LAFS.8.RI.1.2

Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 8
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , EBSR , MS , MC , GR , SHT , DDHT item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may refer to central ideas that are explicit or implicit in the text. Items may ask the student to determine the central idea from a section of the text or from the entire text. Items may focus on how the central idea of the text relates to supporting ideas. Items may ask the student to distinguish fact from opinion. Items may ask students to summarize the text.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing this standard may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Technology-Enhanced Item Descriptions section on pages 3 and 4 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice and Editing Task item types). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Determine a central idea and analyze its development, including its relationship to supporting ideas.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to identify a central idea and then select how that central idea was developed through its supporting ideas. 

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to drag words or phrases into a graphic organizer to demonstrate the development of a central idea throughout a text. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select the central idea and then select words or phrases from the text that contribute to its development. 

    GRID

    • Requires the student to move words or phrases into a graphic organizer to show the development of a central idea. 

    Table Match

    • Requires the student to complete a table with words and phrases that show the development of a central idea throughout a text.

    Task Demand

    Summarize the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the best summary of the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple sentences that could be used to create an accurate summary of the text. 

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to place pieces of a summary in the correct order. 

    GRID

    • Requires the student to move pieces of a summary into a graphic organizer. 

    Table Match

    • Requires the student to complete a table to provide an objective summary of the text.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1001070: M/J Language Arts 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001080: M/J Language Arts 3 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002020: M/J Language Arts 3 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1008070: M/J Reading 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008080: M/J Reading 3, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1100000: M/J Library Skills/Information Literacy (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1700060: M/J Career Research and Decision Making (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7810013: Access M/J Language Arts 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1009050: M/J Writing 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1010000: M/J Literacy through Film & Literature (Specifically in versions: 2016 and beyond (current))
1010010: M/J Literacy through World Literature (Specifically in versions: 2016 and beyond (current))
1010020: M/J Literacy through Philosophy (Specifically in versions: 2016 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.8.RI.1.AP.2a: Determine two or more central ideas in a text.
LAFS.8.RI.1.AP.2b: Analyze the development of the central ideas over the course of the text.
LAFS.8.RI.1.AP.2c: Provide/create an objective summary of a text.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Central Idea of I Am a Man:

The student will complete a graphic organizer to determine the central idea of an informational text and analyze its development over the course of the text. The student will also write an objective summary of the text.

Type: Formative Assessment

Central Idea of Seven Billion and Counting :

The student will read an informational text and complete a graphic organizer to record the central idea of the text and its supporting ideas. The student will analyze the development of the central idea throughout the course of the text. Finally, the student will write an objective summary of the text.

Type: Formative Assessment

Keep it short - Lights Off!:

The student will take the “Lights Out” text he or she has previously marked to organize his or her ideas into an objective summary that expresses the central idea and supporting details.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lost Civilizations and Central Ideas:

The student will read “The Lost River Civilization” and complete a graphic organizer to identify relevant key details, identify relevant main ideas, and accurately summarize the text. Students will use the graphic organizer to determine the central idea and analyze its development over the course of the text.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Atomic Theory:

The Purpose of the lesson is to teach the students about five major atomic theories using inquiry-based learning. By allowing the students to be introduced to the historical backgrounds and having each group to create a three dimensional figure and a poster, it allows the learning process to be student-driven, inductive and interactive.

Type: Lesson Plan

It's a Lovely Home, But...Using Multiple Texts to Aid in Decision Making:

In this lesson, students will learn about a subject as they read and analyze multiple text types before writing a business letter explaining a decision they will be asked to make. This lesson incorporates poetry, authentic non-fiction, photography, and writing.

Type: Lesson Plan

One for All? Or Not. A Close Read of Distresses of a Frontier Man:

This lesson is based on Letter XII: Distresses of a Frontier Man by J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur. This "letter" is one of a collection of essays in an epistolary format from the collection, Letters from an American Farmer (1782). In this lesson, students will focus on using various vocabulary strategies to decode challenging vocabulary words from the text. To assist in comprehension, students will read and analyze the text through a chunking strategy where they will participate in text-marking, summarizing, and answering text-dependent questions. The culminating assignment will allow students to develop an argumentative written response that is supported by the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Forever Alive:

In this close reading lesson, students will be asked to use multiple strategies to respond to informational text in way that is aligned to the state standards, requiring that they respond with explicit details drawn from the passage. With this short, free-standing article, teachers can incorporate this mini-lesson into their already set curriculum to reinforce the standards and skills being taught. This lesson would also make an excellent small group resource. Attachments needed for this lesson are all provided and include text-dependent questions, graphic organizers, and an objective summary writing prompt with rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Remembering D-Day: A Close Reading Lesson:

This is a close reading lesson based on the article "Remembering the D-Day Invasion with Salutes, Tears and Friendship." This article focuses on the anniversary of D-Day and the effect it had on soldiers and civilians who experienced the attack. This lesson provides an opportunity for close reading, vocabulary acquisition, and writing a summary. A vocabulary organizer and key, text-dependent questions and keys, and a writing rubric have been included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: Words We Live By: Your Annotated Guide to the Constitution:

The goal of this one to two day exemplar from Student Achievement Partner web resources is to give students the opportunity to observe the dynamic nature of the Constitution through the practice of close reading and writing habits. By reading and re-reading the passage closely, and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will explore the questions Monk raises and perhaps even pursue additional avenues of inquiry. When combined with writing about the passage, not only will students form a deeper appreciation of Monk’s argument and the value of struggling with complex text, but of the Preamble of the Constitution itself.

Type: Lesson Plan

Run For Your Life!:

Based on a student-focused scenario encouraging healthier lifestyles, students will perform a close and careful reading of an article encouraging active and healthy lifestyles. During the lesson, students will analyze data from Consumer Reports comparing and contrasting treadmills and elliptical exercisers. Using information gathered, students will compile data and persuade administrators to buy equipment that will align with the provided budget and fit in the given space.

Type: Lesson Plan

Teaching Tolerance: Mary Church Terrell:

This is a Teaching Tolerance lesson centering on Mary Church Terrell. The text shows the role of Mary Church Terrell and the NACW in working for civil rights in the decades before the modern civil rights movement. This lesson is very strong in vocabulary development (including using both context clues and word parts to determine meaning), summarizing, and author's purpose and perspective. The lesson could be used in either Language Arts or Social Studies classrooms and lends itself well to further research.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier-An Intro to Analysis & Argumentation Part I of III:

In this lesson, students will read chapters 1-7 of Ismael Beah's memoir, A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier while learning how to analyze the chapters using a reader response journal, create an oral argument through a Seed Discussion, and in writing a central idea statement.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier - An Intro to Analysis & Argumentation Part II of III:

In this lesson students will independently read, outside of class, chapters 8-14 of Ismael Beah's memoir, A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. In class, students will learn how to create position statements as they read several informational articles and speeches about a variety of topics. Students will also participate in a Philosophical Chairs discussion and use a SOAPTone strategy to help them with their creation of position statements. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass:

The goal of this two to three day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to explore the point of view of a man who survived slavery. By reading and rereading the passage closely, combined with classroom discussion about it, students will explore the various beliefs and points of view Douglass experienced as he became increasingly aware of the unfairness of his life. Students will need to consider the emotional context of words and how diction (word choice) affects an author's message. When combined with writing about the passage and teacher feedback, students will form a deeper understanding of how slavery affected those involved.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: The Long Night of Little Boats:

In this lesson, students will analyze a rich literary nonfiction text illustrating the rescue of British soldiers at Dunkirk in 1940. Through use of repeated readings, text dependent questions, class discussion, and two writing tasks, students will examine the miraculous nature of what happened at Dunkirk and how shared human values played a part in the outcome of this event. This lesson was designed originally for use in a middle school Social Studies curriculum, where teaching students to go beneath a surface understanding of historical events is at a premium. Although this exemplar was designed to be used in a middle school Social Studies curriculum, it is appropriate for use in an ELA class as well.

Type: Lesson Plan

Graphic Organizers For Science Reading/Writing:

This activity emphasizes the importance of teaching reading and writing strategies for students to use with informational text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Setting A Purpose For Reading Using Informational Text:

Students learn to set a purpose for reading informational text before reading by turning the title and subtitles into questions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Using a Before-Reading Organizer with Informational Text:

Before reading, create a graphic organizer that uses the titles and subtitles of an informational text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Four:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the final part of a four-part series. In this tutorial, you’ll read two more passages from the book about Washington’s spies. You’ll also determine the central ideas of the passages, identify key details, and practice writing a summary of a text. 

You should complete the previous tutorials in this series before beginning Part Four. 

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Three:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is Part Three of a four-part series. In this tutorial, you'll read another passage from the book, identify the topic, and determine the central idea. Then, you'll review the central ideas from all the passages you've read throughout this series and examine how each central idea helps develop an overarching central idea of all the passages. 

Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series.

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Two:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America with this interactive tutorial. In this four-part series, you'll analyze several passages from the book and learn how to extract key information along the way. In Part Two, you'll read another passage from the book, identify the topic, determine the central idea, and examine how key details help develop the central idea.

Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series.

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War – Part One:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America with this interactive tutorial. In this four-part series, you'll analyze several passages from the book and learn how to extract key information along the way. By the end of Part One, you should be able to distinguish topics from central ideas and identify central ideas and key details in the text. 

Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series.

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Truth About Sugar?:

Analyze multiple texts in which authors disagree about the harmfulness of sugar in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

All Aboard! The Central Idea Express:

Learn how to find the central ideas of informational texts that are all about train travel! "Ride the rails" and learn about topics, central ideas, supporting details, and summaries.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Idea

Teaching Tolerance: Mary McLeod Bethune:

This is a lesson from Teaching Tolerance that centers on Mary McLeod Bethune. Students will read an interview excerpt and focus on vocabulary and connections within the text.

Type: Teaching Idea

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Run For Your Life!:

Based on a student-focused scenario encouraging healthier lifestyles, students will perform a close and careful reading of an article encouraging active and healthy lifestyles. During the lesson, students will analyze data from Consumer Reports comparing and contrasting treadmills and elliptical exercisers. Using information gathered, students will compile data and persuade administrators to buy equipment that will align with the provided budget and fit in the given space.

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

All Aboard! The Central Idea Express:

Learn how to find the central ideas of informational texts that are all about train travel! "Ride the rails" and learn about topics, central ideas, supporting details, and summaries.

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Four:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the final part of a four-part series. In this tutorial, you’ll read two more passages from the book about Washington’s spies. You’ll also determine the central ideas of the passages, identify key details, and practice writing a summary of a text. 

You should complete the previous tutorials in this series before beginning Part Four. 

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War – Part One:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America with this interactive tutorial. In this four-part series, you'll analyze several passages from the book and learn how to extract key information along the way. By the end of Part One, you should be able to distinguish topics from central ideas and identify central ideas and key details in the text. 

Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series.

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Three:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is Part Three of a four-part series. In this tutorial, you'll read another passage from the book, identify the topic, and determine the central idea. Then, you'll review the central ideas from all the passages you've read throughout this series and examine how each central idea helps develop an overarching central idea of all the passages. 

Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series.

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Two:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America with this interactive tutorial. In this four-part series, you'll analyze several passages from the book and learn how to extract key information along the way. In Part Two, you'll read another passage from the book, identify the topic, determine the central idea, and examine how key details help develop the central idea.

Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series.

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

The Truth About Sugar?:

Analyze multiple texts in which authors disagree about the harmfulness of sugar in this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Four:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the final part of a four-part series. In this tutorial, you’ll read two more passages from the book about Washington’s spies. You’ll also determine the central ideas of the passages, identify key details, and practice writing a summary of a text. 

You should complete the previous tutorials in this series before beginning Part Four. 

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Three:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is Part Three of a four-part series. In this tutorial, you'll read another passage from the book, identify the topic, and determine the central idea. Then, you'll review the central ideas from all the passages you've read throughout this series and examine how each central idea helps develop an overarching central idea of all the passages. 

Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series.

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Two:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America with this interactive tutorial. In this four-part series, you'll analyze several passages from the book and learn how to extract key information along the way. In Part Two, you'll read another passage from the book, identify the topic, determine the central idea, and examine how key details help develop the central idea.

Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series.

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War – Part One:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America with this interactive tutorial. In this four-part series, you'll analyze several passages from the book and learn how to extract key information along the way. By the end of Part One, you should be able to distinguish topics from central ideas and identify central ideas and key details in the text. 

Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series.

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Truth About Sugar?:

Analyze multiple texts in which authors disagree about the harmfulness of sugar in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

All Aboard! The Central Idea Express:

Learn how to find the central ideas of informational texts that are all about train travel! "Ride the rails" and learn about topics, central ideas, supporting details, and summaries.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.