### Clarifications

*Clarification 1:*Problems involving fractions will include addition and subtraction with like denominators and multiplication of a fraction by a whole number or a whole number by a fraction.

*Clarification 2:*Problems involving fractions are limited to denominators of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 100.

*Clarification 3:*Within the benchmark, the expectation is not to use decimals.

**Subject Area:**Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)

**Grade:**4

**Strand:**Measurement

**Standard:**Solve problems involving time and money.

**Date Adopted or Revised:**08/20

**Status:**State Board Approved

## Benchmark Instructional Guide

### Connecting Benchmarks/Horizontal Alignment

### Terms from the K-12 Glossary

- NA

### Vertical Alignment

Previous Benchmarks

Next Benchmarks

- NA

### Purpose and Instructional Strategies

The purpose of this benchmark is to connect concepts of unit conversions to time and distance and solve problems with these conversions. In grade 3, students solved one- and two-step elapsed time problems without converting units of time or crossing from a.m. to p.m. or p.m. to a.m. (MA.3.M.2.2).- For distance problems, students may need to understand multiplicative comparison (e.g., 20 is twice as many as 10).
- For instruction, an open number line is a strategy students can use to solve elapsed time problems.

- Students need to spend time solving problems crossing between a.m. and p.m., and vice- versa.
- Students should also have a firm understanding of the terms quarter hour (15 minutes) and half hour (30 minutes).

### Common Misconceptions or Errors

- Students can confuse when time crosses the hour because it does not follow the base-ten pattern where they are familiar. For example, students can misinterpret that the elapsed time between 9:55 a.m. and 10:05 a.m. and state that the elapsed time is 50 minutes because they have found the difference from 55 to 105. The use of number lines and clocks side-by-side help students build understanding about how elapsed time is calculated.

### Strategies to Support Tiered Instruction

- Instruction includes the use of number lines and clocks side-by-side to help students build understanding about how elapsed time is calculated.
- Instruction includes using a number line and counting by ones to demonstrate what happens when time crosses the hour because it does not follow the familiar base ten pattern.
- For example, use a number line to find the elapsed time between 9:55 a.m. and 10:05 a.m. and explain what happens when time crosses the hour at 10:00 a.m.

- Instruction includes demonstrating what happens when time crosses the hour because it does not follow the familiar base ten pattern.
- For example, instruction may include using a geared manipulative (Judy) clock to find the elapsed time between 9:55 a.m. and 10:05 a.m. Students move the minute of the hand one minute at a time from 9:55 to 10:00. After each minute, the teacher asks the students to record what time it is. The teacher has students pay special attention to what happens when the minute hand moves from 9:59 to the next minute.

### Instructional Tasks

*Instructional Task 1 *(MTR.7.1)

### Instructional Items

*Instructional Item 1 *

- a. 1:30 p.m.
- b. 1:13 p.m.
- c. 11:17 a.m.
- d. 11:00 a.m.

**The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.*

## Related Courses

## Related Access Points

## Related Resources

## Formative Assessment

## Lesson Plans

## Tutorials

## Video/Audio/Animation

## STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Students will help a track coach determine which shoe is the best to purchase for his team. Students will be required to convert measurements initially and then rank the shoes from best to worst based on the data provided.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Students will evaluate different factors for building the right roller coaster.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

This activity requires students to apply their knowledge of unit conversions, speed calculation, and comparing fractions to solve the problem of which water park their class should choose to go on for their 5th grade class trip.

## MFAS Formative Assessments

## Student Resources

## Tutorials

In this Khan Academy tutorial video Chris is told to be home by 6:15. You know the number of minutes it takes him to get home. What time should he leave?

Type: Tutorial

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, explore conversion of units of time between hours, minutes and seconds.

Type: Tutorial

## Parent Resources

## Tutorial

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, explore conversion of units of time between hours, minutes and seconds.

Type: Tutorial