# Standard 4: Use and interpret independence and probability. Export Print
General Information
Number: MA.912.DP.4
Title: Use and interpret independence and probability.
Type: Standard
Subject: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Strand: Data Analysis and Probability

## Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

## Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

## Access Points

MA.912.DP.4.AP.1
Given a sample space, select a subset of the sample space or given two sets, select the union, intersection, or complement of two sets.
MA.912.DP.4.AP.3
Given the probability of two events, P(A and B) and P(A), in decimal form, select the conditional probability of the two events {[P(A and B))/(P(A)]}.
MA.912.DP.4.AP.6
Recognize the concept of independence in everyday situations.
MA.912.DP.4.AP.7
Given the probability of two mutually exclusive events in decimal form, use the addition rule for mutually exclusive probabilities: P(A or B)=P(A)+P(B).
MA.912.DP.4.AP.8
Given the probability of two independent events in decimal form, use the multiplication rule for independent probabilities: P(A and B)=P(A)P(B).
MA.912.DP.4.AP.2
Given the probability of events A and B and the product of their probabilities, select whether the events are independent or not independent.

## Related Resources

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## Perspectives Video: Experts

Let's Make a Math Deal:

Should I keep my choice or switch?  Learn more about the origins and probability behind the Monty Hall door picking dilemma and how Game Theory and strategy effect the probability.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

History of Probability and the Problem of Points:

What was the first question that started probability theory?

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Text Resources

The Logic of Drug Testing:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explores the reliability of drug tests for athletes, using mathematics. The author attempts to address this issue by relating drug tests to conditional probability. Throughout the text, various numbers that affect the calculation of a reliable probability are discussed. Numbers such as test sensitivity, test specificity, and weight of evidence are related to Bayes' theorem, which is ultimately used to calculate the conditional probability.

Type: Text Resource

Understanding Uncertainty: What Was the Probability of Obama Winning?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article examines various factors that changed the uncertainty of whether Barack Obama would win the 2008 election. Specifically,the article discusses probability, the science of quantifying uncertainty. The article questions common methods for assessing probability where symmetrical outcomes are assumed. Finally, the author explains how to use past evidence to assess the chances of future events.

Type: Text Resource

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