# Big Idea 11: Energy Transfer and Transformations

A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.

B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.

C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.

Clarification for grades 5-8: The target understanding for Big Idea 11: Energy Transfer and Transformations, is the Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy is conserved as it transfers from one object to another and from one form to another.

General Information
Number: SC.4.P.11
Title: Energy Transfer and Transformations
Type: Big Idea
Subject: Science
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science

## Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

## Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

## Independent

SC.4.P.11.In.1
Identify that a hot object will make a cold object warm when they touch.
SC.4.P.11.In.2
Identify materials that are strong conductors of heat, such as metal.

## Supported

SC.4.P.11.Su.1
Recognize that a hot object can make a cold object warm when they touch.
SC.4.P.11.Su.2
Recognize a common material that is a strong conductor of heat, such as metal.

## Participatory

SC.4.P.11.Pa.1
Recognize a temperature change from cold to warm.
SC.4.P.11.Pa.2
Recognize common objects that conduct heat.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Lesson Plans

Just Right Goldilocks’ Café: Temperature & Turbidity:

This is lesson 3 of 3 in the Goldilocks’ Café Just Right unit. This lesson focuses on systematic investigation on getting a cup of coffee to be the “just right” temperature and turbidity level. Students will use both the temperature probe and turbidity sensor and code using ScratchX during their investigation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Just Right Goldilocks’ Café: Turbidity:

This is lesson 2 of 3 in the Just Right Goldilocks’ Café unit. This lesson focuses on systematic investigation on getting a cup of coffee to be the “just right” level of turbidity. Students will use turbidity sensors and code using ScratchX during their investigation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Just Right Goldilocks’ Café: Temperature:

This is lesson 1 of 3 in the Just Right Goldilocks’ Café unit. This lesson focuses on systematic investigation on getting a cup of coffee to be the “just right” temperature. Students will use temperature probes and code using ScratchX during their investigation.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Playground Project:

Students will enjoy designing their "dream" playground while applying math and science skills in this engineering design challenge lesson. Students will find the area and perimeter of their playground designs. They will also use a budget sheet to make decisions about what to include in their playground, considering the physical properties of the materials they "purchase."

Type: Lesson Plan

Heating Up the Neighborhood:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of heat insulators as they build a model house and test different materials to use as insulators, stopping the warm air from escaping and keeping the cool air out. Students will also have an opportunity to use technology in their exploration of heat energy.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lizard Lights:

Students will use a real-world problem solving situation to determine the best types of light bulbs to maintain an appropriate environment for a captive lizard.

Type: Lesson Plan

Turn Up the Heat!:

In this 4th grade MEA, students will work in groups to develop a procedure to rank which company would offer the best pot holders. Students will consider factors such materials, heat resistance, durability, Physical properties ( shape and color) and appearance to help pick the best option. Students will apply their knowledge of how heat transfers and understanding of materials that don't conduct heat energy to help evaluate the companies.

Type: Lesson Plan

Thrift Town Melt-Down - Let's Cool up!:

During this activity, students will look at data from a fictional town, Thrift Town and develop a strategy of choosing which material would be the best to help insulate an ice cream container. The students will utilize higher order thinking skills, as well as deduction to find a solution.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem, while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought process. MEAs follow a problem-based, student centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEA’s visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Cube Cooler—An Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of heat insulators from SC.4.P.11.2 as they build cube-coolers to slow the melting rate of ice. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Type: Lesson Plan

Keep it Cool –an Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help fourth grade students apply the concepts of the flow of heat from a hot object to a cold object and that heat flow may cause objects to change temperature. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Type: Lesson Plan

Stop Heat From Escaping:

In this activity, students act as engineers to determine which type of insulation would conserve the most energy.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorial

Thermal Conductors and Insulators:

Explore thermal energy and identify materials that allow thermal energy to transfer through them easily and materials that do not with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Teaching Ideas

Cool It!:

As a result of this activity, students will be able to observe that materials transfer heat at different rates.

Type: Teaching Idea

Heat Transfer:

Students will explore how different colors absorb or reflect heat using a black can of water, a white can of water, and a plain can of water.

Type: Teaching Idea

## Video/Audio/Animation

Experiment - Which is the best insulator?:

Watch a demonstration of an experiment which tests the effectiveness of two different insulators. The participants will demonstrate their thinking as they run an experiment, identify variables and collect data.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Original Student Tutorial

Thermal Conductors and Insulators:

Explore thermal energy and identify materials that allow thermal energy to transfer through them easily and materials that do not with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animation

Experiment - Which is the best insulator?:

Watch a demonstration of an experiment which tests the effectiveness of two different insulators. The participants will demonstrate their thinking as they run an experiment, identify variables and collect data.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.