### Clarifications

*Clarification 1*: Instruction includes showing that the corresponding sides and the corresponding angles are congruent.

**Subject Area:**Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)

**Grade:**912

**Strand:**Geometric Reasoning

**Date Adopted or Revised:**08/20

**Status:**State Board Approved

## Benchmark Instructional Guide

### Connecting Benchmarks/Horizontal Alignment

### Terms from the K-12 Glossary

- Coordinate Plane
- Origin
- Reflection
- Rigid Transformation
- Rotation
- Translation

### Vertical Alignment

Previous Benchmarks

Next Benchmarks

### Purpose and Instructional Strategies

In grade 8, students identified a single transformation given the preimage and the image and learned that when the transformation is a reflection, a rotation or a translation, those transformations preserve congruence, that is, the preimage is mapped onto a copy of itself. In Geometry, students determine whether two figures are congruent and justify their answers using a sequence of rigid motions. This leads to the definition of congruence in terms of rigid transformations.*(MTR.5.1)*

- When identifying the transformations in the sequence, specify the vertical and horizontal translations, center and angle of the rotation, clockwise or counterclockwise, line of reflection, when needed.
- Instruction includes describing the rigid transformations using words and using coordinates.
- It is important to identify corresponding parts between the preimage and the image leading to the congruence statement and the congruence of the corresponding parts (angles and sides).
- Instruction includes using examples to compare transformations preserving angle measures and distance versus transformations just preserving angle measures. Include situations where the preimage and the image are not congruent to show how rigid motions will fail mapping one figure onto the other.
*(MTR.4.1)*

### Common Misconceptions or Errors

- Students may have trouble seeing congruence when a reflection is needed because they limit their thinking to sliding a figure around without turning it over.

### Instructional Tasks

*Instructional Task 1 (MTR.3.1,*

*MTR.4.1*)- Two triangles on the coordinate plane are shown below.

- Part A. What transformation(s) could be applied to map triangle
*EBD*onto triangle*CBA*? - Part B. Once the transformation is completed, how can you determine if the two triangles are congruent?

### Instructional Items

*Instructional Item 1*

- Describe the sequence of transformations that could be used to prove that the two quadrilaterals shown are congruent.

**The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.*

## Related Courses

## Related Access Points

## Related Resources

## Formative Assessments

## Lesson Plans

## Problem-Solving Tasks

## MFAS Formative Assessments

Students are asked to use rigid motion to explain why the ASA pattern of congruence ensures triangle congruence.

Students are asked to use rigid motion to explain why the HL pattern of congruence ensures right triangle congruence.

Students are asked to use rigid motion to explain why the SAS pattern of congruence ensures triangle congruence.

Students are asked to use rigid motion to explain why the SSS pattern of congruence ensures triangle congruence.

In a diagram involving two parallel lines and a transversal, students are asked to use rigid motion to prove that alternate interior angles are congruent.

Students are asked to use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motion to show that two triangles are congruent in the coordinate plane.

Students are asked to translate and rotate a triangle in the coordinate plane and explain why the pre-image and image are congruent.

## Student Resources

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is for students to find a way to decompose a regular hexagon into congruent figures. This is meant as an instructional task that gives students some practice working with transformations.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task ask students to show the reflection of one triangle maps to another triangle.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this problem, we considered SSA. The triangle congruence criteria, SSS, SAS, ASA, all require three pieces of information. It is interesting, however, that not all three pieces of information about sides and angles are sufficient to determine a triangle up to congruence.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to explain the reason why the given triangles are congruent, and to construct reflections of the points.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This activity uses rigid transformations of the plane to explore symmetries of classes of triangles.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This activity is one in a series of tasks using rigid transformations of the plane to explore symmetries of classes of triangles, with this task in particular focusing on the class of equilaterial triangles

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to use a straightedge and compass to construct the line across which a triangle is reflected.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This particular problem solving task exhibits congruency between two triangles, demonstrating translation, reflection and rotation.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task applies reflections to a regular octagon to construct a pattern of four octagons enclosing a quadrilateral: the focus of the task is on using the properties of reflections to deduce that the quadrilateral is actually a square.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task applies reflections to a regular hexagon to construct a pattern of six hexagons enclosing a seventh: the focus of the task is on using the properties of reflections to deduce this seven hexagon pattern.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The goal of this task is to provide an opportunity for students to apply a wide range of ideas from geometry and algebra in order to show that a given quadrilateral is a rectangle. Creativity will be essential here as the only given information is the Cartesian coordinates of the quadrilateral's vertices. Using this information to show that the four angles are right angles will require some auxiliary constructions. Students will need ample time and, for some of the methods provided below, guidance. The reward of going through this task thoroughly should justify the effort because it provides students an opportunity to see multiple geometric and algebraic constructions unified to achieve a common purpose. The teacher may wish to have students first brainstorm for methods of showing that a quadrilateral is rectangle (before presenting them with the explicit coordinates of the rectangle for this problem): ideally, they can then divide into groups and get to work straightaway once presented with the coordinates of the quadrilateral for this problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Parent Resources

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is for students to find a way to decompose a regular hexagon into congruent figures. This is meant as an instructional task that gives students some practice working with transformations.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task ask students to show the reflection of one triangle maps to another triangle.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this problem, we considered SSA. The triangle congruence criteria, SSS, SAS, ASA, all require three pieces of information. It is interesting, however, that not all three pieces of information about sides and angles are sufficient to determine a triangle up to congruence.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to explain the reason why the given triangles are congruent, and to construct reflections of the points.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This activity uses rigid transformations of the plane to explore symmetries of classes of triangles.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This activity is one in a series of tasks using rigid transformations of the plane to explore symmetries of classes of triangles, with this task in particular focusing on the class of equilaterial triangles

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to use a straightedge and compass to construct the line across which a triangle is reflected.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This particular problem solving task exhibits congruency between two triangles, demonstrating translation, reflection and rotation.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task applies reflections to a regular octagon to construct a pattern of four octagons enclosing a quadrilateral: the focus of the task is on using the properties of reflections to deduce that the quadrilateral is actually a square.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task applies reflections to a regular hexagon to construct a pattern of six hexagons enclosing a seventh: the focus of the task is on using the properties of reflections to deduce this seven hexagon pattern.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The goal of this task is to provide an opportunity for students to apply a wide range of ideas from geometry and algebra in order to show that a given quadrilateral is a rectangle. Creativity will be essential here as the only given information is the Cartesian coordinates of the quadrilateral's vertices. Using this information to show that the four angles are right angles will require some auxiliary constructions. Students will need ample time and, for some of the methods provided below, guidance. The reward of going through this task thoroughly should justify the effort because it provides students an opportunity to see multiple geometric and algebraic constructions unified to achieve a common purpose. The teacher may wish to have students first brainstorm for methods of showing that a quadrilateral is rectangle (before presenting them with the explicit coordinates of the rectangle for this problem): ideally, they can then divide into groups and get to work straightaway once presented with the coordinates of the quadrilateral for this problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task