# Big Idea 12: Motion of Objects

A. Motion is a key characteristic of all matter that can be observed, described, and measured.

B. The motion of objects can be changed by forces.

General Information
Number: SC.6.P.12
Title: Motion of Objects
Type: Big Idea
Subject: Science
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science

## Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

## Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

## Independent

SC.6.P.12.In.1
Identify that speed describes the distance and time in which an object is moving, such as miles per hour.

## Supported

SC.6.P.12.Su.1
Recognize that speed describes how far an object travels in a given amount of time.

## Participatory

SC.6.P.12.Pa.1
Recognize that traveling longer distances takes more time, such as going to the cafeteria takes longer than going across the classroom.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Lesson Plans

Spark Timer Motion Lab:

In this lab, students use two toy cars (one constant velocity battery-powered and one pull-back accelerating car) to investigate motion and speed. Students predict, observe, and graph distance vs. time.

Type: Lesson Plan

Battle of the Monster Trucks!:

Students will use battery operated monster trucks to measure distance and time, and then use the data to calculate speed and make a graph.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bottymals @ RobottoysTM:

In this Model Eliciting Activity (MEA), students will learn how to use very different pieces of information and data to select the best "Bottymals" for a company that wants to manufacture them and place them on the market. The MEA includes information about animal/insect anatomy (locomotion), manufacturing materials used in robotics, and physical science of the 6th grade level. Extensive information is provided to students, thus pre-requisites are minimal.

Type: Lesson Plan

How Fast Can One Travel on a Bicycle?:

Students investigate how the pedal and rear wheel gears affect the speed of a bicycle. A GeoGebra sketch is included that allows a simulation of the turning of the pedal and the rear wheel. A key goal is to provide an experience for the students to apply and integrate the key concepts in seventh grade mathematics in a familiar context.

Type: Lesson Plan

Soccer Ball Speed Lab :

This lesson will help students to understand the relationship between distance and time and how that relationship can be graphed to determine the speed of an object.

Type: Lesson Plan

Graphing Average Speed:

The purpose of this lesson plan is to teach students to interpret and construct distance–time graphs, including relating speeds to gradients of these graphs. The students will also calculate average speed and identify the relationship relative to the points on the y and x axis.

Type: Lesson Plan

You Can't Pass Me!:

Students will collect and analyze position and time data to determine how fast each member of their lab team can power-walk along a 50 meter path.

Type: Lesson Plan

I Feel the Need...for Speed!:

In this 6th grade inquiry-based lesson, students will be creating their own experiments based on the materials given that will illustrate constant speed and the relationship between distance and time.

Type: Lesson Plan

Speed and Distance Graphs:

In this lesson students will record a walker/runners time over a 100 meter distance. Students will then record the walker/runners time at 10 meter intervals for a total of 10 times and record them on a data chart.

Students will then use the data to create a double line graph showing the distance and time of the walker/runner.

Finally, students will calculate the speed of the walker/runner using the data from the graph and independently create a bar graph of the average speed for the walker and for the runner.

Then students will take a short assessment to show their understanding of the concepts taught.

Type: Lesson Plan

Slow and Fast:

Students will compare distance over time graphs with varying speeds. The students will have the opportunity to be "the lab" as they walk, record, calculate, and graph their own speed.

Type: Lesson Plan

Average Speed and Graphing:

Students learn how to calculate average speed and how to construct and interpret a distance vs time graph.

Type: Lesson Plan

Constant Speed or Acceleration?:

ResourceID: 76159

• Create a line graph using a given set of data.
• Complete a structured inquiry lab in which they measure distance and time of a moving toy car to determine the speed.
• Use their collected data to create a distance vs. time line graph.
• Interpret the relationship between distance and time as shown on the line graph to determine which ramp produced data closest to constant speed.

Type: Lesson Plan

Hey buddy, how fast are you going? You are speeding!:

How about a bicycle race in your classroom? This lesson has students riding trikes to measure distance and time. Students record the data and find the speed for each trial run! Each class will graph results on a large graph displayed on wall in classroom. For further practice, the word problems change to real world situations for students to solve.

Type: Lesson Plan

Are You Faster Than A Middle Schooler?:

Students record and graph motion of objects and calculate average speed. Lesson plan, rubrics, and sample data sheet are included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Motion Commotion:

Students watch a short video clip about a Driver's Ed teacher using a Corvette to teach students how to drive. In this lesson, students must try out their own ability to follow verbal directions to act out the motion of a car by finger-walking on their own paper track and comparing it to the motion displayed on a distance / time graph. Students also get guided practice by physically walking the motion displayed on a motion graph. An interactive motion program is used to allow students to familiarize themselves with graphical representation of motion. A student assessment includes a distance / time graph in which the motion must be interpreted.

This lesson covers the portion of Benchmark SC.6.P.12.1 that focuses on interpreting graphs. A lab collecting distance traveled and time is suggested, but not required to be completed first. This gives students multiple ways to practice the interpretation of motion graphs.

Type: Lesson Plan

Going The Distance:

This lesson provides a hands-on activity where students can apply solving one-step multiplication and division equations to a real-world problem. The lesson focuses on the relationship between distance, rate, and time. The students will also represent data on graphs and draw conclusions and make interpretations based on the graphs.

Type: Lesson Plan

In this lesson students will learn to read, analyze, and interpret line graphs. The lesson begins with a prediction activity to assess prior knowledge. Students will work in small groups to complete a lab and then read a scenario, interpret the scenario, and create a graphical representation of the scenario. Students will then need to present and justify their results. Students will engage in additional practice through an individual worksheet that matches graphs to short descriptions. Students will provide evidence of learning through a summative written assessment.

Type: Lesson Plan

Our Magical World Vacation:

Students are asked to create a map for a family about to go on a family trip to Magical World Park. All of the family members have wants that they would like the itinerary to have in order to ensure that the family has a great time at the park. Students are asked to look at a map to decide what parts of the park to go to first that allow the family to have everything they desire for their family trip. As a vacation planner working for our company, the students will be asked to create an itinerary for the family. The students will then receive an approval from the family, but now have decided to have the entire family meet up for the annual family reunion. Will the itinerary still work or will the student need to tweak some of their previous thinking?

Type: Lesson Plan

Paper Route Logic:

The main problem students will need to solve is helping Lily Rae Wridenhoud find a route that will afford her the quickest time, least distance and highest customer satisfaction rating. Students will be given a map of all the streets leading around the neighborhood and customer rating (smiley faces). Students will need to use a ruler to figure out distances as well as decide elevation numbers on the topographic map. Then they will write out the route they have chosen to give Lily, and write a short explanation as to why this is the quickest and least distance traveled. Students will then be asked to look over their findings and be informed that some of the old clients have canceled the paper delivery and a few new paper clients have signed on. Does their new route still fit their findings?

Type: Lesson Plan

How Fast can Dominoes Travel in a Chain Reaction?:

The students will complete an inquiry activity using dominoes to determine what variables affect the speed of the chain reaction. Students will have to consider and decide on the best spacing between dominoes to achieve the fastest travel time and ensure the spacing remains constant by carefully measuring the distance between each domino. They will set up 5 dominoes at a time to set off a chain reaction alongside another 5 dominoes space differently. Students can create a bar graph to show how the spacing affects the speed. Students can have fun while learning or reinforcing their understanding of potential and kinetic energy, measuring distance, measuring elapsed time, recording data, making and interpreting graphs and using the distance formula to calculate the rate of speed.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Physics of Land Yachting:

In this lesson, students will explore motion related to an object in terms of its change in position over time compared to a reference point.

Students will be given a variety of simple materials to create and test their very own land yachts to explore motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Interpreting Distance vs. Time Graphs:

Students will interpret distance vs. time graphs to assess relative speed of an object and the directions of motion.
Content statements:

• A horizontal line means the object is stopped.
• A straight diagonal line means the object is traveling at a constant speed whereas a curved line means the speed is changing.
• The steeper the angle of the line, the faster the object is traveling.
• An upward line means that the object is moving farther away but a downward line means that the object is moving closer to a specific point.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorials

The Notion of Motion, Part 3 - Average Velocity:

Describe the average velocity of a dune buggy using kinematics in this interactive tutorial. You'll calculate displacement and average velocity, create and analyze a velocity vs. time scatterplot, and relate average velocity to the slope of position vs. time scatterplots.

This is part 3 of 3 in a series that mirrors inquiry-based, hands-on activities from our popular workshops.

• Click  to open The Notion of Motion, Part 1 - Time Measurements
• Click HERE to open The Notion of Motion, Part 2 - Position vs Time

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Notion of Motion, Part 2 - Position vs Time:

Continue an exploration of kinematics to describe linear motion by focusing on position-time measurements from the motion trial in part 1. In this interactive tutorial, you'll identify position measurements from the spark tape, analyze a scatterplot of the position-time data, calculate and interpret slope on the position-time graph, and make inferences about the dune buggy’s average speed

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Notion of Motion, Part 1 - Time Measurements:

Begin an exploration of kinematics to describe linear motion.  You'll observe a motorized dune buggy, describe its motion qualitatively, and identify time values associated with its motion in the interactive lesson.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tracking Distance Over Time:

Learn to measure, graph, and interpret the relationship of distance over time of a sea turtle moving at a constant speed.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learning in Florida's Environment (LIFE)- Longshore Drift:

Students will measure the speed of a longshore drift current using a tennis ball. Students will plot the distance the ball was carried versus time in order to measure the current's velocity.

## Teaching Idea

Walk This Way:

This challenges small groups of students (2-3) to apply their understanding of constant speed and constant acceleration to the task of interpreting and replicating position v. time and velocity-time graphs that display a variety of 1-D motion examples.

Type: Teaching Idea

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Original Student Tutorials

The Notion of Motion, Part 3 - Average Velocity:

Describe the average velocity of a dune buggy using kinematics in this interactive tutorial. You'll calculate displacement and average velocity, create and analyze a velocity vs. time scatterplot, and relate average velocity to the slope of position vs. time scatterplots.

This is part 3 of 3 in a series that mirrors inquiry-based, hands-on activities from our popular workshops.

• Click  to open The Notion of Motion, Part 1 - Time Measurements
• Click HERE to open The Notion of Motion, Part 2 - Position vs Time

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Notion of Motion, Part 2 - Position vs Time:

Continue an exploration of kinematics to describe linear motion by focusing on position-time measurements from the motion trial in part 1. In this interactive tutorial, you'll identify position measurements from the spark tape, analyze a scatterplot of the position-time data, calculate and interpret slope on the position-time graph, and make inferences about the dune buggy’s average speed

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Notion of Motion, Part 1 - Time Measurements:

Begin an exploration of kinematics to describe linear motion.  You'll observe a motorized dune buggy, describe its motion qualitatively, and identify time values associated with its motion in the interactive lesson.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tracking Distance Over Time:

Learn to measure, graph, and interpret the relationship of distance over time of a sea turtle moving at a constant speed.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.