# MAFS.912.S-IC.2.3Archived Standard

Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics
Domain-Subdomain: Statistics & Probability: Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions
Cluster: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Cluster: Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies. (Algebra 2 - Major Cluster) -

Clusters should not be sorted from Major to Supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting clusters.

Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved - Archived

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This benchmark is part of these courses.
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## Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Lesson Plans

Students will be able to explain the concepts of ecotone and edge effect and describe how the edge effect relates to biological diversity in a watershed.

Type: Lesson Plan

5K and No More - Producing Data:

Can your school use \$5000? What school doesn't?! Well, the money is available, but the student body must decide how the money will be spent!

5K and No More - Producing Data will enable students to fantasize about what they would do to improve their school if given the opportunity to answer the question, "How would \$5000 best be spent at your school?" The activity begins with students distinguishing the differences between a sample survey, an experiment, and an observational study through a pre-activity. After which, the students are given five (5) scenarios in which they must discuss the pros and cons of each. In life we want things to be fair, so students must constantly think about bias. The company in this MEA desires the most efficient and effective way to collect information from the students without having to talk to everyone ... who has that kind of time!

Now, just when the students have found the most efficient and effective way to get students to share their thoughts on where the money should go, more information is revealed about the High School. How do we account for the brains and the brawn, the perfect attendee and the most missed days, or for the goth or skater?

Your Savvy Statisticians in the making will figure it out and tell you ALL about it.

Type: Lesson Plan

A TASTEFUL Experiment:

This purpose of this lesson is to enhance students' understanding of the research question that is really being addressed by experiments, observational studies and research. Through the use of a very simple question about which brand of soda that students prefer, the discussion allows the teacher and students to dig deeper into the idea that what you think a study is asking may not really be what is being found. Students will actually do an experiment, observational study and survey with only a superficial examination of the research question. (They are doing a quick TASTE TEST.) It is only after the activity that the students will try to decide precisely what they were researching and to whom this study can be generalized.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

How to Build a Research Study on Education:

This researcher explains common methods behind randomized studies in the social sciences, specifically in education.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Strict Parents:

This task challenges students to describe parameter of interest for the given context, and design a sample survey.

Words and Music II:

The purpose of this task is to assess (1) ability to distinguish between an observational study and an experiment and (2) understanding of the role of random assignment to experimental groups in an experiment.

## Text Resources

Sample Size Calculation:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes the important process used when setting up trials for statistical investigation. The article explains each parameter that is needed to calculate the sample size, then provides examples and illustrates the process. This article will enhance an upper level math course's study of statistics after significance levels and basic inferential statistics concepts have been taught.

Type: Text Resource

How to Win at Rock-Paper-Scissors:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes a new study about the game rock-paper-scissors. The study reveals that people do not play randomly; there are patterns and hidden psychology players frequently use. Understanding these potential moves can help a player increase their winning edge. As part of interpreting the results of the study, the article references the Nash equilibrium and the "win-stay lose-shift" strategy.

Type: Text Resource

## Video/Audio/Animation

MIT BLOSSOMS - Is Bigger Better? A Look at a Selection Bias that Is All Around Us:

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

5K and No More - Producing Data:

Can your school use \$5000? What school doesn't?! Well, the money is available, but the student body must decide how the money will be spent!

5K and No More - Producing Data will enable students to fantasize about what they would do to improve their school if given the opportunity to answer the question, "How would \$5000 best be spent at your school?" The activity begins with students distinguishing the differences between a sample survey, an experiment, and an observational study through a pre-activity. After which, the students are given five (5) scenarios in which they must discuss the pros and cons of each. In life we want things to be fair, so students must constantly think about bias. The company in this MEA desires the most efficient and effective way to collect information from the students without having to talk to everyone ... who has that kind of time!

Now, just when the students have found the most efficient and effective way to get students to share their thoughts on where the money should go, more information is revealed about the High School. How do we account for the brains and the brawn, the perfect attendee and the most missed days, or for the goth or skater?

Your Savvy Statisticians in the making will figure it out and tell you ALL about it.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Words and Music II:

The purpose of this task is to assess (1) ability to distinguish between an observational study and an experiment and (2) understanding of the role of random assignment to experimental groups in an experiment.