# MA.7.NSO.2.2

Add, subtract, multiply and divide rational numbers with procedural fluency.
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Strand: Number Sense and Operations
Date Adopted or Revised: 08/20
Status: State Board Approved

## Benchmark Instructional Guide

### Terms from the K-12 Glossary

• Rational Number

### Vertical Alignment

Previous Benchmarks

Next Benchmarks

### Purpose and Instructional Strategies

In grade 6, students performed operations with integers, multiplied and divided positive multi-digit numbers with decimals to the thousandths and computed products and quotients of positive fractions by positive fractions, including mixed numbers with procedural fluency. In grade 7, students perform all four operations with positive and negative rational numbers with procedural fluency. In grade 8, they will expand to operations with rational numbers including exponents and radicals, and will perform operations with rational numbers expressed in scientific notation.
• This benchmark is the completion of arithmetic operations with rational numbers (MTR.3.1).
• Instruction includes the possibility that the division of two fractions can be written as a complex fraction. This connection will be important when students work with algebraic expressions in later grades.
• Students should develop fluency with and without the use of a calculator when performing operations with rational numbers.

### Common Misconceptions or Errors

• Students may think the product of a fraction and another fraction is greater than either factor. Use manipulatives or models referenced in previous grade levels to support conceptual understanding (MTR.2.1).
• Students may incorrectly believe that dividing by $\frac{\text{1}}{\text{2}}$ is the same as dividing by 2.
• Students may incorrectly solve complex fractions by multiplying the two fractions.

### Strategies to Support Tiered Instruction

• Instruction includes the use of fraction tiles to represent operations with positive fractions while simultaneously recording the equivalent numerical expressions.
• Instruction includes the use of base ten blocks to represent operations with positive decimals while simultaneously recording the equivalent numerical expressions.
• Instruction includes the use of two-color counters to represent operations with positive and negative whole numbers while simultaneously recording the equivalent numerical expressions.
• Teacher co-creates a graphic organizer with students to review operations with positive fractions and operations with integers to assist when applying operations with rational numbers.
• Instruction includes using manipulatives or models referenced in previous grade levels to support conceptual understanding.

Instructional Task 1 (MTR.7.1)
Daliah purchases eggs by the dozen for her two children. Each day, Zane eats $\frac{\text{1}}{\text{4}}$ carton and Amare eats $\frac{\text{1}}{\text{6}}$ carton. A carton of 12 eggs costs \$1.65.
• Part A. How much does Daliah spend on eggs for her two children in 30 days?
• Part B. During one of her shopping trips, Daliah finds that her grocery store has started to sell cartons of 18 eggs for \$2.25. If she begins to purchase these cartons, how much does Daliah spend on eggs for her two children in 30 days? After how many days will Daliah spend more than \$50? Explain your reasoning.

Instructional Task 2 (MTR.3.1)

Given $a$ = −2$\frac{\text{3}}{\text{5}}$ and $b$ = $\frac{\text{2}}{\text{3}}$, calculate the following:
• $a$ + $b$
• $a$$b$
• $a$ · $b$
• $\frac{\text{a}}{\text{b}}$

### Instructional Items

Instructional Item 1
Determine the product of $\frac{\text{15}}{\text{6}}$ and −1.2.

Instructional Item 2
What is the value of the expression 7.24 − 5.01 − 78.4?

Instructional Item 3
What is the value of the expression
−
245
19
?

*The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.

## Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1200400: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 9-12 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205020: M/J Accelerated Mathematics Grade 6 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205040: M/J Grade 7 Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1204000: M/J Foundational Skills in Mathematics 6-8 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7812020: Access M/J Grade 7 Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

## Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MA.7.NSO.2.AP.2: Using tools or models, add, subtract, multiply and divide rational numbers.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Educational Game

Fraction Quiz:

Test your fraction skills by answering questions on this site. This quiz asks you to simplify fractions, convert fractions to decimals and percentages, and answer algebra questions involving fractions. You can even choose difficulty level, question types, and time limit.

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

Arithmetic Quiz:

In this activity, students solve arithmetic problems involving whole numbers, integers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This activity allows students to track their progress in learning how to perform arithmetic on whole numbers and integers. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Formative Assessments

Complex Fractions:

Students are asked to rewrite complex fractions as simple fractions in lowest terms.

Type: Formative Assessment

Positive and Negative Fractions:

Students are asked to add, subtract, multiply, and divide positive and negative fractions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Rational Water Management:

Students are asked to combine rational numbers, including fractions and decimals, and use the properties of operations to simplify calculations.

Type: Formative Assessment

Understanding Products:

Students are asked to explain why the product of a positive and a negative rational number is negative.

Type: Formative Assessment

Negatives Explained:

Students are asked to describe a real-world context for a given expression involving the product of two rational numbers.

Type: Formative Assessment

Applying Rational Number Properties:

Students are asked to evaluate expressions involving multiplication of rational numbers and use the properties of operations to simplify calculations.

Type: Formative Assessment

## Lesson Plans

Which Services can we Afford? Part 2 of 3:

In this lesson, students will be presented with the same scenario as lesson 1. Now there are additional taxes revenues that came in due to new developments in the area. The budget has a 12.5% increase but due to the new developments, there are allocation constraints to the budget. After dispersing their new funds students will compare their results with their original analysis. This is lesson 2 of 3 in a mini-unit integrating math and civics.

Type: Lesson Plan

Which Services can we Afford? Part 3 of 3:

In this lesson, students will peer review their assignments from lessons 1 and 2 to compare their solutions and determine the validity of the classmate’s process according to the provided rubric. This is lesson 3 of 3 in a mini-unit integrating math and civics.

Type: Lesson Plan

Which Services can we Afford? Part 1of 3:

In this lesson, students will be re-introduced to ratios and percentages and explain how we use them for budgeting and taxes. Students will get information on tax income funds and use the information to allocate funds for providing the different services in a community (Police, Fire, Schools, Hospitals, Roads, etc.) This is lesson 1 of 3 in a mini-unit integrating civics and math.

Type: Lesson Plan

Breaking Up is Hard to Do:

Student will use geoboards to decompose composite figures and polygons into squares, rectangles, and triangles in order to find the total area.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bubble Burst Corporation's Chewing Gum Prototypes:

In this Model Eliciting Activities, MEA, students will calculate unit rate & circumference, compare & order decimals, convert metric units, and round decimals. Bubble Burst Corporation has developed some chewing gum prototypes and has requested the students to assist in the selection of which gum prototypes will be mass produced by using both quantitative and qualitative data to rank the prototypes for Bubble Burst Corporation.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Independent Compound Probability:

During this lesson, students will use Punnett Squares to determine the probability of an offspring's characteristics.

Type: Lesson Plan

Students will apply skills from the Geometry Domain to build graduation caps for themselves using heavyweight poster paper. They will also apply some basic mathematical skills to determine dimensions and to determine minimum cost. Some of the Geometric skills reinforced in Building Graduation Caps: Cooperative Assignment are finding area, applying the concept of similarity, and the application of the properties of parallelograms. Other skills also involved in this application are measuring, and statistical calculations, such as finding the mean and the range. In addition to the hands-on group project that takes place during the lesson, there is the Prerequisite Skills Assessment: Area that should be administered before the group activity and a home-learning activity. Building Graduation Caps: Individual Assignment is the home-learning assignment; it is designed to reinforce the skills learned in the group activity.

Type: Lesson Plan

NASA Salaries:

This is a NASA-themed, MEA (Model Eliciting Activity) lesson that challenges students to solve a real world open ended problem, while promoting collaboration through teamwork. This lesson asks each group of students to choose five positions and assign salaries to the positions with a given budget of \$500,000. The students' original decision (and "twist") will be based on information from the client's letter(s) and data set(s). Groups are to write a detailed letter to the client of the procedure used.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Best Chicken Franchise:

In this MEA, the students will compare data to decide which franchise would be best for a person wanting to open their own fried chicken franchise.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx.

Type: Lesson Plan

Family Restaurant:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will use unit rates and scoring systems to analyze and interpret data to recommend the best store from which a family restaurant should purchase its weekly non-frozen food items.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Decisions, Decisions!:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will research a list of companies to invest in through purchasing stocks. Students will calculate the amount invested and readjust their investment choices.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Percent of Change:

Students will investigate percent of change in real-world situations and will differentiate between an increase or a decrease. The students will use a formula to find the percent of change.

Type: Lesson Plan

Car Shopping:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will analyze and interpret data to recommend the best vehicle purchases for a school district. Students will work collaboratively to perform calculations that can be used to make comparisons and create composite scores for each vehicle.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Selecting a Sample Population:

The student explores several strategies for selecting a sample population to support making inferences about the population.

Type: Lesson Plan

We're Going on Vacation!:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will act as travel agents to plan a vacation package for a family of 5. Students will apply proportional reasoning and multi-step problem-solving skills to design vacation packages that meet specific criteria and stay within a given budget.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Generating Multiple Samples to Gauge Variation:

Students explore variation in random samples and use random samples to make generalizations about the population.

Type: Lesson Plan

Savvy Shopping:

This is the second part of the CPalms lesson titled Markup and Make Money. In Savvy Shopping students will shop at their peers' store and buy items. If it is discounted, they will have to calculate the revised price. They will then find the total price including the tax.

Type: Lesson Plan

Chancy Candy:

In this lesson students will use candy to find the probability of independent compound events, determining the sample space from a tree diagram. They will then conduct an experiment to test the theoretical probability. Once the experiment is complete, the students will compare the theoretical and experimental probability.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, "Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones", teams of students work as forensic anthropologists and use equations to determine the height and gender of persons to whom a series of newly discovered bones may belong.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Say Cheese!:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will apply their knowledge of rational numbers and order of operations to analyze and compare data to provide recommendations on the best camera to use in an introductory photography class.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Installing Tile Floor:

In this Model Eliciting Activity (MEA), students will analyze data related to tiling rooms in a house. Students will calculate the square footage of various rooms, convert measurements to determine the amount of tile needed, and compute both the cost of the tiles and the cost of installation. They will evaluate and compare different flooring options based on cost, quality, and installation factors, and develop a procedure to recommend the best choices.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Along for the Ride!:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will use the order of operations to develop and apply a scoring system to evaluate different lawn tractors for a company. Students will justify their rankings using their analysis, calculations, and scoring system.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Zany's Joke Shop Dilemma:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will analyze and compare data for various products sold in a joke shop to make recommendations on the best, and worst, products. Students will apply weighted averages, ratios, percentages, and proportions to perform calculations that support their recommendations as well as create graphical representations to help make sense of and compare the data.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Importing Machine Parts:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will analyze various costs and develop a procedure to recommend the best shipping methods for machine parts. They will use mathematical skills such as calculating total costs, comparing rates, and applying percentage discounts and surcharges to determine the most cost-effective shipping options.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Where in the world?:

This resource provides a Model-Eliciting Activity where students will analyze a real-world scenario to solve a client's problem and provide the best possible solution based on a logically justified process. The students will consider a request from Always On Time Delivery Service to evaluate several GPS units and help them decide which unit they should purchase.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

All Around Fences:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will help analyze, compare, and select fencing options for a college’s pool and recreation area. Students will use unit conversions, calculate total costs, and justify their recommendations to develop problem solving and critical thinking skills within a purchasing context.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Best Day Care Center in the Neighborhood:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will evaluate and compare daycare centers near a neighborhood. They will develop a scoring system to assess various characteristics of each center and justify their ranking using averages, ratios, and other mathematical calculations.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Whirl Wind:

The Whirl Wind Corporation would like to install Wind Turbines in the Mojave Desert. The company produces various models of these turbines and is looking for help in selecting the best one for the job.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Finding Area with Hands-On Measurement:

This lesson allows students to apply the area of triangles, quadrilaterals, and trapezoids to composite figures, and gives students a chance to work with classmates to find the area by taking measurements and making the necessary calculations. Students will also see the relationship between the area formulas for rectangles, triangles, trapezoids, and polygons.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cool Uniforms:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students are asked to rank fabrics designated for a new women's volleyball team. Students will use proportional reasoning, percentages, and conversions to analyze and compare fabrics to support their rankings.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Pennies and Post-its:

Students will use manipulatives (pennies and post-its) to model solving one-variable equations.

Type: Lesson Plan

Markup and Make Money:

In this lesson students will create their own imaginary store with at least 15 items to sell. They will begin with a discussion and then learn about markup. They will use their knowledge to calculate prices and create a display for their store. This is the first of 2 lessons (next lesson is Savvy Shopping, Resource ID 48879), which allows students to shop in their peer's store to calculate discount and tax.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Perspectives Video: Experts

Fluency vs. Automaticity:

How are fluency and automaticity defined? Dr. Lawrence Gray explains fluency and automaticity in the B.E.S.T. mathematics benchmarks in this Expert Perspectives video.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

B.E.S.T. Journey:

What roles do exploration, procedural reliability, automaticity, and procedural fluency play in a student's journey through the B.E.S.T. benchmarks? Dr. Lawrence Gray explains the path through the B.E.S.T. mathematics benchmarks in this Expert Perspectives video.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

What is Fluency?:

What is fluency? What are the ingredients required to become procedurally fluent in mathematics? Dr. Lawrence Gray explores what it means for students to be fluent in mathematics in this Expert Perspectives video.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Why Isn't Getting the "Right" Answer Good Enough?:

Why is it important to look beyond whether a student gets the right answer? Dr. Lawrence Gray explores the importance of understanding why we perform certain steps or what those steps mean, and the impact this understanding can have on our ability to solve more complex problems and address them in the context of real life in this Expert Perspectives video.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Operations on the Number Line:

The purpose of this task is to help solidify students' understanding of signed numbers as points on a number line and to understand the geometric interpretation of adding and subtracting signed numbers. There is a subtle distinction between a fraction and a rational number. Fractions are always positive, and when thinking of the symbol ab as a fraction, it is possible to interpret it as a equal-sized pieces where b pieces make one whole.

## Tutorial

Adding and Subtracting Numbers in Different Formats:

In this example, we will work with three numbers in different formats: a percent, a decimal, and a mixed number.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animation

Interpreting Negative Number Statements:

Explore negative numbers to represent real world situations in this tutorial.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

All Around Fences:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will help analyze, compare, and select fencing options for a college’s pool and recreation area. Students will use unit conversions, calculate total costs, and justify their recommendations to develop problem solving and critical thinking skills within a purchasing context.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Along for the Ride!:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will use the order of operations to develop and apply a scoring system to evaluate different lawn tractors for a company. Students will justify their rankings using their analysis, calculations, and scoring system.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Best Chicken Franchise:

In this MEA, the students will compare data to decide which franchise would be best for a person wanting to open their own fried chicken franchise.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx.

Best Day Care Center in the Neighborhood:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will evaluate and compare daycare centers near a neighborhood. They will develop a scoring system to assess various characteristics of each center and justify their ranking using averages, ratios, and other mathematical calculations.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Bubble Burst Corporation's Chewing Gum Prototypes:

In this Model Eliciting Activities, MEA, students will calculate unit rate & circumference, compare & order decimals, convert metric units, and round decimals. Bubble Burst Corporation has developed some chewing gum prototypes and has requested the students to assist in the selection of which gum prototypes will be mass produced by using both quantitative and qualitative data to rank the prototypes for Bubble Burst Corporation.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Car Shopping:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will analyze and interpret data to recommend the best vehicle purchases for a school district. Students will work collaboratively to perform calculations that can be used to make comparisons and create composite scores for each vehicle.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Cool Uniforms:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students are asked to rank fabrics designated for a new women's volleyball team. Students will use proportional reasoning, percentages, and conversions to analyze and compare fabrics to support their rankings.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Decisions, Decisions!:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will research a list of companies to invest in through purchasing stocks. Students will calculate the amount invested and readjust their investment choices.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Family Restaurant:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will use unit rates and scoring systems to analyze and interpret data to recommend the best store from which a family restaurant should purchase its weekly non-frozen food items.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Importing Machine Parts:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will analyze various costs and develop a procedure to recommend the best shipping methods for machine parts. They will use mathematical skills such as calculating total costs, comparing rates, and applying percentage discounts and surcharges to determine the most cost-effective shipping options.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Installing Tile Floor:

In this Model Eliciting Activity (MEA), students will analyze data related to tiling rooms in a house. Students will calculate the square footage of various rooms, convert measurements to determine the amount of tile needed, and compute both the cost of the tiles and the cost of installation. They will evaluate and compare different flooring options based on cost, quality, and installation factors, and develop a procedure to recommend the best choices.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

NASA Salaries:

This is a NASA-themed, MEA (Model Eliciting Activity) lesson that challenges students to solve a real world open ended problem, while promoting collaboration through teamwork. This lesson asks each group of students to choose five positions and assign salaries to the positions with a given budget of \$500,000. The students' original decision (and "twist") will be based on information from the client's letter(s) and data set(s). Groups are to write a detailed letter to the client of the procedure used.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Say Cheese!:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will apply their knowledge of rational numbers and order of operations to analyze and compare data to provide recommendations on the best camera to use in an introductory photography class.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, "Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones", teams of students work as forensic anthropologists and use equations to determine the height and gender of persons to whom a series of newly discovered bones may belong.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

We're Going on Vacation!:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will act as travel agents to plan a vacation package for a family of 5. Students will apply proportional reasoning and multi-step problem-solving skills to design vacation packages that meet specific criteria and stay within a given budget.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Where in the world?:

This resource provides a Model-Eliciting Activity where students will analyze a real-world scenario to solve a client's problem and provide the best possible solution based on a logically justified process. The students will consider a request from Always On Time Delivery Service to evaluate several GPS units and help them decide which unit they should purchase.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Whirl Wind:

The Whirl Wind Corporation would like to install Wind Turbines in the Mojave Desert. The company produces various models of these turbines and is looking for help in selecting the best one for the job.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Zany's Joke Shop Dilemma:

In this Model Eliciting Activity, MEA, students will analyze and compare data for various products sold in a joke shop to make recommendations on the best, and worst, products. Students will apply weighted averages, ratios, percentages, and proportions to perform calculations that support their recommendations as well as create graphical representations to help make sense of and compare the data.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

## MFAS Formative Assessments

Positive and Negative Fractions:

Students are asked to add, subtract, multiply, and divide positive and negative fractions.

Applying Rational Number Properties:

Students are asked to evaluate expressions involving multiplication of rational numbers and use the properties of operations to simplify calculations.

Complex Fractions:

Students are asked to rewrite complex fractions as simple fractions in lowest terms.

Negatives Explained:

Students are asked to describe a real-world context for a given expression involving the product of two rational numbers.

Rational Water Management:

Students are asked to combine rational numbers, including fractions and decimals, and use the properties of operations to simplify calculations.

Understanding Products:

Students are asked to explain why the product of a positive and a negative rational number is negative.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Educational Game

Fraction Quiz:

Test your fraction skills by answering questions on this site. This quiz asks you to simplify fractions, convert fractions to decimals and percentages, and answer algebra questions involving fractions. You can even choose difficulty level, question types, and time limit.

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

Arithmetic Quiz:

In this activity, students solve arithmetic problems involving whole numbers, integers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This activity allows students to track their progress in learning how to perform arithmetic on whole numbers and integers. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

Operations on the Number Line:

The purpose of this task is to help solidify students' understanding of signed numbers as points on a number line and to understand the geometric interpretation of adding and subtracting signed numbers. There is a subtle distinction between a fraction and a rational number. Fractions are always positive, and when thinking of the symbol ab as a fraction, it is possible to interpret it as a equal-sized pieces where b pieces make one whole.

## Tutorial

Adding and Subtracting Numbers in Different Formats:

In this example, we will work with three numbers in different formats: a percent, a decimal, and a mixed number.

Type: Tutorial

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.