Cluster 2: Craft and Structure

General Information
Number: LAFS.1112.RL.2
Title: Craft and Structure
Type: Cluster
Subject: English Language Arts
Grade: 1112
Strand: Reading Standards for Literature

Related Standards

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

Access Points

LAFS.1112.RL.2.AP.4a
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text including figurative (i.e., metaphors, similes and idioms) and connotative meanings.
LAFS.1112.RL.2.AP.5a
Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning.
LAFS.1112.RL.2.AP.6a
Define satire, sarcasm and irony.
LAFS.1112.RL.2.AP.6b
Differentiate what is directly stated in a text from what is meant.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

Lesson Plans

Let Me Introduce You: Character Introductions in The Canterbury Tales:

In this lesson, students will analyze how Geoffrey Chaucer introduces some of his characters in the prologue to The Canterbury Tales. Students will analyze Chaucer's introduction and portrayal of the characters. They will examine the text for explicitly stated details, and draw inferences supported by appropriate evidence from the text. The lesson includes a graphic organizer and sample answer key. A number of writing prompts have been included throughout the lesson, and a writing rubric has been provided as well.

Type: Lesson Plan

Views on Death: A Look at Two Holy Sonnets by John Donne:

In this lesson, students will read and analyze two poems by John Donne: "Holy Sonnet X" and "Holy Sonnet VI." Text-dependent questions, an answer key, and teacher's help notes are included. As the summative assessment for the lesson, students will write a brief comparison/contrast essay to examine how Death is portrayed across both poems. A rubric for the essay is included, along with a writing organizer to help struggling writers draft a basic essay.

 

Type: Lesson Plan

A Need for Sleep: A Close Reading of a Soliloquy from King Henry IV, Part II:

In this lesson, students will consider the literary elements Shakespeare uses to communicate King Henry's inability to sleep. As they close read this passage multiple times, students will discover how diction, tone, syntax, and imagery help to convey King Henry's state of mind. Once they have grappled with the text in small groups and on their own, they will bring their discoveries and interpretations together in a final essay. A text marking handout and key, independent practice questions and key, a planning sheet, and a writing rubric have been included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Shakespearean Soliloquy Fluency: A Close Reading and Analysis of "To be or not to be":

In this lesson, students will perform multiple close readings of the well-known "To be or not to be" soliloquy from William Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet. The lesson is appropriate for 11th or 12th grade students who have some familiarity with reading Shakespeare but would benefit from fluency practice with the difficult text, as well as vocabulary building and argumentative writing about literature. The closure and extension activities provide suggestions for taking this study further using other Hamlet (or other Shakespearean) soliloquies.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Modernist Struggle: Allusions, Images, and Emotions in T. S. Eliot’s Prufrock:

Students will research modernism, analyze allusions and images in "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," diagnose the character's mental weakness using evidence from the poem, and write him an email about how to improve his state of mind from the perspective of a hypothetical online mental health professional.

Type: Lesson Plan

"Lonesome for a Change": Close Reading an excerpt from Their Eyes Were Watching God:

In this lesson, students close read chunks of this challenging excerpt from Their Eyes Were Watching God, which was included on the 1987 AP English Literature exam. As they read and mark the text, students will uncover Zora Neale Hurston's layers of meaning within beautiful figurative language and symbolism, all of which communicate Janie's realizations and maturity following Joe Starks's death. The close reading and provided questions lead students to develop interpretations of Janie's character as she reflects on her past and realizes she likes "being lonesome for a change."

Type: Lesson Plan

Universal Theme: The Cycle of Life:

Through an analysis of the myth of Daedalus and Icarus, Pieter Bruegel the Elder's painting "Landscape with the Fall of Icarus," and E. E. Cummings' poem "anyone lived in a pretty how town," students will come to realize the importance of the cycle of life and nature as it pertains to human existence. The three texts come from dramatically different genres, time periods, and settings capturing the essence of a universal theme.

Type: Lesson Plan

Propaganda Techniques in Literature and Online Political Ads:

After reading or viewing a text, students are introduced to propaganda techniques and then identify examples in the text. Students discuss these examples, and then explore the use of propaganda in popular culture by looking at examples in the media. Students identify examples of propaganda techniques used in clips of online political advertisements and explain how the techniques are used to persuade voters. Next, students explore the similarities of the propaganda techniques used in the literary text and in the online political ads to explain the commentary the text is making about contemporary society. Finally, students write a persuasive essay in support of a given statement.

In this lesson, some specific references are made to Brave New World as examples. A text list suggests additional novels, short stories, plays, and movies that will also work for this activity.

Type: Lesson Plan

Symmetry in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight:

This lesson plan explores symmetry in the structure and themes of "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," delving into the antagonist's representation of the "duality of nature." In examining knightly virtues, students will measure Gawain's strength as the poem's hero. The lesson explains background information that every medieval thinker listening to a performance of the poem would know, in an effort to put the student into the mind-set of the medieval audience, providing a deeper appreciation and understanding of the work.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Close Reading of Creation Myths - Part 2 of 3:

The goal of this lesson (Part 2 of a 3 lesson unit) is to provide secondary students with the opportunity to practice the close reading of two different creation myths. After looking closely at the texts, they will be able to cite specific textual evidence to compare and contrast these myths and their similarities to other creation stories, to infer what the authors hinted at in terms of creation, and to realize the impact of specific word choices on the general tone of a piece of literature.

Type: Lesson Plan

The American Puritan Tradition and Dilemma: Part II:

This lesson is part two of a three lesson unit that will explore and analyze how different authors express their views on American Puritanism and the juxtaposition of American individual freedoms and tolerance. The goal of this lesson is for students to analyze and interpret how Puritan ideas and beliefs of intolerance and strict moral values can play a part in violating the American principles of freedom and individuality. Furthermore, students will analyze how Arthur Miller uses the conventions of drama to create an atmosphere of intolerance and hysteria in his play "The Crucible," culminating with a tragic ending. This literary analysis will culminate with students creating an alternate scene ending to "The Crucible" to further explore and extend upon the social commentary of the play. All handouts, including graphic organizers, links to literary works, (text, audio, videos), links to sample play scenes, and rubrics are included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Literary Analysis through Close Reading of "The Yellow Wallpaper":

This learning module supports implementation of Florida Standards in the 11-12th grade classroom. It includes a learning module template for teachers, as well as a student handout that provides the literary text and the learning tasks. The purpose of this lesson is for students to read, understand, and analyze complex text through close reading and scaffolded learning tasks. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will conduct an inquiry-based research task that culminates in an analysis paper that asks students to use evidence from their research and the text to support an original claim.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Poetry Analysis Lesson 1: Speaker, Figurative Language, and Sound Devices:

The goal of this lesson is that students will be able to identify and analyze speaker's point-of-view, figurative language, and sound devices, and the way each functions and contributes to a poem's theme. Close reading skills applied to three different poems culminate in writing three independent analytical paragraphs. Two handouts are provided--one for students with graphic organizers and a rubric and the other an answer key. A readers' theater activity is included as part of the oral reading of the poems, multiple guiding questions including mark-up codes are also provided to allow for a thorough close reading of the three poems before writing.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Poetry Analysis Lesson 2: Speaker, Figurative Language, and Sound Devices:

The goal of this lesson is that students will be able to analyze and interpret the way an author's style (use of poetic devices) develops tone and theme in challenging grade-appropriate poetry. Close-reading skills culminate in an essay analyzing the way speaker's point of view, sound devices, and figurative language contribute a poem's theme. A student handout with charts, text-marking codes, guiding questions, links to the poems and video, an essay model, and an essay grading scale is provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

Dealing with Grief: A Comparison of Point of View and Tone:

This three to five-day lesson invites students to delve into a theme with which we are all familiar in some way: grief. Students use their knowledge of poetic devices, theme, and point of view to analyze Emily Dickinson's and Elizabeth Barrett Browning's viewpoints on the emotions, or the lack thereof, that one experiences during times of pain and loss. This lesson directs students to read the poems multiple times to develop their understandings as they read between the lines seeking the layers of meaning these authors present. This is followed by a written response in which students communicate their interpretations.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Reading into Words with Multiple Meanings:

Explore Robert Frost's poem "Mending Wall" and examine words, phrases, and lines with multiple meanings. In this interactive tutorial you'll analyze how these multiple meanings can affect a reader’s interpretation of the poem.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Beauty and Word Choice – Part Two: "A Dream Within a Dream":

Explore Edgar Allan Poe's "A Dream Within a Dream" in this two-part series of interactive tutorials. In Part Two, you'll examine word choices, rhyme, and personification, and explain the impact of specific word choices on the meaning and beauty of the poem.

Click HERE to launch Part One before starting Part Two. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Beauty and Word Choice – Part One: "A Dream Within a Dream":

Explore Edgar Allan Poe's "A Dream Within a Dream" in this two-part series of interactive tutorials. In Part 1, you'll examine words with multiple meanings and make inferences about selected key words in the poem. By the end of this series, you should be able to explain the impact of specific word choices on the meaning and beauty of the poem. 

After you complete Part One, click HERE to open Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Color and Connotation in Ray Bradbury's "The Veldt":

Study excerpts from a suspenseful, science fiction short story in this interactive tutorial. In this tutorial, you'll study excerpts from "The Veldt" by Ray Bradbury. You'll study his use of color imagery, learn about the connotations of particular colors, and analyze the impact of color imagery on the meaning of the text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part Two):

Learn how to identify use of verbal and dramatic irony in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" in this interactive, two-part tutorial. Students will also examine how Poe's use of irony with first person point of view affects the story. This tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series. In Part One, students read and analyzed the first two excerpts from the story. In Part Two, students will read and analyze the last three excerpts from the story.

Click below to open Part One. 

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part 1 of 2)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part 1 of 2):

Learn how to identify use of verbal and dramatic irony in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" in this interactive two-part tutorial. You'll also examine how Poe's use of irony with first person point of view affects the story. You'll read and analyze the first two excerpts from the story in part one, and the last three excerpts from the story in part two.

Click below to open part 2. 

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part Two)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What the Dead Can Teach Us:

Learn to distinguish what is directly stated from what is really meant when working to analyze point of view in a text. In this interactive tutorial you'll examine humorous epitaphs from Edgar Lee Masters’ Spoon River Anthology to interpret an author’s true point of view based on the specific tools employed and the way they are presented in a text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Do I Love Thee?: Examining Word Choice, Tone, and Meaning in Poetry:

Learn how the choice of words and phrases in a poem impacts the overall meaning and tone. In this interactive tutorial you'll examine Sonnet 43, “How Do I Love Thee?” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning and engage in a critical analysis of the language, reflect on your own interpretations, and write about what you have learned.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Idea

Langston Hughes' Drafts of "Ballad of Booker T.": Exploring the Creative Process:

This teaching idea involves analysis of original drafts and edits that Langston Hughes made to the poem "Ballad of Booker T." The Library of Congress site provides a primary source analysis tool, teacher guides, and supplemental resources about Booker T. Washington.

Type: Teaching Idea

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Seeking Social Justice through Satire: Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal":

JJonathan Swift's 1729 pamphlet "A Modest Proposal" is a model for satirizing social problems. In this 2 week unit, students complete multiple readings of Swift's essay: a guided reading with the teacher, a collaborative reading with a peer, and an independent reading. Through guided reading questions, students will examine satiric devices used by Swift, in addition to analyzing tone and how the various sections of the piece work togeher. Then, pairs of students will develop a mock television newscast or editorial script, like those found on Saturday Night Live's "Weekend Update," The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, or The Colbert Report, including appropriate visual images in PowerPoint. In their script, students will collaboratively identify a contemporary social problem, analyze it, and develop an outrageous satiric solution to resolve it.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Original Student Tutorials

Reading into Words with Multiple Meanings:

Explore Robert Frost's poem "Mending Wall" and examine words, phrases, and lines with multiple meanings. In this interactive tutorial you'll analyze how these multiple meanings can affect a reader’s interpretation of the poem.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Beauty and Word Choice – Part Two: "A Dream Within a Dream":

Explore Edgar Allan Poe's "A Dream Within a Dream" in this two-part series of interactive tutorials. In Part Two, you'll examine word choices, rhyme, and personification, and explain the impact of specific word choices on the meaning and beauty of the poem.

Click HERE to launch Part One before starting Part Two. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Beauty and Word Choice – Part One: "A Dream Within a Dream":

Explore Edgar Allan Poe's "A Dream Within a Dream" in this two-part series of interactive tutorials. In Part 1, you'll examine words with multiple meanings and make inferences about selected key words in the poem. By the end of this series, you should be able to explain the impact of specific word choices on the meaning and beauty of the poem. 

After you complete Part One, click HERE to open Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Color and Connotation in Ray Bradbury's "The Veldt":

Study excerpts from a suspenseful, science fiction short story in this interactive tutorial. In this tutorial, you'll study excerpts from "The Veldt" by Ray Bradbury. You'll study his use of color imagery, learn about the connotations of particular colors, and analyze the impact of color imagery on the meaning of the text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part Two):

Learn how to identify use of verbal and dramatic irony in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" in this interactive, two-part tutorial. Students will also examine how Poe's use of irony with first person point of view affects the story. This tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series. In Part One, students read and analyzed the first two excerpts from the story. In Part Two, students will read and analyze the last three excerpts from the story.

Click below to open Part One. 

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part 1 of 2)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part 1 of 2):

Learn how to identify use of verbal and dramatic irony in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" in this interactive two-part tutorial. You'll also examine how Poe's use of irony with first person point of view affects the story. You'll read and analyze the first two excerpts from the story in part one, and the last three excerpts from the story in part two.

Click below to open part 2. 

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part Two)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What the Dead Can Teach Us:

Learn to distinguish what is directly stated from what is really meant when working to analyze point of view in a text. In this interactive tutorial you'll examine humorous epitaphs from Edgar Lee Masters’ Spoon River Anthology to interpret an author’s true point of view based on the specific tools employed and the way they are presented in a text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Do I Love Thee?: Examining Word Choice, Tone, and Meaning in Poetry:

Learn how the choice of words and phrases in a poem impacts the overall meaning and tone. In this interactive tutorial you'll examine Sonnet 43, “How Do I Love Thee?” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning and engage in a critical analysis of the language, reflect on your own interpretations, and write about what you have learned.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.