MAFS.912.S-MD.2.7

Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game).
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics
Domain-Subdomain: Statistics & Probability: Using Probability to Make Decisions
Cluster: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 02/14
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1200340: Algebra 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1210300: Probability and Statistics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1298310: Advanced Topics in Mathematics (formerly 129830A) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
1501300: Personal Fitness (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1501310: Fitness Lifestyle Design (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1501320: Fitness Issues for Adolescence (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1501390: Comprehensive Fitness (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1502460: Self Defense Activities (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1502470: Recreational Activities (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1502480: Outdoor Education (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1502490: Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0800300: Health 1-Life Management Skills (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0800310: Health 2-Personal Health (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0800330: Personal, Social, and Family Relationships (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0800350: Adolescent Health Problems (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0800360: Health Explorations Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0800370: Parenting 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0800380: Parenting 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0800390: Health for Expectant Parents (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7920050: Access Health and Safety (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1800300: Aerospace Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1800310: Aerospace Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1800320: Aerospace Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1800330: Aerospace Science 4: Leadership Development (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1800340: Advanced Aerospace Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1800350: Aerospace Science 4:Transportation (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1800360: Aerospace Science 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1800400: Leadership Education 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1800410: Leadership Education 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1801300: Army: Leadership Education and Training 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1801310: Army: Leadership Education and Training 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1801320: Army: Leadership Education and Training 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1801330: Army: Leadership Education and Training 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1802300: Naval Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1802310: Naval Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1802320: Naval Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1802330: Naval Science 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1803300: Leadership Education 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1803310: Leadership Education 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1803320: Leadership Education 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1803330: Leadership Education 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1501380: Personal Fitness Trainer (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7915020: Access Personal Fitness (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MAFS.912.S-MD.2.AP.7a: Identify and describe the degree to which something is rated “good” or “bad”/desirable or undesirable based on numerical information (Identify and describe the degree to which a decision/strategy is rated “good” or “bad"/desirable or undesirable based on numerical Information.).

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Livestock Plans for Raising Red Nosed Reindeer:

This lesson about genetics and mutations investigates how red nosed reindeer could be raised in a livestock setting. Students will draw Punnett squares and design livestock plans for reproduction of red nosed reindeer.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Monty Hall Problem or How to Outsmart a Game Show and Win a Car:

This lesson teaches students how to make decisions in the face of uncertainty by using decision trees. It is aimed for high school kids with a minimal background in probability; the students only need to know how to calculate the probability of two uncorrelated events both occurring (ie flipping 2 heads in a row). Over the course of this lesson, students will learn about the role of uncertainty in decision making, how to make and use a decision tree, how to use limiting cases to develop an intuition, and how this applies to everyday life.

Type: Lesson Plan

Phalangelpodscribitis? - Analysis with Probability:

Have you ever had a cold or some other ailment that was just a nuisance to you? You tried this medication and that medication in order to treat your self-diagnosis. However, when you have exhausted all your avenues, you find yourself at the Physician's office: paying the co-pay, getting a prescription, paying more to fill the prescription with hopes of not experiencing any of the side effects associated with the medicine, and if that particular medicine doesn't work, you are back at the doctor's office and switched to another.

Well, Phalangelpodscribitis is a recently diagnosed ailment that will put a person's feet in motion. It isn't contagious but the treatment can be intense. In this lesson students will be presented with seven (7) medications that will help cure an individual of Phalangelpodscribitis. Students will be given the effectiveness of each medication, the cost to patients with and without insurance, and the possible side effects of each. Each team will be tasked with ranking these medications for a client in order to help him decide the pros and cons of the medications that should be used in treating Phalangelpodscribitis (PPS).

Each team will be responsible for recording the procedure they used to rank the medications and to calculate the expected cost for the client when two medications must be administered since the first will prove ineffective for treatment alone. The team's suggestion brings results and the patient is cured!!

Time has passed and Phalangelpodscribitis, currently known as PPS, has returned. Oh no! What will your team suggest when the doctor begins to discuss the patient's mortality rate as it is associated with the medication?

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal studentsâ€™ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Perspectives Video: Experts

How Math Models Help Insurance Companies After a Hurricane Hits:

Hurricanes can hit at any time! How do insurance companies use math and weather data to help to restore the community?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Probabilistic Weather Modeling:

Meteorologist from Risk Management discusses the use of probability in predicting hurricane tracks.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical situations where the probabilities or outcomes might not be what is first expected. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities motivated by the idea of unexpected answers. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with an introduction to probability and unexpected answers in probability.

Teaching Idea

Conditional Probability and Probability of Simultaneous Events:

This lesson is designed to further students' practice with probability as well as introduce them to conditional probability and probabilities of simultaneous independent events. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to conditional and simultaneous probabilities as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, this lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with this one.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resource

Understanding Uncertainty: What Was the Probability of Obama Winning?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article examines various factors that changed the uncertainty of whether Barack Obama would win the 2008 election. Specifically,the article discusses probability, the science of quantifying uncertainty. The article questions common methods for assessing probability where symmetrical outcomes are assumed. Finally, the author explains how to use past evidence to assess the chances of future events.

Type: Text Resource

Virtual Manipulatives

Advanced Fire Simulator - Shodor:

In this online activity, students burn a simulated forest and adjust the probability that the fire spreads from one tree to the other. This simulation also records data for each trial including the burn probability, where the fire started, the percent of trees burned, and how long the fire lasted. This activity allows students to explore the idea of chaos in a simulation of a realistic scenario. Supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet are linked to the applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Simple Monty Hall:

In this activity, students select one of three doors in an attempt to find a prize that is hidden behind one of them. After their first selection, one of the doors that doesn't have the prize behind it is revealed and the student has to decide whether to switch to the one remaining door or stay on the door of their first choice. This situation, referred to as the Monty Hall problem, was made famous on the show "Let's Make A Deal" with host Monty Hall. This activity allows students to explore the idea of conditional probability as well as unexpected probability. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Phalangelpodscribitis? - Analysis with Probability:

Have you ever had a cold or some other ailment that was just a nuisance to you? You tried this medication and that medication in order to treat your self-diagnosis. However, when you have exhausted all your avenues, you find yourself at the Physician's office: paying the co-pay, getting a prescription, paying more to fill the prescription with hopes of not experiencing any of the side effects associated with the medicine, and if that particular medicine doesn't work, you are back at the doctor's office and switched to another.

Well, Phalangelpodscribitis is a recently diagnosed ailment that will put a person's feet in motion. It isn't contagious but the treatment can be intense. In this lesson students will be presented with seven (7) medications that will help cure an individual of Phalangelpodscribitis. Students will be given the effectiveness of each medication, the cost to patients with and without insurance, and the possible side effects of each. Each team will be tasked with ranking these medications for a client in order to help him decide the pros and cons of the medications that should be used in treating Phalangelpodscribitis (PPS).

Each team will be responsible for recording the procedure they used to rank the medications and to calculate the expected cost for the client when two medications must be administered since the first will prove ineffective for treatment alone. The team's suggestion brings results and the patient is cured!!

Time has passed and Phalangelpodscribitis, currently known as PPS, has returned. Oh no! What will your team suggest when the doctor begins to discuss the patient's mortality rate as it is associated with the medication?

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal studentsâ€™ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Virtual Manipulatives

Advanced Fire Simulator - Shodor:

In this online activity, students burn a simulated forest and adjust the probability that the fire spreads from one tree to the other. This simulation also records data for each trial including the burn probability, where the fire started, the percent of trees burned, and how long the fire lasted. This activity allows students to explore the idea of chaos in a simulation of a realistic scenario. Supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet are linked to the applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Simple Monty Hall:

In this activity, students select one of three doors in an attempt to find a prize that is hidden behind one of them. After their first selection, one of the doors that doesn't have the prize behind it is revealed and the student has to decide whether to switch to the one remaining door or stay on the door of their first choice. This situation, referred to as the Monty Hall problem, was made famous on the show "Let's Make A Deal" with host Monty Hall. This activity allows students to explore the idea of conditional probability as well as unexpected probability. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.