SC.912.L.16.4

Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence may or may not result in phenotypic change. Explain how mutations in gametes may result in phenotypic changes in offspring.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Heredity and Reproduction -

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027010: Biotechnology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027020: Biotechnology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 and beyond (current))
2002490: Forensic Sciences 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000440: Genetics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002440: Integrated Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002450: Integrated Science 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2000510: Bioscience 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2002445: Integrated Science 3 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
7920040: Fundamental Integrated Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.16.In.3: Recognize that a substance called DNA carries genetic information in all organisms, and changes (mutations) in DNA can be helpful or harmful to an organism.
SC.912.L.16.Su.2: Recognize that all organisms have a substance called DNA with unique information.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.2: Recognize similarities in characteristics of plants and animals of the same type (species).

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Something Old, Something New...:

Students will reflect on prior knowledge, record their understanding of DNA replication based on a 3D computer model, and will then create a model demonstrating the process of DNA replication. Students will investigate where DNA replication occurs in the human body and why it occurs there. Additionally, students will investigate DNA mutations and their potential impact on the organism. Finally, students will summarize what they learned by collaborating with other classmates.

Type: Lesson Plan

Of Mice and Mutations: Natural Selection in Action:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In this lesson, students will analyze a text that addresses the issue of evolution by natural selection and mutation, using Florida "beach mice" as a case study. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Ideas for extending the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Livestock Plans for Raising Red Nosed Reindeer:

This lesson about genetics and mutations investigates how red nosed reindeer could be raised in a livestock setting. Students will draw Punnett squares and design livestock plans for reproduction of red nosed reindeer.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protein Synthesis: Transcription & Translation:

Students will explore the process of protein synthesis, specifically transcription and translation, using a sequenced graphic organizer and an interactive simulation (Lesson 1 & 2).

This resource contains 3 lessons:

  • Lesson 1: Transcription & Translation
  • Lesson 2: Lac Operon
  • Lesson 3: Proteins & Cancer

As an extension (Lesson 3) the students will justify the applications of biotechnology that uses transcription and translation to synthesize proteins that target cancer cells or reason the possibilities of the amplification of antibodies using immortal cells.

They will explore how mutations, genetic or epigenetic (lifestyle-chemicals, radiation, viruses), resulting in cancer.

The student will connect changes that occur in the genetic code, during transcription and translation, to the deleterious impact on proto oncogenes that promote cell division and tumor suppressor genes that normally inhibit it.

Type: Lesson Plan

DNA Mutations:

In this lesson, students will learn the effect of DNA mutations on protein formation and phenotype. The students will convert a DNA sequence to an amino acid sequence and use color-by-number pictures to show the difference between an original and mutated sequence. Through comparisons with other students in the class, the students will learn that not all mutations will result in a change, while some may cause a great deal of change in a gene (and therefore the protein and/or phenotype).

Type: Lesson Plan

Transcription and Translation Made Easy:

"Transcription and Translation Made Easy" is an interactive whole-class activity that follows the transfer of information from the DNA to protein formation. The activity uses letters as parts of words as an analogy for amino acids as parts of proteins to allow the students to observe the type of mutations that may occur and the level of damage that each can cause.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Making of a Super Hero (39855):

Part 1 - Students will transcribe and translate their way through a fun classroom scavenger hunt.
Part 2 - After genetically manipulating Joe's DNA, students try to develop the next Super Hero.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Hidden Mutations:

Dive into genetic mutations and learn how they can alter the phenotypes of organisms.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Idea

Modeling Transcription and Translation :

In the lab "From Gene to Protein - Transcription and Translation," students learn how genes are involved in the process of protein synthesis, including exploring specific examples such as albinism and sickle cell anemia. Students use paper models to simulate the process of transcription and translation.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

The Mythology of Natural Selection:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes how natural selection occurs when mutations occur in an individual's DNA sequence. Two different populations can have two different genetic mutations yet end up with a similar phenotype.

Type: Text Resource

Genetic Solution to Cancer, Diabetes?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes a rare form of dwarfism called Laron's Syndrome, which is associated with an unusually low incidence of cancer and diabetes. This combination of characteristics allows scientists to speculate on the relationship between all three conditions. It appears that a mutation that causes dwarfism protects against the common diseases of cancer and diabetes.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorial

Regulating Genes:

This tutorial uses animation and practice opportunities to explore how mutations in DNA can impact the expression of a gene. Get a close up view of the nucleus of a fertilized egg and observe how mutations in different locations of a DNA strand influence the traits that are expressed during development.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Exploring Mutant Organisms:

  • Interviews with expert scientists about the genome and mutant organisms
  • Examples on model organisms used in genome research
  • Animation explaining how mutations occur

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Hidden Mutations:

Dive into genetic mutations and learn how they can alter the phenotypes of organisms.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Hidden Mutations:

Dive into genetic mutations and learn how they can alter the phenotypes of organisms.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorial

Regulating Genes:

This tutorial uses animation and practice opportunities to explore how mutations in DNA can impact the expression of a gene. Get a close up view of the nucleus of a fertilized egg and observe how mutations in different locations of a DNA strand influence the traits that are expressed during development.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Exploring Mutant Organisms:

  • Interviews with expert scientists about the genome and mutant organisms
  • Examples on model organisms used in genome research
  • Animation explaining how mutations occur

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.