LAFS.6.L.3.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
  2. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.
  3. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 6
Strand: Language Standards
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: EBSR , MS , ST , MC item(s)
  • Assessed with: LAFS.6.RL.2.4, LAFS.6.L.3.4
  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask the student to use the text to determine the meanings of words and phrases. Items should focus on how the words or phrases function within a passage and may require the student to analyze the impact of word choice on the text. Items should focus on words and phrases that are central to themeaning of text. Items should focus on grade-appropriate words. Items should not focus on dictionary-based word meanings butshould focus on how a word or phrase functions within the context ofthe passage. Items should focus on words and phrases that have figurative or allusive meanings central to the meaning of the text rather than isolated, incidental vocabulary. Items may ask about words with discrete context clues in close proximity or words whose meaning is conveyed more implicitly throughout the passage. Items may ask the student to employ various strategiesto explore word meaning, including the use of Greek or Latin affixes and roots. Items may require the student to use word relationships to determine the meanings of individual words. Items may ask the student to analyze figurative or connotative meanings of words.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing these standards may be used with one or more grade-appropriate literary texts. Texts may vary incomplexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Enhanced Item Descriptions section on page 3 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess thisstandard (excluding the Editing Task Choice item type). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of words or phrases by using context clues that are either explicitly or implicitly stated in the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that show the meaning of words used in the text.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that show the meanings of words as determined using context clues. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word or phrase and then to select words or phrases from the text that show the meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of words used in the text. 
    Multiselect
    • Requires the student to select multiple words or phrases from the text that act as context clues when determining another word’s meaning.
    Task Demand

    Analyze the impact of the author’s word choice on meaning or tone.

    Sample Response Mechaisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that show the impact of word choice on a text’s meaning or tone.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that show the impact of the author’sword choice on meaning or tone. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select an inference about the impact of the author’s word choice on meaning or tone and then to select words or phrases from the passage that support that inference. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the impact of word choice on a text’s meaning or tone. 
    Multiselect
    • Requires the student to select multiple ways a particular word adds to an analysis of the text and its tone.
    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of an unknown or multiple-meaning word or phrase by using context, such as a word’s position or the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that provide context clues to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that provide context clues to the meaning of a word or phrase. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word and then to select words or phrases from the text that act as context clues to support that meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of anunknown or multiple-meaning word.
    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of a word using common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes or roots.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that contain Greek or Latin affixes or roots that provide clues to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that contain Greek or Latin affixes or roots that provide clues to the meaning of a word or phrase. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word and then to select words or phrases with Greek or Latin affixes or roots from the text to support that meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word that contains a Greek or Latin affix or root.
    Task Demand

    Interpret figures of speech in the context of the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that provide context clues to the meaning of a figure of speech.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that provide context clues to the meaning of a figure of speech. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to interpret the meaning of a figure of speech and then to select words or phrases from the text that support that meaning.
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a figure of speech in the context of the text.
    Task Demand

    Use relationships, such as cause and effect or part and whole, between specific words to help interpret their meaning.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that provide support for the interpretation of a word’s meaning.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that show the meanings of words as determined using word relationships. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word and then to select words or phrases from the text that support that meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word in the context of the text or word relationship.
    Task Demand

    Distinguish among the connotations of words with similar definitions.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that provide support for the connotation of a word.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that help to determine which connotation of a word is being used.
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select the correct connotation of a word and then to select words or phrases from the text that support that meaning. 

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the correct connotation or synonym of a word found in the text.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 and beyond (current))
1001010: M/J Language Arts 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001020: M/J Language Arts 1 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002000: M/J Language Arts 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1006000: M/J Journalism 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1007000: M/J Speech and Debate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1008010: M/J Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008020: M/J Reading 1, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1009000: M/J Creative Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond)
1009030: M/J Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond)
7810011: Access M/J Language Arts 1  (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond)
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond)
1007025: M/J Speech and Debate (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2019, 2019 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.6.L.3.AP.5a: Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) in writing to promote understanding of each of the words.
LAFS.6.L.3.AP.5b: Use figurative language in context, including similes and metaphors.
LAFS.6.L.3.AP.5c: Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.
LAFS.6.L.3.AP.5d: Explain the meaning of figures of speech (e.g., personification, idioms, proverbs) in context.
LAFS.6.L.3.AP.5e: Identify the connotative meaning (the idea associated with the word) of a word or phrase.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Interpret Figures of Speech:

The student will interpret figures of speech by identifying a particular figure of speech and explaining the meaning.

Type: Formative Assessment

Understanding Word Relationships:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of words by analyzing word relationships including cause/effect, part/whole, item/category, synonym, antonym, item/characteristic, and object/function.

Type: Formative Assessment

Choosing Your Words Carefully :

The student will be given a list of synonyms in context and will determine their connotations as positive, negative, or neutral. The student will then explain the connotations of the words to distinguish how they are related.

Type: Formative Assessment

Words Create Pictures:

The student will read “An Unwitting Winner” and use a graphic organizer to identify and interpret figurative language.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Can You See Me Now?:

In this lesson, students will be introduced to the relationship between environmental changes and the effects they have on various species. Polar Bears and Peppered Moths will be used as examples during the lesson. Students will engage in a hands-on simulation that will generate data for students to analyze. Students will also engage in guided reading in the content area as they read about the peppered moth and its changing environment. The concepts of adaptation, changing environments, and extinction will be evaluated throughout the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Why Was the Belt Arrested? For Holding up the Pants! A Lesson on Personification:

In this one day lesson, students will do a warm up, watch a short video that shows examples of personification used in song lyrics, and collaborate to learn about personification. The teacher will model a think-aloud using a poem about the sun to help students identify the use of personification throughout the poem. The students will then work in small groups using a different poem--"Blessing the Boats"-- to identify and interpret the personification used. At the end of the day, students will individually read a poem-- "The Gastronomic Gym"-- to identify the personification. Throughout the lesson, students will explore the guiding question: How does the use of personification enhance a piece of text?

Type: Lesson Plan

Figurative Language - Similies and Metaphors:

This is a high interest lesson that includes segments of music, television shows and movies of interest to students. Students will review the meanings of similes and metaphors and see multiple examples from different types of media during the video portion of the lesson. During the lesson, students will practice identifying and interpreting the meaning of similes and metaphors in selected songs. As a summative assessment, students will be asked to complete a graphic organizer where they will find examples from song lyrics of their own choosing that include each form of the figurative language discussed. Students will then be asked to illustrate one of each from their song(s) as well.

Type: Lesson Plan

On the Road to Change: A Poetic Comparison:

In this lesson, students will analyze the song "Time of Your Life" by Green Day and two Robert Frost poems, "The Road Not Taken" and "Nothing Gold Can Stay."The instructor will model authors usage of symbolism, imagery, figurative language, tone and theme. Students will complete a graphic organizer and work toward the culminating activity of an essay comparing two of the pieces of literature.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Poignant Passage about the Middle Passage:

In this lesson, students will explore what makes a passage poignant by analyzing an important chapter from the historical fiction novel, The Slave Dancer, by Paula Fox. In cooperative groups, they will use their knowledge of figurative language, conflict, theme, and characterization to identify a passage that has high emotional impact, while better understanding one of the most tragic human experiences: the journey along the Middle Passage during the slave trade. As culminating assessments, students will present their group's textual analysis to the class and write an extended response to the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lincoln the Leader:

In this lesson, students will work cooperatively to read and analyze a poem that describes President Abraham Lincoln. Through teacher led and small-group discussions of "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight by Vachel Lindsay, students will learn vocabulary in context, identify the speaker's point of view, and write an argument presenting and supporting their analysis of the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Why the Attitude?:

Learn to determine the meaning of figures of speech, like similes and metaphors, that authors use in poetry. You will also be able to analyze how these word choices reveal an author’s tone, or attitude, in a poem. You will also be able to analyze how these word choices reveal an author’s tone, or attitude, in a poem. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorial

Personification: Cowbirds:

In this tutorial from PBS, students will explore the power of personification in non-fiction while analyzing an author's treatment of his subject in a documentary on cowbirds. They will be able to read informational text, learn and practice vocabulary words, and explore content through videos and interactive activities as they begin to understand how this work uses human motives and emotions to tell the cowbird's story.

Type: Tutorial

Unit/Lesson Sequences

A Study of Science and Fantasy Fiction in A Wrinkle in Time:

This is a sixth grade unit on the sci-fi novel A Wrinkle in Time by Madeline L'Engle. Students will examine the characteristics of scientific and futuristic fiction including vocabulary, setting, and plot development. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Exploring Verse Novels with "Keeping the Night Watch" and "Chess Rumble" :

This is a sixth grade unit on the verse novels Keeping the Night Watch by Hope Anita Smith and Chess Rumble by G. Neri. This unit explores narrative and lyric poetry, figurative language, author's purpose, voice, and symbolism. It includes games, graphic organizers, and a complete student packet, and includes a pacing guide and assessment with sample student answers.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Figurative Language and Author's Purpose in "Home of the Brave" by Katherine Applegate:

This is a sixth grade unit on the verse novel Home of the Brave by Katherine Applegate. This unit explores narrative and lyric poetry, figurative language, author's purpose, voice, and symbolism. It is rich with games, graphic organizers, and a complete student packet and includes a pacing guide and assessment with sample student answers.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Virtual Manipulatives

Synonyms:

This online activity asks students to use context clues to determine the meaning of an underlined word in a sentence and then select the synonym for that word from a list. Students will enjoy this interactive tool!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Antonyms:

This online activity asks students to use context clues to determine the meaning of an underlined word in a sentence and then select the antonym for that word from a list. Students will enjoy this interactive tool!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Why the Attitude?:

Learn to determine the meaning of figures of speech, like similes and metaphors, that authors use in poetry. You will also be able to analyze how these word choices reveal an author’s tone, or attitude, in a poem. You will also be able to analyze how these word choices reveal an author’s tone, or attitude, in a poem. 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Why the Attitude?:

Learn to determine the meaning of figures of speech, like similes and metaphors, that authors use in poetry. You will also be able to analyze how these word choices reveal an author’s tone, or attitude, in a poem. You will also be able to analyze how these word choices reveal an author’s tone, or attitude, in a poem. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.