# Big Idea 8: Properties of Matter

A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass.

B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term ‘weight’ instead of the term “mass” is recommended for grades K-2.

Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.

General Information
Number: SC.5.P.8
Title: Properties of Matter
Type: Big Idea
Subject: Science
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science

## Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

## Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

## Independent

SC.5.P.8.In.1
Identify basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases, such as color, texture, and temperature.
SC.5.P.8.In.2
Identify examples of materials that will dissolve in water and those that will not.
SC.5.P.8.In.3
Identify the observable properties of the parts of a mixture, such as the particle size, shape, and color.
SC.5.P.8.In.4
Recognize that materials are made of very small parts that cannot be seen without a magnifying glass or a microscope.

## Supported

SC.5.P.8.Su.1
Identify the basic properties of solids and liquids, such as color, texture, and temperature.
SC.5.P.8.Su.2
Recognize examples of materials that will dissolve in water.
SC.5.P.8.Su.3
Identify the separate parts of a mixture by color or shape.
SC.5.P.8.Su.4
Use a magnifying tool to see small parts of an object.

## Participatory

SC.5.P.8.Pa.1
Distinguish between water as a solid or liquid.
SC.5.P.8.Pa.2
Recognize a common substance that dissolves in water.
SC.5.P.8.Pa.3
Separate a group of objects into its parts.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Educational Game

Science Vocabulary Hangman:

This interactive game uses the traditional hangman premise with all questions and answers involving science vocabulary. There are general sets of science vocabulary to choose from, as well as specific topics. You can even choose vocabulary pertaining to 5th or 8th grade FCAT Science Tests!

Type: Educational Game

## Lesson Plans

Just Right Goldilocks’ Café: Temperature & Turbidity:

This is lesson 3 of 3 in the Goldilocks’ Café Just Right unit. This lesson focuses on systematic investigation on getting a cup of coffee to be the “just right” temperature and turbidity level. Students will use both the temperature probe and turbidity sensor and code using ScratchX during their investigation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Just Right Goldilocks’ Café: Turbidity:

This is lesson 2 of 3 in the Just Right Goldilocks’ Café unit. This lesson focuses on systematic investigation on getting a cup of coffee to be the “just right” level of turbidity. Students will use turbidity sensors and code using ScratchX during their investigation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Just Right Goldilocks’ Café: Temperature:

This is lesson 1 of 3 in the Just Right Goldilocks’ Café unit. This lesson focuses on systematic investigation on getting a cup of coffee to be the “just right” temperature. Students will use temperature probes and code using ScratchX during their investigation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Transfer The Heat:

This lesson introduces how heat transfers to different substances using an electrical device. The electrical device used create thermal energy changes a substance’s state of matter. This lesson contains a lab experiment that tests the timing at which butter changes to its melting point while using a lamp. This lab questions whether using a different electric device will conclude the same results.

This is lesson 3 in the Detecting Electrical and Thermal Energy Unit.

Type: Lesson Plan

Electric Energy & Temperature:

This lesson introduces how electrical devices transform electrical energy to thermal energy to alter the temperature of a substance resulting in the freezing, melting, or boiling of the substance. Each electrical device produces thermal energy as a byproduct that is conducted from a source like an electrical socket or battery; this lesson discusses how that energy is transferred while also comparing and contrasting the states of matter of different substances.

This is lesson 1 in a Unit on Detecting Thermal & Electrical Energy.

Type: Lesson Plan

States of Matter and Their Properties - Building the Model Lesson #3:

This lesson is an introduction to some of the basic principles of computer programming. Scratch is a block language that allows for programming without writing test code by using pre-made blocks that can be connected to create more complex functionality. This is the final lesson in the Phases of Matter Unit and will allow the students to showcase their understanding of states and properties of matter in a new medium.

Type: Lesson Plan

States of Matter and Their Properties - Mass and Volume Lesson #2:

When matter changes state, its properties change, too. In most cases, volume will increase when matter is melted from a solid to a liquid. Water is an exception, as its volume decreases when melted from ice to water. If matter is not added or removed, its mass will remain the same when it changes state. In this lesson, students will use if/then logical thinking to bridge the science and computer science concepts. This is lesson 2 of 3 in the States of Matter Unit.

Type: Lesson Plan

States of Matter and Their Properties - Lesson #1 :

Matter exists in three different states. Depending on factors such as temperature and pressure, matter can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas. Under specific conditions, matter has precise freezing, melting, and boiling points. This is the first lesson in a unit about matter.

Type: Lesson Plan

Icky, Icky, No More Slicky:

In this lesson, 5th grade students will build an engineering device to separate oil from water in a simulated oil spill. Students will have an opportunity to learn about the impact that humans can have on the environment, both positively and negatively.

This is an Engineering Design Challenge that is best used after a unit or lesson that is aligned to science standards on solving problems or materials which dissolve in water. This challenge provides students a means to use their knowledge of the way materials will or will not dissolve in water to create and design an oil spill removal tool while learning the Engineering Design Process and being exposed to the field of engineering. This lesson is not intended as an initial introduction to the standard and would be best utilized as a culmination lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

From Trash to Treasure - An Engineering Design Challenge:

This lesson gives students hands-on experience with sorting mixtures based on their properties. The students will relate these science standards to a real-world problem of eliminating trash in land fills. They will have to purchase the tools they use to create their assembly line to sort the garbage within the budget provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

Separating Solid Mixtures:

Have you ever considered that toys in a toy box are a mixture? In this lesson, students will explore how to separate solid mixtures based on observable properties such as particle color, shape, size, and magnetic attraction.

Type: Lesson Plan

Rava's Florida Fusion Catering:

In this Model-Eliciting Activity (MEA), students will be presented with a catering company looking to add a new recipe using molecular gastronomy techniques. These recipes/techniques transform food into different states of matter.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Kelly's Cafe - Mixing It Up!:

In this Model-Eliciting Activity (MEA), students will work in groups to develop a procedure to rank which self-made, children's drink would be best to add to a current coffee shop menu. Students will consider factors such as flavor appeal, temperature of drink , costs, time required to mix drink, special equipment needed and nutritional value. Students will apply knowledge of how temperature and stirring can affect dissolving time.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Physical Properties of Solids:

In this lesson, students will use various plastic pieces to develop a better understanding of the physical properties of solids. They will then apply this knowledge to see how it relates to everyday life.

Type: Lesson Plan

To Dissolve or Not To Dissolve, Part 1:

This lesson uses the 5E model as students explore how various substances will dissolve. This is the first in a two part lesson. In the second lesson, students will compare how a substance will dissolve in varying temperatures. Students will learn about dissolving, mixtures, solutions and solubility.

Type: Lesson Plan

Properties of Matter:

Students will differentiate between solids, liquids, and gases. Students will define and identify solids, liquids, and gases based on particle activity and explain the difference between volume and mass.

Type: Lesson Plan

3 Methods for Measuring Volume:

This hands-on lesson plan allows students to investigate three methods for measuring volume. Students will learn to measure volume for liquids, regular-sized solids, and irregular sized objects. During the lesson students are exposed to demonstrations from the teacher and will participate in hands-on investigations utilizing three methods for measuring volume that they conduct and report to the class.

Type: Lesson Plan

Solve the Dissolving Problem:

In this lesson, students will be experimenting with what independent variable will affect dissolving rates; students will compare results of peers to also determine materials that dissolve and do not dissolve from 5 given materials. Students will identify and learn what controls in an experiment are and their importance. This is a multi-part lesson that can be broken down by day or presented in one block. Complete all the Part A’s in each phase (Teaching/I Do/Know, Guided/We Do/Understand, Independent/You Do/Do) before Part B’s.

Type: Lesson Plan

To Dissolve or Not To Dissolve, Part 2:

This is part 2 of a lesson addressing solubility. Part 1 addresses how varying substances will dissolve in water. Part 2 addresses how temperature will effect solubility. The 5E lesson plan model will include a lab and is aligned with Florida ELA standards.

Type: Lesson Plan

What It's Made Of: A Solute to Mixture or Solution:

In this lesson, students will explore samples to determine properties of components of mixtures. Over the course of the exploration, the teacher will guide the students to discover what sets a solution apart. Access points included.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorials

Time for Group Work:

Learn how to communicate in a group and how to work together for a positive outcome in this interactive health tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Marvelous Solid Mixtures: Let’s Sort them Out!:

Learn and demonstrate that mixtures of solids can be separated by observable properties in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Teaching Ideas

Funny Putty:

Students in grades 1-8 will learn some serious materials science–and hit several national science standards–by using everyday items to create and investigate the properties of Funny Putty.

Type: Teaching Idea

Investigating Changes In Matter:

In this chemistry lab, students will observe a variety of physical and chemical changes in matter.

Type: Teaching Idea

Sorting Our Way to pH:

In this indoor lab activity students will be given a large variety of objects to sort into categories. After practice and discussion, they will then sort food items, first based on their five senses, then by studying their reactions when placed in red cabbage juice. Students document their predictions, observations, the results of their work and their conclusions.

Type: Teaching Idea

## Text Resource

A Matter of Mixing:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes properties of items as hyrdophobic or hyrdophilic and how they work.

Type: Text Resource

## Unit/Lesson Sequences

Dissolving Solids, Liquids, and Gases | Inquiry in Action:

In this series of six investigations, students will participate in activities that help them better understand the different factors that affect the solubility of solids, liquids, and gases. First, students will add sugar and food coloring to different liquids to discover that substances don't necessarily dissolve in all liquids. Students will then add cocoa mix to hot and cold water, and see that this solute dissolves better in hot water. However, the following teacher demonstration shows that increasing the temperature of water has very little effect on the solubility of salt. Students also experiment with the effect of temperature on carbon dioxide gas dissolved in water. Students should conclude that temperature affects the solubility of substances in different ways. As a culminating challenge, students use their knowledge of dissolving solids, liquids, and gases in water to create a fizzy lemon soda.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Mysterious M&Ms | Molecules in Motion | Inquiry in Action:

In this unit, students will investigate M&Ms in water by posing questions, designing and conducting experiments to answer these questions, and developing explanations based on their observations. Students will investigate the effects of variables, such as temperature, on the rate at which the colored coating of M&Ms dissolves.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

## Virtual Manipulative

Density:

This resource will build the following skills:

• Describe the relationship of mass and volume to density.
• Compare objects of same mass and different volume and vice versa.
• Explain that density of a certain object does not vary with its mass or volume.
• Measure the volume of an object from fluid displacement.
• Use density to identify an unknown material.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Original Student Tutorials

Time for Group Work:

Learn how to communicate in a group and how to work together for a positive outcome in this interactive health tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Marvelous Solid Mixtures: Let’s Sort them Out!:

Learn and demonstrate that mixtures of solids can be separated by observable properties in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Virtual Manipulative

Density:

This resource will build the following skills:

• Describe the relationship of mass and volume to density.
• Compare objects of same mass and different volume and vice versa.
• Explain that density of a certain object does not vary with its mass or volume.
• Measure the volume of an object from fluid displacement.
• Use density to identify an unknown material.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Virtual Manipulative

Density:

This resource will build the following skills:

• Describe the relationship of mass and volume to density.
• Compare objects of same mass and different volume and vice versa.
• Explain that density of a certain object does not vary with its mass or volume.
• Measure the volume of an object from fluid displacement.
• Use density to identify an unknown material.

Type: Virtual Manipulative