SC.912.L.16.7

Describe how viruses and bacteria transfer genetic material between cells and the role of this process in biotechnology.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Heredity and Reproduction -

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000330: Biology 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027010: Biotechnology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027020: Biotechnology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 and beyond (current))
2000440: Genetics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2000510: Bioscience 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Killer Microbe:

A lesson about the important topic of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with student activities and A/V resources.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pandemic Flu:

In this lesson, students will model an avian-human flu virus structure, replication, and spread. The accompanying PBS NOVA movie Pandemic Flu regarding H5N1 Avian and Swine Flu highlights interactions between the virus, humans, and birds.

Type: Lesson Plan

Perspectives Video: Expert

Viruses, Bacteria, and Biotechnology:

Watch now and learn more about plants, bacteria, and phage viruses!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Bacteriophage Geometry and Structure:

Viruses aren't alive but they still need to stay in shape! Learn more about the geometric forms of bacteriophages!

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Student Center Activity

Acting Out Transcription and Translation (A Model):

Use this resource as a follow up to the following video that explains RNAi . This group activity can introduces two analogies to illustrate how RNAi interferes with specific gene expression and protein production. In the first model, students review protein synthesis. In the second model, the interference of RNAi with the protein production is illustrated. Throughout this process, students develop an understanding of transcription and translation.

Type: Student Center Activity

Text Resource

Cells' Fiery Suicide in HIV Provides New Treatment Hope:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how HIV-infected cells go through a self-destructive response called "pyroptosis," and how a drug might be able to prevent the infected cells' death.

Type: Text Resource

Video/Audio/Animations

HIV Life Cycle:


This video presentation will help you to understand how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: Bacterial Transformation:

  • This activity provides a historical background about research related to bacterial analysis
  • Contains an animation that shows how enzymes work on cutting DNA strands

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

MIT BLOSSOMS - Discovering Medicines, Using Robots and Computers:

Scientists who are working to discover new medicines often use robots to prepare samples of cells, allowing them to test chemicals to identify those that might be used to treat diseases. Students will meet a scientist who works to identify new medicines. She created free software that "looks" at images of cells and determines which images show cells that have responded to the potential medicines. Students will learn about how this technology is currently enabling research to identify new antibiotics to treat tuberculosis. Students will complete hands-on activities that demonstrate how new medicines can be discovered using robots and computer software, starring the student as "the computer." In the process, the students learn about experimental design, including positive and negative controls. Students should have some introductory knowledge about the following topics: (1) biology: students should have a basic understanding of infection and good hygiene, they should know what bacteria and cells are; (2) chemistry: the students should know what a chemical compound (molecule) is. They should have an understanding that medicines, also called "drugs", are chemical compounds; (3) basic experimental design: students should understand the terms "samples" and "testing". All hand-outs necessary for this video lesson can be downloaded below.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Bacteria:

This video discusses how bacteria spread and the pros and cons of bacteria.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Viruses:

This videos discusses how viruses work.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Video/Audio/Animations

HIV Life Cycle:


This video presentation will help you to understand how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: Bacterial Transformation:

  • This activity provides a historical background about research related to bacterial analysis
  • Contains an animation that shows how enzymes work on cutting DNA strands

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Bacteria:

This video discusses how bacteria spread and the pros and cons of bacteria.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Viruses:

This videos discusses how viruses work.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.