LAFS.7.RI.1.2

Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 7
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , MS , MC , GR , SHT , DDHT item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may refer to central ideas that are explicit or implicit in the text. Items may ask the student to determine central ideas from a section of the article or from the entire article. Items may ask the student to summarize all or part of the text.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing this standard may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Technology-Enhanced Item Descriptions section on pages 3 and 4 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice and Editing Task item types). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Determine two or more central ideas and analyze their development over the course of the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to determine multiple central ideas and then select how those central ideas are developed.

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to drag words or phrases into a graphic organizer to demonstrate the development of multiple central ideas. 

    GRID

    • Requires the student to move words or phrases into a graphic organizer to show the development of the central ideas. 

    Table Match

    • Requires the student to complete a table with words and phrases that show the development of multiple central ideas.

    Task Demand

    Provide an objective summary of the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the best summary of the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple sentences that could be used to create an accurate summary of the text.

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to place pieces of a summary in the correct order. 

    GRID

    • Requires the student to move pieces of a summary into a graphic organizer. 

    Table Match

    • Requires the student to complete a table that reflects an accurate summary of the text.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 and beyond (current))
1001040: M/J Language Arts 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001050: M/J Language Arts 2 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002010: M/J Language Arts 2 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1008040: M/J Reading 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008050: M/J Reading 2, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1009040: M/J Writing 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1100000: M/J Library Skills/Information Literacy (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1700060: M/J Career Research and Decision Making (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7810012: Access M/J Language Arts 2  (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.7.RI.1.AP.2a: Determine the central idea of a text
LAFS.7.RI.1.AP.2b: Analyze the development of the central idea over the course of the text.
LAFS.7.RI.1.AP.2c: Provide/create an objective summary of a text.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Democratic Ideals:

The student will determine two or more central ideas in an informational text and use the central ideas to write a summary supported by textual evidence.

Type: Formative Assessment

Animal Analysis:

The student will determine central ideas and supporting details in an informational text, “Bringing Back Animals from the Brink,” and follow the development of the ideas throughout the text. Students will then write a summary of the text.

Type: Formative Assessment

A Pirate's Life Revealed:

The student will determine two central ideas in an informational text entitled “Pirating the Seven Seas” and provide an objective summary of the text.

Type: Formative Assessment

It’s Time to Ride:

The student will read and listen to an informational text—”Paul Revere: Letter to Jeremy Belknap, circa 1798”—and then determine two central ideas and supporting details, complete a graphic organizer reflecting this information, and analyze the development of the central ideas. Student will also provide an objective summary of the text.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

A Search for Central Ideas: Examining Florida Wildlife:

In this lesson, students will work on identifying use of text features, and determining the meaning of selected vocabulary, key details, and central ideas in two informational texts in the form of brochures, brochures created by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission about Florida manatees and alligators. Graphic organizers and answer keys are provided, as well as the brochures, and resources to help with the review of text features and central ideas.

Type: Lesson Plan

Brochures: A Creative Format for the Study of Informational Texts :

In this lesson, students will work with two informational texts in the form of brochures, texts about Burmese pythons and lionfish. With the lionfish brochure, students will identify the text features used, determine the central ideas and key supporting details, and work with selected vocabulary. Students will then be provided with informational text on a different animal and they will put their skills to use to create a brochure of their own. Various graphic organizers and teacher resources have been included as attachments with the lesson plan, including a rubric for the students' brochure. Additional resources have also been provided in the Further Recommendations section to help teachers gather resources for students to use to create their own brochure.

Type: Lesson Plan

Ribbons: Using Mini-Research to Unravel Ancient Chinese Practices:

This series of lessons/unit is a short research project designed to help students learn more about the experience of foot binding discussed in the short story "Ribbons" by Laurence Yep. Students will research foot binding using provided sources as well as reliable sources they have chosen on their own. Students will use digital media in addition to speaking and listening skills to present their findings to the class. The project assignment, various checklists, and a project/presentation rubric have been provided, as well as several sites that students can use to begin their research.

Type: Lesson Plan

Child Soldiers Lesson 2: The Music of a War Child:

In this lesson, students will listen to a song, read a biography, and then view a speech, all from a former child soldier from the Sudan and current international hip-hop star Emmanuel Jal. Students will examine the information presented in all three formats by taking Cornell Notes and then participate in a fishbowl discussion based on the lesson's guiding questions. As a summative assessment, students will write a paragraph answering one of the guiding questions, supporting their ideas with text evidence. This is the second lesson of a three-part unit that will build towards having the students research and write a paper on child soldiers.

Unit overview: This unit will guide students though the process of reading multiple texts to develop knowledge about the topic of child soldiers and will culminate in a final research project. The first lesson focuses on news articles while the second lesson concentrates on one former child soldier's story as portrayed through interviews and his music. As a whole, the unit integrates close reading of multiple sources with speaking and listening activities and provides students with opportunities to write routinely from sources throughout the unit. The unit provides ample occasions for students to read, evaluate, and analyze complex texts as well as routine writing opportunities that encourage reflection.

Type: Lesson Plan

Freak the Mighty: Morquio Mini Research:

This lesson plan is a short research project designed to help students learn more about Kevin’s disease in Freak the Mighty.  Students will research Morquio syndrome using provided sources as well as reliable sources they have chosen on their own. Students will use digital media in addition to speaking and listening skills to present their findings to the class. Throughout the lesson, students will have ample opportunity to develop and refine reading, writing and speaking and listening skills to work towards mastery of the lesson objectives. Checklists and a project/presentation rubric have been provided with the lesson, as well as several sites that students can use to begin their research.  

Type: Lesson Plan

O' Oysters! The Opposite of Hero is not a Villain; It's a Bystander!:

Who knew the eldest Oyster could have saved them all? This lesson is the final lesson in a three-lesson series and can be used on its own or as the culmination of a unit using the poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter" by Lewis Carroll. In this final lesson, the poem's lessons are used to introduce an informational text on bullying and the bystander effect. The lesson involves close reading, chunking the text into digestible parts using a graphic organizer, text-dependent questions, and a narrative essay summative assessment.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: The Secrets Behind What You Eat:

This close reading exemplar uses an excerpt from Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma: The Secrets Behind What You Eat. The goal of this two day exemplar from Student Achievement Partners web resources is to give students the opportunity to use reading and writing habits to unpack Pollan's investigative journalism of industrial farms. By reading and rereading the passage closely combined with classroom discussion about it, students will identify why and how farming practices have changed, as well as identify Pollan's point of view on the subject. When combined with writing about the passage and teacher feedback, students will begin to appreciate investigative journalism, as well as question from where their food is coming.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: My Mother, the Scientist:

The goal of this three day exemplar from Student Achievement Partner web resources is to give students the opportunity to use reading and writing habits to absorb deep lessons from Charles Hirshberg's recollections of his mother. By reading and rereading the passage closely and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussions about the text, students will identify how much his mother's struggles and accomplishments meant to both Hirshberg and the wider world. When combined with writing about the passage, and possibly pairing this exemplar study with Richard Feynman's memoir "The Making of a Scientist," students will discover how much they can learn from this mixed genre memoir/biography about what inspires life choices.

Type: Lesson Plan

Analysis of a Political News Article:

Students will read a news article on an immigration policy being presented by the President just prior to election. Students will determine the essential message of the article, examine the information presented to determine author intent, and write a written response citing evidence from the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: "Unbroken" and "Farewell to Manzanar":

As students will have previous exposure to the historical themes and factual information about the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the United States involvement in WWII, and the internment of Japanese in camps throughout the western United States, this lesson exemplar will allow students to participate in critical discussion of two stories that illuminate important, yet divergent, experiences of war and conflict. This lesson exemplar will push students to think critically about the experience of wartime as felt by both soldiers and civilians as they navigated specific trials that were a part of their direct or peripheral involvement in WWII.

Type: Lesson Plan

Graphic Organizers For Science Reading/Writing:

This activity emphasizes the importance of teaching reading and writing strategies for students to use with informational text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Setting A Purpose For Reading Using Informational Text:

Students learn to set a purpose for reading informational text before reading by turning the title and subtitles into questions.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Wednesday Wars: Vietnam Mini Research:

The setting of the novel The Wednesday Wars occurs during a significant period of American history. As an introduction to this novel, students will research the Vietnam War using provided sources as well as reliable sources they have chosen on their own. Students will use digital media in addition to speaking and listening skills to present their findings to the class. Links to selected introductory videos about the Vietnam War, student checklists, a presentation/project rubric, and a digital project sample have been provided with the lesson, as well as several sites that students can use to begin their research.

Type: Lesson Plan

Using a Before-Reading Organizer with Informational Text:

Before reading, create a graphic organizer that uses the titles and subtitles of an informational text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Game On: Finding the Central Idea:

Select a character and learn to identify and explain the central idea within a text.  In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze an article about video games to find the central idea of each paragraph and the entire article.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Ideas

Summer Olympics - Ideas for English Language Learners :

The first ELL teaching idea on this site (found under "Articles") focuses on the understanding of the word "perseverance" as it relates to Olympic athletes who have had to overcome various challenges to be able to compete. Multiple text types (photo, video, articles) address a variety of learners' modalities. Other teaching ideas focus on health and fitness, what inspires you, and even public interest in sports being motivated by popular books and movies. Each idea can stand on its own or multiple ideas can be combined into a thematic unit.

Type: Teaching Idea

Peer Summarizing Activity:

In this hands-on activity, students explore the skill of summarizing through peer writings as they travel the classroom a la musical chairs.

Type: Teaching Idea

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Game On: Finding the Central Idea:

Select a character and learn to identify and explain the central idea within a text.  In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze an article about video games to find the central idea of each paragraph and the entire article.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Game On: Finding the Central Idea:

Select a character and learn to identify and explain the central idea within a text.  In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze an article about video games to find the central idea of each paragraph and the entire article.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.