MA.7.AR.4.5

Solve real-world problems involving proportional relationships.

Examples

Gordy is taking a trip from Tallahassee, FL to Portland, Maine which is about 1,407 miles. On average his SUV gets 23.1 miles per gallon on the highway and his gas tanks holds 17.5 gallons. If Gordy starts with a full tank of gas, how many times will he be required to fill the gas tank?
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Grade: 7
Strand: Algebraic Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 08/20
Status: State Board Approved

Benchmark Instructional Guide

Connecting Benchmarks/Horizontal Alignment

 

Terms from the K-12 Glossary

  • Proportional Relationships
  • Rate
  • Unit Rates

 

Vertical Alignment

Previous Benchmarks

Next Benchmarks

 

Purpose and Instructional Strategies

In grade 6, students solved mathematical and real-world problems involving ratios, rates and unit rates, including comparisons, mixtures, ratios of lengths and conversions within the same measurement system. In grade 7, students solve real-world problems involving proportional relationships. In grade 8, students will solve real-world problems involving linear relationships. 
  • This benchmark is a culmination of the work students have been doing throughout MA.7.AR.4.
  • Instruction for this benchmark includes opportunities to compare two different proportional relationships to each other.
  • Allow various methods for solving, encouraging discussion and analysis of efficient and effective solutions (MTR.4.1).

 

Common Misconceptions or Errors

  • Students may confuse the dependent and independent variables when graphing. To address this conception, instruction includes the understanding that the independent variable depends on the given context. Additionally, independent variables are not always on the x-axis and the dependent variables are not always on the y-axis.
    • For example, if one has a proportional relationship between feet and meters, they can graph feet either on the x-axis or the y-axis. Which one that is dependent depends on the context. For instance, if one is given feet and converting to meters, then feet would be independent and meters would be dependent.

 

Strategies to Support Tiered Instruction

  • Teacher provides opportunities for students to comprehend the context or situation by engaging in questions.
    • What do you know from the problem?
    • What is the problem asking you to find?
    • What are the two quantities in this problem?
    • How are the quantities related to each other?
    • Which quantity do you want to consider as the independent variable?
    • Which quantity do you want to consider as the dependent variable?
  • Instruction includes the use of a three-read strategy. Students read the problem three different times, each with a different purpose.
    • First, read the problem with the purpose of answering the question: What is the problem, context, or story about?
    • Second, read the problem with the purpose of answering the question: What are we trying to find out?
    • Third, read the problem with the purpose of answering the question: What information is important in the problem?
  • Instruction includes the understanding that the independent variable depends on the given context. Additionally, independent variables are not always the x-axis and the dependent variable are not always the y-axis.
    • For example, if one has a proportional relationship between feet and meters, they can graph feet either on the x-axis or the y-axis. Which one that is dependent depends on the context. For instance, if one is given feet and converting to meters, then feet would be independent and meters would be dependent.

 

Instructional Tasks

Instructional Task 1 (MTR.4.1)
Patsy is making shortbread cookies using the ingredients below.
10 tablespoons of butter
112 cups powdered sugar 112 cups flour
12 teaspoon vanilla extract 112 teaspoon salt
  • Part A. This recipe makes 16 cookies, but Patsy needs 5 dozen. How much of each ingredient will she need to make the 5 dozen cookies she needs?
  • Part B. Once Harrison tasted Patsy’s shortbread cookies, he ordered 7 dozen for a birthday party. If Patsy originally started with 4 cups of flour, 2 cups of powdered sugar and 16 tablespoons of butter, how much more (if any) will she need of each ingredient to complete Harrison’s order?
  • Part C. After the party, Jeb shared his recipe which calls for 2 cups of flour and 134 cup of powdered sugar. Since adding powdered sugar to cookies should make them sweeter, Jeb claims his larger ratio of powdered sugar to flour will produce sweeter cookies. Is this statement correct?

 

Instructional Items

Instructional Item 1
A couple is taking a horse and carriage ride through Central Park in New York City. After 8 minutes, they had traveled 12 mile.
  • Part A. Create a graph to represent the proportional relationship between miles traveled and the number of minutes they are on the carriage.
  • Part B. Use this graph to determine how long will it take to complete the 2.5 mile ride around the park.

 

*The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1200400: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 9-12 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205040: M/J Grade 7 Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205050: M/J Accelerated Mathematics Grade 7 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1204000: M/J Foundational Skills in Mathematics 6-8 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7812020: Access M/J Grade 7 Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MA.7.AR.4.AP.5: Solve simple real-world problems involving proportional relationships.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Clean It Up:

Students will help a volunteer coordinator choose cleanup projects that will have the greatest positive impact on the environment and the community.  They will apply their knowledge of how litter can impact ecosystems along with some math skills to make recommendations for cleanup zones to prioritize.  Students will explore the responsibilities of citizens to maintain a clean environment and the impact that litter can have on society in this integrated Model Eliciting Activity.  

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations.  Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Guiding Grids: Math inspired self-portraits:

Students will create a proportional self portrait from a photo using a gridded drawing method and learn how a grid system can help accurately enlarge an image in a work of art. Students will use the mathematical concepts of scale, proportion and ratio, to complete their artwork.

Type: Lesson Plan

Smith Valley Farms Horse Pedigrees:

The owner of newly opened Smith Valley Farms is looking to breed the next generation of top race horses. In this MEA, students will study race horse pedigrees as well as horse racing data to determine which is the best stallion to breed with a filly. Students will have to read a horse pedigree, calculate percentages based on a data table, and complete Punnett squares to determine genetic probability.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

How Fast Can One Travel on a Bicycle?:

Students investigate how the pedal and rear wheel gears affect the speed of a bicycle. A GeoGebra sketch is included that allows a simulation of the turning of the pedal and the rear wheel. A key goal is to provide an experience for the students to apply and integrate the key concepts in seventh-grade mathematics in a familiar context.

Type: Lesson Plan

Is My Backpack Too Massive?:

This lesson combines many objectives for seventh grade students. Its goal is for students to create and carry out an investigation about student backpack mass. Students will develop a conclusion based on statistical and graphical analysis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Building Graduation Caps:

Students will apply skills from the Geometry Domain to build graduation caps for themselves using heavyweight poster paper. They will also apply some basic mathematical skills to determine dimensions and to determine minimum cost. Some of the Geometric skills reinforced in Building Graduation Caps: Cooperative Assignment are finding area, applying the concept of similarity, and the application of the properties of parallelograms. Other skills also involved in this application are measuring, and statistical calculations, such as finding the mean and the range. In addition to the hands-on group project that takes place during the lesson, there is the Prerequisite Skills Assessment: Area that should be administered before the group activity and a home-learning activity. Building Graduation Caps: Individual Assignment is the home-learning assignment; it is designed to reinforce the skills learned in the group activity.

Type: Lesson Plan

When Pigs Fly:

In this lesson students will explore probability and likelihood that an event will occur. They will place both serious and silly events on a number line, once they have assigned a value to that event. They will work with a group and then justify their classifications to their peers.

Type: Lesson Plan

Water Troubles:

This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) presents students with the real-world problem of contaminated drinking water.  Students are asked to provide recommendations for a non-profit organization working to help a small Romanian village acquire clean drinking water.  They will work to develop the best temporary strategies for water treatment, including engineering the best filtering solution using local materials.  Students will utilize measures of center and variation to compare data, assess proportional relationships to make decisions, and perform unit conversions across different measurement systems.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Speeding Ticket: Part 2 - Graphing Linear Functions:

This lesson allows the student to learn about dependent and independent variables and how to make the connection between the linear equation, a linear function, and its graph. The student will learn graphing relationships and how to identify linear functions.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Speeding Ticket (Part 1: Solving Linear Equations with One Variable):

"The Speeding Ticket" lesson uses real world application to create and solve linear equations and tables with one variable numerically, verbally, and algebraically. The student will also learn the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

Type: Lesson Plan

Practically Probable:

In this lesson, students will differentiate between likely and unlikely event, as well as learn the difference between dependent and independent events. Finally, they learn how to compute theoretical probabilities in simple experiments.

Type: Lesson Plan

Math in Mishaps:

Students will explore how percentages, proportions, and solving for unknowns are used in important jobs. This interactive activity will open their minds and address the question, "When is this ever used in real life?"

Type: Lesson Plan

Perspectives Video: Experts

Statistical Sampling Results in setting Legal Catch Rate :

Fish Ecologist, Dean Grubbs, discusses how using statistical sampling can help determine legal catch rates for fish that may be endangered.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Using Statistics to Estimate Lionfish Population Size:

It's impossible to count every animal in a park, but with statistics and some engineering, biologists can come up with a good estimate.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Unit Rate: Spring Water Bottling:

Nestle Waters discusses the importance of unit rate in the manufacturing process of bottling spring water.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Fishery Independent vs Dependent Sampling Methods for Fishery Management:

NOAA Scientist Doug Devries discusses the differences between fishery independent surveys and fishery independent surveys.  Discussion includes trap sampling as well as camera sampling. Using graphs to show changes in population of red snapper.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Sampling Bird Populations to Track Environmental Restoration:

Sometimes scientists conduct a census, too! Learn how population sampling can help monitor the progress of an ecological restoration project.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

KROS Pacific Ocean Kayak Journey: Calories, Distance, and Rowing Rates:

Food is fuel, especially important when your body is powering a boat across the ocean.

Related Resources:
KROS Pacific Ocean Kayak Journey: GPS Data Set[.XLSX]
KROS Pacific Ocean Kayak Journey: Path Visualization for Google Earth[.KML]

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

KROS Pacific Ocean Kayak Journey: Calories, Exercise, and Metabolism Rates:

How much food do you need to cross the Pacific in a kayak? Get a calculator and a bag of almonds before you watch this.

Related Resources:
KROS Pacific Ocean Kayak Journey: GPS Data Set[.XLSX]
KROS Pacific Ocean Kayak Journey: Path Visualization for Google Earth[.KML]

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Robot Mathematics: Gearing Ratio Calculations for Performance:

A science teacher demonstrates stepwise calculations involving multiple variables for designing robots with desired characteristics.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Tutorials

Proportion Word Problem:

This introductory video demonstrates the basic skill of how to write and solve a basic equation for a proportional relationship. 

Type: Tutorial

Solving a Proportion with an Unknown Variable :

Here's an introductory video explaining the basic reasoning behind solving proportions and shows three different methods for solving proportions which you will use later on to solve more difficult problems. 

Type: Tutorial

Setting up Proportions to Solve Word Problems:

This introductory video shows some basic examples of writing two ratios and setting them equal to each other. This is just step 1 when solving word problems with proportions. 

Type: Tutorial

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Smith Valley Farms Horse Pedigrees:

The owner of newly opened Smith Valley Farms is looking to breed the next generation of top race horses. In this MEA, students will study race horse pedigrees as well as horse racing data to determine which is the best stallion to breed with a filly. Students will have to read a horse pedigree, calculate percentages based on a data table, and complete Punnett squares to determine genetic probability.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Water Troubles:

This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) presents students with the real-world problem of contaminated drinking water.  Students are asked to provide recommendations for a non-profit organization working to help a small Romanian village acquire clean drinking water.  They will work to develop the best temporary strategies for water treatment, including engineering the best filtering solution using local materials.  Students will utilize measures of center and variation to compare data, assess proportional relationships to make decisions, and perform unit conversions across different measurement systems.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Expert

Using Statistics to Estimate Lionfish Population Size:

It's impossible to count every animal in a park, but with statistics and some engineering, biologists can come up with a good estimate.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Sampling Bird Populations to Track Environmental Restoration:

Sometimes scientists conduct a census, too! Learn how population sampling can help monitor the progress of an ecological restoration project.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Tutorials

Proportion Word Problem:

This introductory video demonstrates the basic skill of how to write and solve a basic equation for a proportional relationship. 

Type: Tutorial

Solving a Proportion with an Unknown Variable :

Here's an introductory video explaining the basic reasoning behind solving proportions and shows three different methods for solving proportions which you will use later on to solve more difficult problems. 

Type: Tutorial

Setting up Proportions to Solve Word Problems:

This introductory video shows some basic examples of writing two ratios and setting them equal to each other. This is just step 1 when solving word problems with proportions. 

Type: Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Expert

Using Statistics to Estimate Lionfish Population Size:

It's impossible to count every animal in a park, but with statistics and some engineering, biologists can come up with a good estimate.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Sampling Bird Populations to Track Environmental Restoration:

Sometimes scientists conduct a census, too! Learn how population sampling can help monitor the progress of an ecological restoration project.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast