Standard 3: Demonstrate an understanding of the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution and the founding principles of our nation.

General Information
Number: SS.8.A.3
Title: Demonstrate an understanding of the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution and the founding principles of our nation.
Type: Standard
Subject: Social Studies
Grade: 8
Strand: American History

Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

Independent

SS.8.A.3.In.a
Identify the consequences of the French and Indian War on the British rule of the colonies, such as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Tea Act.
SS.8.A.3.In.b
Identify American colonial reaction to British policy, such as protests to the acts, the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and the First Continental Congress.
SS.8.A.3.In.c
Recognize major contributions of the Founding Fathers, such as John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington.
SS.8.A.3.In.d
Identify contributions of key groups to the outcomes of the American Revolutionary War, including Native Americans, slaves, and women.
SS.8.A.3.In.e
Identify the influence of individuals on social and political developments, such as James Otis—“taxation without representation,” Abigail Adams—women’s rights, Mercy Otis Warren—abolition of slavery, or Benjamin Banneker—architecture.
SS.8.A.3.In.f
Identify major causes, events, and consequences of the American Revolution, such as “Common Sense,” unfair taxes, the Declaration of Independence, winter at Valley Forge, and the Treaty of Paris.
SS.8.A.3.In.g
Identify important content of the Declaration of Independence.
SS.8.A.3.In.h
Identify the impact of individuals and groups on the American Revolution, such as Ethan Allen, the Sons of Liberty, Patrick Henry, Patriots, and individual militias.
SS.8.A.3.In.i
Identify major characteristics of the Articles of Confederation, such as a weak central government and power for the states.
SS.8.A.3.In.j
Identify major consequences of the Constitutional Convention, such as developing different plans for the number of votes allotted for each state in Congress, the Great Compromise (the makeup of Congress), and the power of the president.
SS.8.A.3.In.k
Recognize reasons why people supported or opposed the Constitution, such as the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
SS.8.A.3.In.l
Identify influences of George Washington’s presidency, such as forming the Cabinet, keeping the country out of war, paying off the debt, and establishing a national bank and money system.
SS.8.A.3.In.m
Identify major developments of the presidency of John Adams, such as extending the waiting period for citizenship (Alien Act) and prohibiting criticism of the government (Sedition Act).
SS.8.A.3.In.n
Identify major developments of the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, such as the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark Expedition, and the embargo on goods traded with Great Britain and France.
SS.8.A.3.In.o
Identify the quality of life of under-represented groups during the American Revolution and after, such as children, indentured servants, Native Americans, slaves, women, and the working class.
SS.8.A.3.In.p
Identify the consequences of key events in Florida history as they relate to the American Revolution, such as Florida being a refuge for Loyalists, Indian resistance, and Spanish control of Florida.

Supported

SS.8.A.3.Su.a
Recognize a consequence of the French and Indian War on British rule of the colonies, such as restricting freedom and creating more taxes.
SS.8.A.3.Su.b
Recognize American colonial reaction to British policy, such as protests to the acts, the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and the First Continental Congress.
SS.8.A.3.Su.c
Recognize a contribution of one of the Founding Fathers, such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, or George Washington.
SS.8.A.3.Su.d
Recognize contributions of a key group to the American Revolutionary War, including Native Americans, slaves, or women.
SS.8.A.3.Su.e
Recognize an influence of an individual on social and political developments, such as James Otis—“taxation without representation,” Abigail Adams—women’s rights, Mercy Otis Warren—abolition of slavery, or Benjamin Banneker—architecture.
SS.8.A.3.Su.f
Recognize major causes and consequences of the American Revolution, such as “Common Sense,” unfair taxes, the Declaration of Independence, winter at Valley Forge, and the Treaty of Paris.
SS.8.A.3.Su.g
Recognize the key ideas included in the Declaration of Independence.
SS.8.A.3.Su.h
Recognize the impact of individuals and groups on the American Revolution, such as some led resistance toward the British while others provided support for the British.
SS.8.A.3.Su.i
Recognize that the Articles of Confederation set up a weak central government.
SS.8.A.3.Su.j
Recognize major consequences of the Constitutional Convention, such as the makeup of Congress, how votes would be given to states, and the power of the president.
SS.8.A.3.Su.k
Recognize that some people supported and others opposed the Constitution.
SS.8.A.3.Su.l
Recognize an influence of George Washington’s presidency, such as forming the Cabinet and establishing a national bank and money system.
SS.8.A.3.Su.m
Recognize a major development of the presidency of John Adams, such as prohibiting criticism of the government (Sedition Act).
SS.8.A.3.Su.n
Recognize a major development of the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, such as the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
SS.8.A.3.Su.o
Recognize the quality of life of an under-represented group, such as children, indentured servants, Native Americans, slaves, women, or the working class.
SS.8.A.3.Su.p
Recognize a consequence of key events in Florida as they relate to the American Revolution, such as Florida being a refuge for Loyalists, Indian resistance, or Spanish control of Florida.

Participatory

SS.8.A.3.Pa.a
Recognize that the colonists were unhappy with British rule.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.b
Recognize that the colonists were unhappy with British rule.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.c
Recognize a Founding Father, such as George Washington.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.d
Recognize ways groups help during times of war.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.e
Recognize that an individual can influence social developments.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.f
Recognize that the colonists were unhappy with British rule.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.g
Recognize freedom as a goal of the Declaration of Independence.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.h
Recognize ways groups help during times of war.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.i
Recognize that people can work together to set up a government.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.j
Recognize a way individuals or groups reach agreement.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.k
Recognize a way individuals or groups reach agreement.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.l
Recognize that George Washington was the first president.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.m
Recognize that new leaders bring changes to the country.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.n
Recognize that new leaders bring changes to the country.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.o
Recognize an aspect of the quality of life.
SS.8.A.3.Pa.p
Recognize a consequence of a key event in Florida during this era of American history.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

Data Set

Measuring Loyalism in America c. 1775-1785:

This infographic shows both the level of Loyalism in America during the American Revolution and the extent of postwar Loyalist migration.

Type: Data Set

Lesson Plans

Ice Cream at Mount Vernon:

In this short lesson plan, students will explore and analyze a variety of interactive sources (texts and visuals) to answer the compelling question: Why was ice cream an exclusive treat at Mount Vernon long ago?

The lesson is presented as a module for students to navigate through on computers. Text resources, assessments, answer keys, and rubrics for students and teachers are attached.

Type: Lesson Plan

The New Room: Place as a Primary Source:

In this lesson plan, student will analyze as primary sources the objects and furnishings in George Washington's "New Room" at his Mount Vernon estate. Take a virtual tour of the New Room at

Students will attempt to answer the question: "What message did George and Martha Washington want to convey to their guests in the New Room?"

Type: Lesson Plan

Museum Exhibit Proposal: Examining American History from 1763 to 1815 through the Arts:

In examining American History from 1763 to 1815 students, working individually and collaboratively, research and create a proposed exhibit for the National Women’s History Museum. Delivered in three clearly articulated segments, this arts integrated lesson is scaffolded to set students up for success as they learn and demonstrate learning of the social studies content through artistic means and reflection. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

The Great Debate: Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists:

In this interactive tutorial, you'll compare the viewpoints of the two groups on opposite sides of the great debate over ratifying the U.S. Constitution: Federalists and Anti-Federalists.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Britain vs. America: What Led to the Declaration of Independence:

In this interactive tutorial, learn why Great Britain and her 13 American colonies split between 1763 and 1776.  At the end of this time span, Britain and America were at war, and the Declaration of Independence had announced the United States of America as a brand new nation, no longer colonies of Britain.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing the Declaration of Independence :

In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how to analyze the ideas, grievances (complaints), and language found in the Declaration of Independence, one of the most important documents in the history of the United States.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

From Confederation to Constitution:

Learn about the Articles of Confederation, our nation’s first written constitution, in this interactive tutorial.  You'll identify its major weaknesses and their consequences and explain the reasons why America's Founders replaced the Articles of Confederation with the government we still use today, the U.S. Constitution.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Ideas

20 Questions for Reading and Evaluating Objects:

This resource from Mount Vernon provides students with a "20 questions" tool for analyzing historical objects. It also provides several Washington-related objects to analyze.

Type: Teaching Idea

The Revolutionary War: Historical Fiction Connection Using My Brother Sam is Dead:

This web resource from Discovery Education provides teaching ideas on using James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier's My Brother Sam is Dead to help students understand how they can learn about the past through historical novels. Students will investigate how some people take one side or another in a war or other conflict; some people find themselves caught in the middle.

Type: Teaching Idea

The Battle of Lexington and Concord: Historical Interpretation:

Through this web resource, students will use a graphic organizer to analyze and interpret engravings representing the Battle of Lexington and Concord, considering context and bias. They will then decide how best to represent this battle, and create a representation of their own from either the American or British perspective. The resource features background information, an illustrated map of Lexington, engravings for analysis, and a graphic organizer for students as they work to develop their own interpretation of two key battles in the American Revolution.

Type: Teaching Idea

Middle School Debate: Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists:

Students will participate in a debate using the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. This could be a verbal, silent, or alley debate. One group will represent the Federalists and be given information relating to their arguments. The other group will act as the Anti-Federalists and be given information relating to their arguments. Provide students time to prepare their arguments either individually or as a team, then commence the debate.

Type: Teaching Idea

Middle School Source Analysis: Rhetorical Appeals in the Declaration of Independence:

In this activity, designed for use in the debate classroom, students will use prior knowledge of ethos, logos, and pathos to analyze the grievances in the Declaration of Independence and classify the rhetorical appeals in each.

 

Type: Teaching Idea

Unit/Lesson Sequence

George Washington: First in War, First in Peace, and First in the Hearts of Countrymen :

Through this three-lesson unit examining George Washington's role in the French and Indian War, at the Federal Convention, and as chief executive, students will analyze a variety of primary source documents to help evaluate whether Washington's actions were characteristic of good leadership. The unit includes focus questions that may be used in Socratic seminars, cooperative learning, individual, and group work.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Video/Audio/Animations

Yorktown: Now or Never:

View a 10-part video on the Battle of Yorktown, the culminating battle of the Revolutionary War. With French aid, George Washington led American troops to a victory that ensured American independence.

In addition to the video, you will find primary source documents and a graphic organizer to help you analyze the Battle of Yorktown in greater detail.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

A More Perfect Union: George Washington and the Making of the Constitution:

This 3-part video from Mount Vernon details the struggles that led delegates from the 13 colonies to hold a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787. At this convention, under the leadership of George Washington, the delegates rejected the Articles of Confederation in favor of a new, stronger federal government. After the Constitution's ratification, Washington become the new nation's first president.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Original Student Tutorials

The Great Debate: Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists:

In this interactive tutorial, you'll compare the viewpoints of the two groups on opposite sides of the great debate over ratifying the U.S. Constitution: Federalists and Anti-Federalists.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Britain vs. America: What Led to the Declaration of Independence:

In this interactive tutorial, learn why Great Britain and her 13 American colonies split between 1763 and 1776.  At the end of this time span, Britain and America were at war, and the Declaration of Independence had announced the United States of America as a brand new nation, no longer colonies of Britain.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing the Declaration of Independence :

In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how to analyze the ideas, grievances (complaints), and language found in the Declaration of Independence, one of the most important documents in the history of the United States.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

From Confederation to Constitution:

Learn about the Articles of Confederation, our nation’s first written constitution, in this interactive tutorial.  You'll identify its major weaknesses and their consequences and explain the reasons why America's Founders replaced the Articles of Confederation with the government we still use today, the U.S. Constitution.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Yorktown: Now or Never:

View a 10-part video on the Battle of Yorktown, the culminating battle of the Revolutionary War. With French aid, George Washington led American troops to a victory that ensured American independence.

In addition to the video, you will find primary source documents and a graphic organizer to help you analyze the Battle of Yorktown in greater detail.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

A More Perfect Union: George Washington and the Making of the Constitution:

This 3-part video from Mount Vernon details the struggles that led delegates from the 13 colonies to hold a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787. At this convention, under the leadership of George Washington, the delegates rejected the Articles of Confederation in favor of a new, stronger federal government. After the Constitution's ratification, Washington become the new nation's first president.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Parent Resources

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