# Mathematics - Grade Kindergarten   (#5012020)

## General Course Information and Notes

### General Notes

In Kindergarten, instructional time should focus on two critical areas: (1) representing and comparing whole numbers, initially with sets of objects; (2) describing shapes and space. More learning time in Kindergarten should be devoted to number than to other topics.

1. Students use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set; counting out a given number of objects; comparing sets or numerals; and modeling simple joining and separating situations with sets of objects, or eventually with equations such as 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 – 2 = 5. (Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.) Students choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the cardinalities of small sets of objects, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number of objects in combined sets, or counting the number of objects that remain in a set after some are taken away.

2. Students describe their physical world using geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and vocabulary. They identify, name, and describe basic two-dimensional shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons, presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes and orientations), as well as three-dimensional shapes such as cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. They use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes.

English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link:

For additional information on the development and implementation of the ELD standards, please contact the Bureau of Student Achievement through Language Acquisition at sala@fldoe.org.

Florida Standards Implementation Guide Focus Section:

The Mathematics Florida Standards Implementation Guide was created to support the teaching and learning of the Mathematics Florida Standards. The guide is compartmentalized into three components: focus, coherence, and rigor.Focus means narrowing the scope of content in each grade or course, so students achieve higher levels of understanding and experience math concepts more deeply. The Mathematics standards allow for the teaching and learning of mathematical concepts focused around major clusters at each grade level, enhanced by supporting and additional clusters. The major, supporting and additional clusters are identified, in relation to each grade or course. The cluster designations for this course are below.

Major Clusters

MAFS.K.CC.1 Know number names and the count sequence.

MAFS.K.CC.2 Count to tell the number of objects.

MAFS.K.CC.3 Compare numbers.

MAFS.K.OA.1 Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.

MAFS.K.NBT.1 Work with numbers 11-19 to gain foundations for place value.

Supporting Clusters

MAFS.K.MD.2 Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category.

MAFS.K.G.2 Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.

MAFS.K.MD.1 Describe and compare measurable attributes.

MAFS.K.G.1 Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).

Note: Clusters should not be sorted from major to supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting and additional clusters

### General Information

Course Number: 5012020
Course Path:
Course Length: Year (Y)
Course Attributes:
• Class Size Core Required
• Highly Qualified Teacher (HQT) Required
• Florida Standards Course
Course Status: Course Approved

## Educator Certifications

One of these educator certification options is required to teach this course.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this course.

## Original Student Tutorials

Sorting Shapes:

Learn to sort and identify two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes in this carnival-themed interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sweet Sorting:

Practice sorting, counting, and comparing by visiting the Sorting Sweet Shop in this candy-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Farm Baby Rescue Part 1: Up and Down Positions:

Learn different types of up and down positions to rescue eight chicks in this farm-themed, interactive tutorial. Relative positions include up and down, top and bottom, over, on, and under, and above and below.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ten on the Farm:

Help Farmer Betsy! You'll use multiple strategies to make a ten and write equations in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Circus Fun: The Search for Circles:

Learn the attributes, or characteristics, of a circle in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Search for Shapes: Recognizing Rectangles and Squares:

Identify and name rectangles and squares based on their defining attributes, even if they have different sizes or positions. Join King Geo and his scout, Quad, as they search for rectangles and squares in this interactive tutorial.

This is part of a series on the defining attributes of shapes. Click the links below.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Search for Shapes: Exploring Hexagons:

Help find hexagons based on their defining attributes for King Geo in this interactive tutorial. Learn what makes a hexagon a hexagon.

This is part of a series on the defining attributes of shapes. Click the links below.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Search for Shapes: Tracking Triangles:

Track down triangles based on their defining attributes for King Geo in this interactive tutorial.  Learn what makes a triangle a triangle.

This is part of a series on the defining attributes of shapes. Click the links below.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Counting on by Ones When Given Any Number From 0 through 20:

Practice counting on by ones from a given number zero through twenty, as you help Miranda and Jacob in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Shape Factory with Robbie the Robot:

Learn to combine simple shapes to compose larger shapes with Robbie the Robot in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Count a Group of 0 to 5 Objects:

Help Gabriella and Olivia count groups of objects from 0 to 5 in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Building Shapes With Becca:

Help Becca identify and build shapes that you see in the world around you as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Briana's Shape Playground:

Learn how to identify the similarities and differences in the number of sides of two-dimensional shapes in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Counting by Ones:

Join Thomas and count to twenty by ones.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

I Can Count... By Ones to Ten:

Learn to count to ten by ones with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Games

Curious George - Blast Off!:

Help George count backwards to launch a rocket.

Type: Educational Game

Curious George - Bubble Pop:

Count along with George by popping bubbles from his bath. You can pop the bubbles by counting out loud with George if your computer has a microphone. If your computer does not have a microphone, you can click on the bubbles to count!

Type: Educational Game

Is it 2D or 3D?:

Score points by sorting 2D and 3D shapes into the correct basket as they fly by. Lose points if you answer incorrectly.

Type: Educational Game

Type: Educational Game

Match the 2D Shape:

Play the concentration game. Match the 2D shape to the correct name.

Type: Educational Game

Curious George - Hat Grab:

Help George figure out which color hat is the most popular by grabbing hats from people's heads at the airport.

Type: Educational Game

Curious George - Flower Garden:

Flowers are popping up everywhere! Help George keep track of how many there are by counting with him.

Type: Educational Game

Curious George - Hide and Seek:

Help George search for hidden numerals, number words, and animals in this hide-and-seek game.

Type: Educational Game

Curious George - Bug Catcher:

Help George catch bugs with a net to find which group has more.

Type: Educational Game

Curious George - Count with George and Allie:

Count along as Allie counts up to 20 objects in a counting book for George.

Type: Educational Game

Curious George, Museum of Tens:

Help George make museum displays by picking the number of items that need be added to make 10.

Type: Educational Game

Bring it (Adding with Curious George):

Curious George is having a party and you're invited! He needs you to bring one last-minute thing. Just walk through George's neighborhood, from the store to his house, with the party supplies. This is a one or two-player game in which players take turns spinning the wheel of fortune to move 1, 2 or 3 squares along the path. If they land on a square with a question, and they get the correct answer, they will advance an additional bonus square along the path. There will be 5 different categories of question covering five basic math concepts: addition, subtraction, counting, spatial-array comparison, and patterns.

Type: Educational Game

Estimate and Measure - Sticky Math!:

This is an educational game in which the student manipulates sticky buns to estimate and measure baking pans. The site features a kid's voice that walks the student through math explanations, game directions, and tips for estimating and measuring objects.

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

Hundreds Chart:

A printable hundreds chart featuring a 10x10 table numbered 1 to 100. (found on Illuminations website under "Trading for Quarters")

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Presentation/Slideshow

Counting- A World of Numbers :

In this lessons students will use this accessible, easy-to-read book that shows objects up to ten. It can be downloaded and used with PowerPoint, Impress, or Flash. It can be used on the Intellikeys keyboard with a custom overlay, or even used with 1-3 switches.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

## Tutorial

Measuring length with no gaps or overlaps:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, called, "Measuring a golden statue", we see an example of how to solve a problem in which we measure an object with same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animation

100's Day:

What does 100 look like? Sound like? Feel like? In this video from Teacher's Domain, Curious George helps students explore the many ways to measure 100 things.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

This virtual manipulative will allow the students to form different kinds of patterns. Learners will be able to describe parts in relation to a whole group. They will also be able to distinguish between characteristics of shapes.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Attribute Blocks (Identifying Attributes):

This virtual manipulative will help the learners by presenting them with variety of attributes blocks. The blocks pictured in the work space have attributes such as: sizes (large, small), shape (circle, triangle, square, rectangle, pentagon), and color (red, yellow, blue, green). Each problem presents the user with a collection of blocks within the central oval that shares a common attribute. The task is to identify the common attribute.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Hundreds Chart:

This versatile interactive applet helps students learn to skip count, practice multiplication facts, and discover number patterns. Users select the number to count by and the starting number. In Practice mode the user clicks on the respective numbers in order. In Show mode the applet displays all numbers in the chosen counting sequence immediately. In Animate mode numbers in the counting sequence are highlighted in order one at a time.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Rabbit Takeaway:

This interactive Flash applet helps children understand the "take away" model of subtraction. Users choose starting numbers from within 10 or 20. A group of rabbits appears and the user is asked how many will remain if a certain number run away. Mousing over a clue button dims the number of runaways. After selecting the correct remainder, the rabbits run away, and the applet displays the number model and the word sentence that represent the problem. [Available for iPad and iPhone in the iTunes AppStore.]

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Counting on and back:

This interactive Flash applet supports the exploration of numbers to 100 by simulating a 100-bead string. A teacher or child can move all or some beads to the left or right to add and subtract. The controls allow users to move beads individually or 10 at a time to model different counting and calculation strategies. Users can hide or show the numbers represented by the beads. This applet lends itself well to use on an interactive white board. A PDF guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Base Blocks:

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction. Also allows for representation of decimal numbers.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative offers pattern blocks of different shapes and in different colors which can be used for a range of activities. In addition, the resource offers descriptions of six example activities in the "Activities" section, and a sample lesson plan in the section "Parent/Teacher."

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Shape Tool:

This virtual manipulative allows you to create, color, enlarge, shrink, rotate, reflect, slice, and glue geometric shapes, such as: squares, triangles, rhombi, trapezoids and hexagons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Patch Tool:

This virtual manipulative allows you to create patches and more complex figures using the provided 2-dimensional geometric shapes.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Five Frame :

This applet contains four games (How Many?, Build, Fill, and Add) that utilize a frame with five slots for students to place objects, which helps students develop counting and addition skills.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Ten Frame:

This applet contains four games (How Many?, Build, Fill, and Add) that utilize a frame with ten slots for students to place objects, which helps students develop counting and addition skills.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Shape Cutter:

This virtual manipulative allows students to draw geometric shapes and then decompose and recompose them into other shapes, using slides, turns, and flips to cut and move pieces around.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Long or Short?:

This is an interactive game where students are prompted to distinguish between a longer or shorter object. The tool increases in difficulty as the student progresses.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Okta's Rescue (Counting Success):

This applet asks students to save as many octopuses as possible before the timer runs out. A number of how many they can net is displayed in the top right, and they will use the mouse to net that amount into the tank before releasing them for the next round. When the timer is up, another screen comes up with the number of octopuses saved represented in rows of ten. Finally, students will be asked to input on a number line how many they successfully saved.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

How Many Are Under The Shell?:

This site features an interactive game to help students develop number sense and fluency with addition and subtraction facts to 10. Okta the octopus hides some bubbles under a shell, and then either adds more bubbles or takes some away. Students have to determine how many bubbles are left under the shell. The number of bubbles Okta works with can be set to a desired number or the student can select random draw. This allows for focus with a preferred number if desired by the teacher or student.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this course.

## Educational Game

The Incey Wincey Spider:

This site features an educational game of chance set to the familiar nursery rhyme "The Incey Wincey Spider". It helps students learn to move along a track on either side of a central point, as a precursor to working on a number line. The game is played with two people who roll a die to move either up or down a vertical waterspout. The game can be played with the applet or on paper. All you need is two dice (number generators).

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

Hundreds Chart:

A printable hundreds chart featuring a 10x10 table numbered 1 to 100. (found on Illuminations website under "Trading for Quarters")

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Lesson Plan

Shell Sorts:

A resource as plentiful as seashells on the beaches of Florida provides a great springboard for teaching about sorting objects by texture, size and shape. Your students will never look at these beautiful objects in the same way!

Type: Lesson Plan

## Teaching Idea

A-Weigh We Go!:

Using different items available at home (e.g., bag of flour, box of detergent) students are estimating, measuring and comparing the weight of these items. They examine if "bigger" also means "heavier" and try to find out how to weigh an object that is too big for a bathroom scale.

Type: Teaching Idea

## Text Resource

Bibliography of Counting Books:

A printable list of nine counting book references.

Type: Text Resource

## Tutorial

Measuring length with no gaps or overlaps:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, called, "Measuring a golden statue", we see an example of how to solve a problem in which we measure an object with same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

100's Day:

What does 100 look like? Sound like? Feel like? In this video from Teacher's Domain, Curious George helps students explore the many ways to measure 100 things.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

3D Shapes Video:

This upbeat music video reviews 3D shapes including the sphere, cylinder, cube, cone, and pyramid. As each 3D shape is presented, examples of things we see every day that have the same shape are also shown for reinforcement.

(Length: 3:02)

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

The Shape Song:

This video features a sing-along song about shapes. The first half of this song is for preschoolers: circle, triangle, rectangle, square. The second half is for primary grade students: oval, diamond, heart, crescent, rhombus, trapezoid, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, and octagon.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Fishy Count:

This fun game will allow the learners to practice their counting skills. The learner is required to count the fish shown and click on the shell with the correct number.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the students to form different kinds of patterns. Learners will be able to describe parts in relation to a whole group. They will also be able to distinguish between characteristics of shapes.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Attribute Blocks (Identifying Attributes):

This virtual manipulative will help the learners by presenting them with variety of attributes blocks. The blocks pictured in the work space have attributes such as: sizes (large, small), shape (circle, triangle, square, rectangle, pentagon), and color (red, yellow, blue, green). Each problem presents the user with a collection of blocks within the central oval that shares a common attribute. The task is to identify the common attribute.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Hundreds Chart:

This versatile interactive applet helps students learn to skip count, practice multiplication facts, and discover number patterns. Users select the number to count by and the starting number. In Practice mode the user clicks on the respective numbers in order. In Show mode the applet displays all numbers in the chosen counting sequence immediately. In Animate mode numbers in the counting sequence are highlighted in order one at a time.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Base Blocks:

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction. Also allows for representation of decimal numbers.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative offers pattern blocks of different shapes and in different colors which can be used for a range of activities. In addition, the resource offers descriptions of six example activities in the "Activities" section, and a sample lesson plan in the section "Parent/Teacher."

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Shape Tool:

This virtual manipulative allows you to create, color, enlarge, shrink, rotate, reflect, slice, and glue geometric shapes, such as: squares, triangles, rhombi, trapezoids and hexagons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Ten Frame:

This applet contains four games (How Many?, Build, Fill, and Add) that utilize a frame with ten slots for students to place objects, which helps students develop counting and addition skills.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Worksheet

Number Lines:

Printable worksheet with five number lines displaying whole numbers from 0 to 10.

From NCTM Illuminations' Lesson "Hopping on the Number Line"

Type: Worksheet

MAFS.K
In Kindergarten, instructional time should focus on two critical areas: (1) representing, relating, and operating on whole numbers, initially with sets of objects; (2) describing shapes and space. More learning time in Kindergarten should be devoted to number than to other topics.

(1) Students use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set; counting out a given number of objects; comparing sets or numerals; and modeling simple joining and separating situations with sets of objects, or eventually with equations such as 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 – 2 = 5. (Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.) Students choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the cardinals of small sets of objects, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number of objects in combined sets, or counting the number of objects that remain in a set after some are taken away.

(2) Students describe their physical world using geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and vocabulary. They identify, name, and describe basic two-dimensional shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons, presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes and orientations), as well as three-dimensional shapes such as cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. They use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes.