MAFS.4.OA.1.b

Determine the unknown whole number in an equation relating four whole numbers using comparative relational thinking. For example, solve 76 + 9 = n + 5 for n by arguing that nine is four more than five, so the unknown number must be four greater than 76.
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics
Grade: 4
Domain-Subdomain: Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Cluster: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. (Major Cluster) -

Clusters should not be sorted from Major to Supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting clusters.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/14
Date of Last Rating: 08/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
    Also assesses: MAFS.4.OA.1a
  • Assessment Limits :
    Whole number equations are limited to: 
    • addition and subtraction within 1,000.
    • multiplication of 2-digit by 1-digit or a multiple of 10 by a 1-digit. 
    • division of 2-digit by 1-digit. 

    Variables represented by a letter are allowable.

  • Calculator :

    No

  • Context :

    Allowable

Sample Test Items (2)

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5012060: Mathematics - Grade Four (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7712050: Access Mathematics Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5012015: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MAFS.4.OA.1.AP.ba: Find the unknown number in an equation (+, - ) relating four whole numbers.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Comparative Relational Thinking in a Multiplication Equation:

Students use comparative relational thinking to determine the value of an unknown number.

Type: Formative Assessment

Comparative Relational Thinking in a Division Equation:

Students are asked to use comparative relational thinking to determine the value of an unknown number.

Type: Formative Assessment

Comparative Relational Thinking in an Addition Equation:

Students use comparative relational thinking to determine the value of an unknown number.

Type: Formative Assessment

Comparative Relational Thinking in a Subtraction Equation:

Students use comparative relational thinking to determine the value of an unknown number.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plan

Is the Equation True and Finding the Missing Number:

Students will determine if an equation is true or false based on using comparative relational thinking and knowledge of operations. The students will also determine the unknown number in some equations involving addition. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Think Fast! Comparative Strategies: Part 3:

Learn how to find a missing value when there are subtraction expressions on both sides of an equal sign by using comparative relational thinking and a number line in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a 3-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series on comparative strategies.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Think Fast! Comparative Strategies: Part 2:

Learn how to think fast to find a missing value when there are subtraction expressions on both sides of an equal sign by using using comparative relational thinking and a part-whole board in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a 3-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series on comparative strategies.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Think Fast: Comparative Strategies: Part 1:

Learn how to think fast and compare the parts in addition expressions on different sides of the equal sign to find an unknown number with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

MFAS Formative Assessments

Comparative Relational Thinking in a Division Equation:

Students are asked to use comparative relational thinking to determine the value of an unknown number.

Comparative Relational Thinking in a Multiplication Equation:

Students use comparative relational thinking to determine the value of an unknown number.

Comparative Relational Thinking in a Subtraction Equation:

Students use comparative relational thinking to determine the value of an unknown number.

Comparative Relational Thinking in an Addition Equation:

Students use comparative relational thinking to determine the value of an unknown number.

Original Student Tutorials Mathematics - Grades K-5

Think Fast! Comparative Strategies: Part 2:

Learn how to think fast to find a missing value when there are subtraction expressions on both sides of an equal sign by using using comparative relational thinking and a part-whole board in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a 3-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series on comparative strategies.

Think Fast! Comparative Strategies: Part 3:

Learn how to find a missing value when there are subtraction expressions on both sides of an equal sign by using comparative relational thinking and a number line in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a 3-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series on comparative strategies.

Think Fast: Comparative Strategies: Part 1:

Learn how to think fast and compare the parts in addition expressions on different sides of the equal sign to find an unknown number with this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Think Fast! Comparative Strategies: Part 3:

Learn how to find a missing value when there are subtraction expressions on both sides of an equal sign by using comparative relational thinking and a number line in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a 3-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series on comparative strategies.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Think Fast! Comparative Strategies: Part 2:

Learn how to think fast to find a missing value when there are subtraction expressions on both sides of an equal sign by using using comparative relational thinking and a part-whole board in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a 3-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series on comparative strategies.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Think Fast: Comparative Strategies: Part 1:

Learn how to think fast and compare the parts in addition expressions on different sides of the equal sign to find an unknown number with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.