancer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to define what science is and what it is not. In this interactive tutorial, you will identify why certain ways of exploring the universe can and cannot be considered scientific practices.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to identify the four basic biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) by structure and function with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

- The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids
- The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins
- The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn the basics of inheritance in this interactive tutorial. You discover how to differentiate between polygenic and multiple alleles, predict genetic outcomes using a Punnett square, and analyze inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritances including codominant, incomplete dominance, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to distinguish between questions that can be answered by science and questions that science cannot answer. This interactive tutorial will help you distinguish between science and other ways of knowing, including art, religion, and philosophy.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to better understand the composition of DNA, the purpose of the information in DNA, why the DNA sequence is considered a universal code, and what might happen if mistakes appear in the code with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify and define types of biotechnology and consider the impacts of biotechnologies on the individual, society and the environment in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Games

The Control of the Cell Cycle educational game is based on the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for discoveries concerning the control of the cell cycle.

Type: Educational Game

The software application, which allows the students to simulate natural selection in a population of dots, goes along with a tutorial which is also at this site.

Type: Educational Game

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

This Excel spreadsheet allows the educator to input data into a two way frequency table and have the resulting relative frequency charts calculated automatically on the second sheet. This resource will assist the educator in checking student calculations on student-generated data quickly and easily.

Steps to add data: All data is input on the first spreadsheet; all tables are calculated on the second spreadsheet

- Modify column and row headings to match your data.
- Input joint frequency data.
- Click the second tab at the bottom of the window to see the automatic calculations.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Lesson Plan

Learning objectives: Students will learn what DNA fingerprinting is, what it is used for, and how it is used in paternity testing and forensics. Students will see how this technique actually works in lab. Students will learn how to analyze the gels used in this technique to match babies to parents, and crime scene evidence to suspects.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Perspectives Video: Experts

<p>Jump to it and learn more about how quadratic equations are used in robot navigation problem solving!</p>

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The tide is high! How can we statistically prove there is a relationship between the tides on the Gulf Coast and in a fresh water spring 20 miles from each other?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

A cell has made a protein; now what? Learn more about protein secretion!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Advances in "big data" are leading to rapid developments in personalized medicine. Learn more!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Check this out and learn about how prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate gene expression.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

How do you know what genes are thinking? By their expression. Learn more from a plant geneticist.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Pick up the pace and learn how snails fit into the Florida food web!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Mutations don't just happen to comic book heroes and villains. Learn more about this natural biological phenomenon!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Sometimes the cell cycle gets derailed a bit, which can lead to the development of tumors. Learn more about mutations!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Humans impact the environment in a number of ways. Learn more about how we interact with nature!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

This teaching activity rocks! Learn about aquatic ecosystems and hands-on learning!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

What lurks beneath the water's surface? Lots of creatures, big and small! Learn how mangroves grow in an unusual environment and support many other organisms both in and out of the water.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

What's in a molecular biologist's toolbox? Very small tools for working with cellular machines and molecules!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

This plant geneticist wants to propagate knowledge about different kinds of plant propagation.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Your understanding of agriscience will bloom and grow as this plant geneticist describes how they use mitosis and meiosis when developing new grape varieties.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

This video is a natural selection for learning about evolution.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Interested in how evolution happens? Drift into this video and go with the flow.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Lionfish and other species are roaring past our native populations. Learn more.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

<p>A plant geneticist describes observable inheritance patterns and genetic mutations in maize.</p>

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

A viticulture scientist explains grape expectations for medicine and society.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Why can't you put Ethanol fuel in a boat motor?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

<p>Get fired up as you learn more about ceramic glaze recipes and mathematical units.</p>

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is to allow students to demonstrate an ability to construct boxplots and to use boxplots as the basis for comparing distributions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to make deductions about the kind of music students enjoy by examining data in a two-way table.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to answer probability questions about SAT scores, using distribution and mean to solve the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem could be used as an introductory lesson to introduce group comparisons and to engage students in a question they may find amusing and interesting.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to examine the relationship between shops and crimes by using a correlation coefficient. The implications of linking correlation with causation are discussed.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to have students complete normal distribution calculations and to use properties of normal distributions to draw conclusions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to use the normal distribution as a model for a data distribution. Students must use given means and standard deviations to approximate population percentages.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task provides a context to calculate discrete probabilities and represent them on a bar graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to explain which measurements are needed to estimate the thickness of a soda can. Multiple solution processes are presented.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to find the surface area of a soda can, calculate how many cubic centimeters of aluminum it contains, and estimate how thick it is.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a mathematical modeling task aimed at making a reasonable estimate for something which is too large to count accurately, the number of leaves on a tree.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a mathematical modeling task aimed at making a reasonable estimate for something which is too large to count accurately, the number of leaves on a tree.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to apply the concepts of mass, volume, and density in the real-world context to find how many cells are in the human body.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task gives an interesting context for implementing ideas from geometry and trigonometry.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task uses the tale of Archimedes and the King of Syracuse's crown to determine the volume and mass of gold and silver.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is meant to be a straight-forward assessment task of graph reading and interpreting skills. This task helps reinforce the idea that when a variable represents time, t = 0 is chosen as an arbitrary point in time and positive times are interpreted as times that happen after that.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to find the average, write an equation, find the domain, and create a graph of the cost of producing DVDs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The principal purpose of the task is to explore a real-world application problem with algebra, working with units and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout. Students are asked to determine which product will be the most economical to meet the requirements given in the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task students are given graphs of quantities related to weather. The purpose of the task is to show that graphs are more than a collection of coordinate points; they can tell a story about the variables that are involved, and together they can paint a very complete picture of a situation, in this case the weather. Features in one graph, like maximum and minimum points, correspond to features in another graph. For example, on a rainy day, the solar radiation is very low, and the cumulative rainfall graph is increasing with a large slope.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem introduces a logistic growth model in the concrete settings of estimating the population of the U.S. The model gives a surprisingly accurate estimate and this should be contrasted with linear and exponential models.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is for instructional purposes only and students should already be familiar with some specific examples of logistic growth functions. The goal of this task is to have students appreciate how different constants influence the shape of a graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task can be used as a quick assessment to see if students can make sense of a graph in the context of a real world situation. Students also have to pay attention to the scale on the vertical axis to find the correct match. The first and third graphs look very similar at first glance, but the function values are very different since the scales on the vertical axes are very different. The task could also be used to generate a group discussion on interpreting functions given by graphs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to illustrate through an absurd example the fact that in real life quantities are reported to a certain level of accuracy, and it does not make sense to treat them as having greater accuracy.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task operates at two levels. In part it is a simple exploration of the relationship between speed, distance, and time. Part (c) requires understanding of the idea of average speed, and gives an opportunity to address the common confusion between average speed and the average of the speeds for the two segments of the trip.

At a higher level, the task addresses MAFS.912.N-Q.1.3, since realistically neither the car nor the bus is going to travel at exactly the same speed from beginning to end of each segment; there is time traveling through traffic in cities, and even on the autobahn the speed is not constant. Thus students must make judgments about the level of accuracy with which to report the result.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The problem requires students to not only convert miles to kilometers and gallons to liters but they also have to deal with the added complication of finding the reciprocal at some point.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to calculate the cost of materials to make a penny, utilizing rates of grams of copper.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students are asked to use units to determine if the given statement is valid.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a challenging task, suitable for extended work, and reaching into a deep understanding of units. Students are given a scenario and asked to determine the number of people required to complete the amount of work in the time described. The task requires students to exhibit , Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. An algebraic solution is possible but complicated; a numerical solution is both simpler and more sophisticated, requiring skilled use of units and quantitative reasoning. Thus the task aligns with either MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 or MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1, depending on the approach.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students explore and manipulate expressions based on the following statement:

A function f defined for -a < x="">< a="" is="" even="" if="" f(-x)="f(x)" and="" is="" odd="" if="" f(-x)="-f(x)" when="" -a="">< x="">< a.="" in="" this="" task="" we="" assume="" f="" is="" defined="" on="" such="" an="" interval,="" which="" might="" be="" the="" full="" real="" line="" (i.e.,="" a="">

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)^{2}+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This resource poses the question, "how many vehicles might be involved in a traffic jam 12 miles long?"

This task, while involving relatively simple arithmetic, promps students to practice modeling (MP4), work with units and conversion (N-Q.1), and develop a new unit (N-Q.2). Students will also consider the appropriate level of accuracy to use in their conclusions (N-Q.3).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task is a modeling problem which ties in to financial decisions faced routinely by businesses, namely the balance between maintaining inventory and raising short-term capital for investment or re-investment in developing the business.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides students the opportunity to make use of units to find the gas needed (). It also requires them to make some sensible approximations (e.g., 2.92 gallons is not a good answer to part (a)) and to recognize that Felicia's situation requires her to round up. Various answers to (a) are possible, depending on how much students think is a safe amount for Felicia to have left in the tank when she arrives at the gas station. The key point is for them to explain their choices. This task provides an opportunity for students to practice MAFS.K12.MP.2.1: Reason abstractly and quantitatively, and MAFS.K12.MP.3.1: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem involves the meaning of numbers found on labels. When the level of accuracy is not given we need to make assumptions based on how the information is reported. An unexpected surprise awaits in this case, however, as no reasonable interpretation of the level of accuracy makes sense of the information reported on the bottles in parts (b) and (c). Either a miscalculation has been made or the numbers have been rounded in a very odd way.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Student Center Activity

In this problem set, multiple choice problems are displayed one at a time. If students answer correctly, they are shown a short explanation. If their answer is incorrect, a tutorial will follow, and the students will be given another chance to answer.

Type: Student Center Activity

## Text Resource

This website is a good resource for reviewing the basics of the study of genetics. It conveniently lists and describes common genetic disorders, and describes procedure for setting up a medical family tree.

Type: Text Resource

## Tutorials

You will learn how the parent function for a quadratic function is affected when f(x) = x^{2}.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the students to identify the vertex of a parabola from the equation, and then graph the parabola.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial helps the learners to graph the equation of a quadratic function using the coordinates of the vertex of a parabola and its x- intercepts.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to learn about exponential functions by graphing various equations representing exponential growth and decay.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video explains and demonstrates how to use Punnett Squares for monohybrid crosses and dihybrid crosses. The video also shows how to use Punnett Squares for inheritance patterns such as codominance, incomplete dominance, and multiple alleles.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video reviews the basic processes of DNA replication and protein synthesis. It then goes on to explain how the terms chromosome, chromatin, and chromatid, relate to each other.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video discusses the conditions required for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and explains how to solve Hardy-Weinberg problems.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video describes what happens to a zygote as it becomes an embyro. It further explains what a stem cell is and discusses why there are questions concerning the use of stem cells.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video explains how variation can be introduced into a species and the importance of sexual reproduction in this process.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video briefly describes DNA replication and then goes into a thorough explanation of both transcription and translation.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video describes the structure of the molecule DNA in great detail. It also discuses the role DNA plays in the process of protein synthesis, explaining transcription and translation. The video discusses the relationship between DNA and chromosomes as well.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy tutorial explains how the owl butterfly might have evolved the spots on its wings through natural selection.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy tutorial addresses the differences between the X and Y chromosomes in humans. The SRY gene found on the Y chromosome is discussed and the genes that cause color-blindness and hemophilia on the X chromosome are discussed.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand the differences and similarities between meiosis and mitosis.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand the three unique features of meiosis and how meiosis is related to genetic inheritance.

Type: Tutorial

DNA sequencing is a technique for determining the complete sequence of bases (As, Ts, Gs, and Cs) for a particular piece of DNA. Sequencing is relatively time consuming, as the process must be done to fairly short lengths of DNA at a time. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of DNA sequencing.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video discusses the basics of cancer. The relationship between mutation, the cell cycle and uncontolled cell growth is explained.

Type: Tutorial

Gene transcription is controlled by multiple factors. Some proteins bind to DNA sequences and start the process of gene transcription. RNA synthesis can only occur when these activators are bound to specific DNA sequences. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of gene transcription.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand the role that vitamins play in human nutrition. Vitamins interact with enzymes to allow them to function more effectively. Though vitamins are not consumed in metabolism, they are vital for the process of metabolism to occur.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

You will see how the genetic code, using the DNA alphabet A,T,C, and G, produces codons to specify the 20 known amino acids. Each codon consists of a three letter code producing 64 possible words which specify the amino acids and stop signals.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand how Mendel, the father of genetics, planned and crossed the pure-bred pea plant to understand the process of genetics. With the help of the animation, you should be able to understand how the alleles are transferred from one generation to another.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand that genes play an important role in determining physical traits. These traits helps us to identify the homozygous or heterozygous variety of genes. When the pair of genes are homozygous, they are known as pure bred, i.e they have two copies of the same gene for each trait. For heterozygous variety, they have different gene for each trait. Out of this pair, one will be dominant and other will be recessive.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand the procedure of amplifying a single copy of DNA into millions of copies. Polymerase chain reaction is a molecular prototyping technique which helps in copying small segments of DNA into significant amounts required for molecular and genetic analyses.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial introduces the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a technique used in molecular biology to make multiple copies of a gene even when only small amounts of DNA are available.

Type: Tutorial

Your body is made of cells -- but how does a single cell know to become part of your nose, instead of your toes? The answer is in your body's instruction book: DNA. Joe Hanson compares DNA to a detailed manual for building a person out of cells -- with 46 chapters (chromosomes) and hundreds of thousands of pages covering every part of you.

Type: Tutorial

This TED-ED original lesson explains the three common routes of metastasis. Cancer usually begins with one tumor in a specific area of the body. But if the tumor is not removed, cancer has the ability to spread to nearby organs as well as places far away from the origin, like the brain. How does cancer move to these new areas and why are some organs more likely to get infected than others? Ivan Seah Yu Jun explains the three common routes of metastasis.

Type: Tutorial

This short video describes the process of antibiotic resistance. Right now, you are inhabited by trillions of micro organisms. Many of these bacteria are harmless (or even helpful!), but there are a few strains of ‘super bacteria' that are pretty nasty -- and they're growing resistant to our antibiotics. Why is this happening? Kevin Wu details the evolution of this problem that presents a big challenge for the future of medicine.

Type: Tutorial

In the past decade, the US honeybee population has been decreasing at an alarming and unprecedented rate. While this is obviously bad news for honeypots everywhere, bees also help feed us in a bigger way -- by pollinating our nation's crops. Emma Bryce investigates potential causes for this widespread colony collapse disorder.

Type: Tutorial

Chemical reactions are constantly happening in your body -- even at this very moment. But what catalyzes these important reactions? This short video explains how enzymes assist the process, while providing a light-hearted way to remember how activation energy works.

Type: Tutorial

How do cancer cells grow? How does chemotherapy fight cancer (and cause negative side effects)? The answers lie in cell division. George Zaidan explains how rapid cell division is cancer's "strength" -- and also its weakness.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners with their understanding of chemical structure of DNA.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners to understand structure of DNA and how this structure allows for accurate replication.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help learners understand the process of DNA replication, including the enzymes involved. Learners will be able to recognize that an exact copy of DNA must be created prior to cell division.

Type: Tutorial

This resource explores the electromagnetic spectrum and waves by allowing the learner to observe the refraction of light as it passes from one medium to another, study the relation between refraction of light and the refractive index of the medium, select from a list of materials with different refractive indicecs, and change the light beam from white to monochromatic and observe the difference.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe how the eye's muscles change the shape of the lens in accordance with the distance to the object being viewed
- Indicate the parts of the eye that are responsible for vision
- View how images are formed in the eye

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a concave spherical mirror generates an image
- Observe how the size and position of the image changes with the object distance from the mirror
- Learn the difference between a real image and a virtual image
- Learn some applications of concave mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a convex mirror forms the image of an object
- Understand why convex mirrors form small virtual images
- Observe the change in size and position of the image with the change in object's distance from the mirror
- Learn some practical applications of convex mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Observe the change of color of a black body radiator upon changes in temperature
- Understand that at 0 Kelvin or Absolute Zero there is no molecular motion

Type: Tutorial

This resource explains how a solar cell converts light energy into electrical energy. The user will also learn about the different components of the solar cell and observe the relationship between photon intensity and the amount of electrical energy produced.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe that light is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic waves
- Explore the propagation of an electromagnetic wave through its electric and magnetic field vectors
- Observe the difference in propagation of light of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Explore the relationship between wavelength, frequency, amplitude and energy of an electromagnetic wave
- Compare the characteristics of waves of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Learn to trace the path of propagating light waves using geometrical optics
- Observe the effect of changing parameters such as focal length, object dimensions and position on image properties
- Learn the equations used in determining the size and locations of images formed by thin lenses

Type: Tutorial

This online tutorial is designed to help students understand the events that occur in process of meiosis.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

With an often unexpected outcome from a simple experiment, students can discover the factors that cause and influence thermohaline circulation in our oceans. In two 45-minute class periods, students complete activities where they observe the melting of ice cubes in saltwater and freshwater, using basic materials: clear plastic cups, ice cubes, water, salt, food coloring, and thermometers. There are no prerequisites for this lesson but it is helpful if students are familiar with the concepts of density and buoyancy as well as the salinity of seawater. It is also helpful if students understand that dissolving salt in water will lower the freezing point of water. There are additional follow up investigations that help students appreciate and understand the importance of the ocean's influence on Earth's climate.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video presentation will help you to understand how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This TED Ed video explains the mechanisms of evolutionary change: change in population size, sexual selection, mutation, gene flow, and natural selection.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Ocean explorer Robert Ballard gives a TED Talk relating to the mysteries of the ocean, and the importance of its continued exploration.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- An interactive exercise for using agarose gel electrophoresis for separating DNA molecules
- Explain how restriction endonucleases is used in restriction analysis of DNA

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Background on the discovery of the DNA double helix
- Contains an interactive activity for base pairing
- Contains an interactive activity for DNA extraction

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- This activity provides a historical background about research related to bacterial analysis
- Contains an animation that shows how enzymes work on cutting DNA strands

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Background on tracking human ancestry using the alu marker
- Animation on polymerase chain reaction, PCR
- Interactive activity for performing PCR

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video describes the Hardy-Weinberg Principle. It is fairly entertaining mostly due to the narration of the instructor.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video discusses how bacteria spread and the pros and cons of bacteria.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

An introduction to what cancer is and how it is the by-product of broken DNA replication.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video describes the chromosomal basis for gender and sex-linked traits.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

In this NSF video and reading selection evolutionary biologist and ecologist John Bishop documents the return of living things to Mount St. Helens after the largest landslide in recorded history. This is a rare opportunity for scientists to get to study a devastated area and how it comes back from scratch in such detail.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This site has fantastic short Flash animations of intricate cell processes, including photosynthesis and the electron transport chain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This simulation shows the spread of a favorable mutation through a population of pocket mice. Even a small selective advantage can lead to a rapid evolution of the population.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This is a lesson about phenotypical variation within populations and how these differences are essential for biological evolution. Students will use a model organism (in this case, kidney beans) to explore variation patterns and subsequently connect these differences to artificial & natural selection. The NGSS’ CrossCutting Concepts and Science & Engineering Practices are embedded throughout the lesson.

The main learning objectives are:

- Using a model (kidney beans) to explore the natural variations within a population.
- Measuring differences between individuals in a population (population of beans).
- Describing how genetic/phenotypic variation is a key part of biological evolution because it is a prerequisite for natural selection.
- Demonstrating in which ways genetic variation is advantageous to a population because it enables some individuals to adapt to the environment while maintaining the survival of the population.

The NGSS Performance Expectations covered are HS-LS4-2. & HS-LS4-4.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

This tutorial explores the work of Gregor Mendel and his foundational genetics experiments with pea plants. It provides practice opportunities to check your understanding of inheritance patterns including single gene recessive traits and sex linked traits. The tutorial also covers more complex patterns of inheritance such those resulting from multiple alleles. Note: This resource is part of a larger collection of information regarding Genetics. Users may view information before and after the specific genetics components highlighted here.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students adjust slider bars which adjust the coefficients and constants of a linear function and examine how their changes affect the graph. The equation of the line can be in slope-intercept form or standard form. This activity allows students to explore linear equations, slopes, and y-intercepts and their visual representation on a graph. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This resource provides linear functions in standard form and asks the user to graph it using intercepts on an interactive graph below the problem. Immediate feedback is provided, and for incorrect responses, each step of the solution is thoroughly modeled.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to explore what makes a reaction happen by colliding atoms and molecules. Design your own experiments with different reactions, concentrations, and temperatures. Recognize what affects the rate of a reaction.

Areas to Explore:

- Explain why and how a pinball shooter can be used to help understand ideas about reactions.
- Describe on a microscopic level what contributes to a successful reaction.
- Describe how the reaction coordinate can be used to predict whether a reaction will proceed or slow.
- Use the potential energy diagram to determine : The activation energy for the forward and reverse reactions; The difference in energy between reactants and products; The relative potential energies of the molecules at different positions on a reaction coordinate.
- Draw a potential energy diagram from the energies of reactants and products and activation energy.
- Predict how raising or lowering the temperature will affect a system in the equilibrium.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will allow you to make colorful concentrated and dilute solutions and explore how much light they absorb and transmit using a virtual spectrophotometer.

You can explore concepts in many ways including:

- Describe the relationships between volume and amount of solute to solution concentration.
- Explain qualitatively the relationship between solution color and concentration.
- Predict and explain how solution concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
- Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity (mol/L).
- Design a procedure for creating a solution of a given concentration.
- Identify when a solution is saturated and predict how concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
- Describe the relationship between the solution concentration and the intensity of light that is absorbed/transmitted.
- Describe the relationship between absorbance, molar absorptivity, path length, and concentration in Beer's Law.
- Predict how the intensity of light absorbed/transmitted will change with changes in solution type, solution concentration, container width, or light source and explain why?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The lac operon is a set of genes which are responsible for the metabolism of lactose in some bacterial cells. Students will explore the effects of mutation within the lac operon by adding or removing genes from the DNA.

- Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the various genes and DNA control elements are mutated (added or removed).
- Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the concentration of lactose is changed.
- Explain the roles of Lacl, LacZ, and LacY in lactose regulation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students use preset data or enter in their own data to be represented in a box plot. This activity allows students to explore single as well as side-by-side box plots of different data. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the Java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Using this virtual manipulative, students are able to graph a function and a set of ordered pairs on the same coordinate plane. The constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted using slider bars, so the student can explore the affect on the graph as the function parameters are changed. Students can also examine the deviation of the data from the function. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With this online tool, students adjust the standard deviation and sample size of a normal distribution to see how it will affect a histogram of that distribution. This activity allows students to explore the effect of changing the sample size in an experiment and the effect of changing the standard deviation of a normal distribution. Tabs at the top of the page provide access to supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this online tool, students input a function to create a graph where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is an online graphing utility that can be used to create box plots, bubble graphs, scatterplots, histograms, and stem-and-leaf plots.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Students will explore natural selection by controlling the environment and causing mutations in bunnies. This will demonstrate how natural selection works in nature. They will have the opportunity to throw in different variables to see what will make their species of rabbit survive.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With a mouse, students will drag data points (with their error bars) and watch the best-fit polynomial curve form instantly. Students can choose the type of fit: linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic. Best fit or adjustable fit can be displayed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This interactive simulation investigates graphing linear and quadratic equations. Users are given the ability to define and change the coefficients and constants in order to observe resulting changes in the graph(s).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this interactive Biotechniques virtual lab, you will isolate DNA from a human test subject and learn the uses for DNA obtained through extraction. The "Try It Yourself" section below the virtual lab gives instruction and background information about how to extract DNA from living tissue using basic materials available in grocery stores.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative histogram tool can aid in analyzing the distribution of a dataset. It has 6 preset datasets and a function to add your own data for analysis.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity allows the user to graph data sets in multiple bar graphs. The color, thickness, and scale of the graph are adjustable which may produce graphs that are misleading. Users may input their own data, or use or alter pre-made data sets. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students can create and view a histogram using existing data sets or original data entered. Students can adjust the interval size using a slider bar, and they can also adjust the other scales on the graph. This activity allows students to explore histograms as a way to represent data as well as the concepts of mean, standard deviation, and scale. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is a simplified, interactive demonstration of genetic principles. Using a fictional species named the Norn, students can predict the outcome of genetic crosses (mono and di-hybrid, sex-linked, and multiple-allele). This could be used to strengthen the students understanding of genetics, practice Punnet squares, or practice calculation of genotypic/phenotypic ratios. However, it is unlikely to be useful as an independent assignment (if used as designed).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Section:Grades PreK to 12 Education Courses >Grade Group:Grades 9 to 12 and Adult Education Courses >Subject:Science >SubSubject:Biological Sciences >