LAFS.6.RI.2.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 6
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: EBSR , ST , MC item(s)
  • Assessed with: LAFS.6.L.3.4, LAFS.6.L.3.5
  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask the student to use the text to determine the meanings of words and phrases. Items should focus on how the words or phrases function within a passage and may require the student to analyze the impact of word choice on the text. Items should focus on words and phrases that are central to themeaning of text. Items should focus on grade-appropriate words. Items should not focus on dictionary-based word meanings butshould focus on how a word or phrase functions within the context ofthe passage. Items should focus on words and phrases that have figurative or technical meanings central to the meaning of the text rather than isolated, incidental vocabulary. Items may ask about words with discrete context clues in close proximity or words whose meaning is conveyed more implicitly throughout the passage. Items may ask the student to employ various strategiesto explore word meaning, including the use of Greek or Latin affixes and roots. Items may require the student to use word relationships to determine the meanings of individual words.Items may ask the student to analyze figurative, connotative, or technical meanings of words.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing these standards may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Enhanced Item Descriptions section on page 3 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess thisstandard (excluding the Editing Task Choice item type). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of words or phrases by using context clues to understand, for example, figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that show the meaning of words used in the text.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that show the meanings of words as determined using context clues.
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word or phrase and then to select words or phrases from the text that show the meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select multiple meanings of a word or phrase used in the text.
    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of an unknown or multiple-meaning word or phrase by using context, such as a word’s position or the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that provide context clues to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that provide context clues to the meaning of a word or phrase. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word and then to select words or phrases from the text that act as context clues to support thatmeaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning ofan unknown or multiple-meaning word.
    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of a word using common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes or roots.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that contain Greek or Latin affixes or rootsthat provide clues to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that contain Greek or Latin affixes or roots that provide clues to the meaning of a word or phrase. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word and then to select words or phrases with Greek or Latin affixes or roots from the text to support that meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word that contains a Greek or Latin affix or root.
    Task Demand

    Interpret figures of speech in the context of the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that provide context clues to the meaning of a figure of speech.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that provide context clues to the meaning of a figure of speech. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to interpret the meaning of a figure of speech and then to select words or phrases from the text that support that meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a figure of speech in the context of the text.
    Task Demand

    Use relationships, such as cause and effect or part and whole, between specific words to help interpret their meaning.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that provide support for the interpretation of a word’s meaning.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that show the meanings of words as determined using word relationships. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word and then to select words or phrases from the text that support that meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word in the context of the text or word relationship.
    Task Demand

    Distinguish among the connotations of words with similar definitions.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that provide support for the connotation of a word.
    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from two sections of text that help to determine which connotation of a word is being used. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select the correct connotation of a word and then to select words or phrases from the text that support that meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the correct connotation or synonym of a word found in the text.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1001010: M/J Language Arts 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001020: M/J Language Arts 1 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002000: M/J Language Arts 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1008010: M/J Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008020: M/J Reading 1, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1100000: M/J Library Skills/Information Literacy (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7810011: Access M/J Language Arts 1  (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1400025: M/J Peers as Partners in Learning (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.6.RI.2.AP.4a: Identify phrases with figurative language.
LAFS.6.RI.2.AP.4b: Determine meaning of figurative phrases as used in text.
LAFS.6.RI.2.AP.4c: Identify meanings of connotations used in text.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Recycling Word Knowledge:

The student will read an informational text, underline context clues in the text, and write the meaning of select words and phrases from the text.

Type: Formative Assessment

The Meaning of Words and Phrases in "The Promising Ocean":

The student will read an informational passage using active reading strategies. After reading, the student will use a graphic organizer to record unfamiliar words and phrases, context clues, and the student’s prediction or inference as to the meaning(s) of the word or phrase. The student will then use a concept chart to find deeper meanings of the words and phrases from the graphic organizer. Finally, the student will write to explain what the words and phrases mean and how he/she was able to derive the meanings.

Type: Formative Assessment

Know That Word! :

In the text resource about sinkholes, students will determine the meanings of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings. 

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Cut up, Cover up, and Come Away with Ideas for Writing:

In this lesson,"Cut up, Cover up, and Come Away with Ideas for Writing" by S. Rebecca Leigh through ReadWriteThink.org, a website developed by the International Reading Association, the National Council of Teachers of English, with support from the Verizon Foundation, students rework their forgotten/abandoned drafts by cutting and covering up selected words. By creatively manipulating text, they explore portal writing, a strategy for envisioning a new story or story direction.

Type: Lesson Plan

Vacation:

The purpose of this lesson is to provide students with the opportunity to solve real-world and mathematical problems using add, subtraction, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation. They will write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Neighborhood Hunt:

This MEA requires students to formulate a comparison-based solution to a problem involving choosing the best neighborhood for Ms. Jasmine to purchase a house. Students are provided the context of the problem, a request letter from a client asking them to provide a recommendation, and data relevant to the situation. Students utilize the data to create a defensible model solution to present to the client.

Type: Lesson Plan

Soil Solutions:

In this MEA students will explore the different factors that differentiate soils. They will determine, based on the given characteristics, which type of soil will best grow good produce.

Type: Lesson Plan

CIS Lesson: Hazards of Hurricanes:

In this lesson tied to English/Language Arts Standards, students receive support as they read a complex informational text about the effects of hurricanes. The teacher facilitates a close reading and writing a response-to-text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: "The Great Fire":

The goal of this three day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits they've been practicing on a regular basis to explore the historic Great Fire of Chicago. By reading and rereading the passage closely combined with classroom discussion about it, students will explore the historical truths related to poverty, city construction, and city services that led to the disaster. In this reading, students learn about historical disasters, but they may not fully comprehend causes or how human actions, nature, or even luck contributed to them, rendering history a flat subject to be memorized rather than explored. When combined with writing about the passage and teacher feedback, students will better understand the dangers inherent in cities and the government role in mitigating that danger.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Time for Revolution: Using Context Clues:

Use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in an informative text about the Revolutionary War in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorial

Personification: Cowbirds:

In this tutorial from PBS, students will explore the power of personification in non-fiction while analyzing an author's treatment of his subject in a documentary on cowbirds. They will be able to read informational text, learn and practice vocabulary words, and explore content through videos and interactive activities as they begin to understand how this work uses human motives and emotions to tell the cowbird's story.

Type: Tutorial

Unit/Lesson Sequences

Examining an Autobiography: "The Lost Garden" by Laurence Yep:

This is a sixth grade unit on Laurence Yep's autobiography, The Lost Garden. Students analyze author's purpose and the key characteristics of an autobiography. This unit contains a student packet, pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and sample student responses. In addition, this unit includes instructional techniques such as a PIES chart, a T chart, and more!

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Analyzing an Autobiography through "Rosa Parks: My Story":

This sixth grade unit on Rosa Parks is a thorough examination of an autobiographical novel and includes the study of author's purpose, main idea, and fact and opinion. It includes a student packet, graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and a unit assessment with sample responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Neighborhood Hunt:

This MEA requires students to formulate a comparison-based solution to a problem involving choosing the best neighborhood for Ms. Jasmine to purchase a house. Students are provided the context of the problem, a request letter from a client asking them to provide a recommendation, and data relevant to the situation. Students utilize the data to create a defensible model solution to present to the client.

Soil Solutions:

In this MEA students will explore the different factors that differentiate soils. They will determine, based on the given characteristics, which type of soil will best grow good produce.

Vacation:

The purpose of this lesson is to provide students with the opportunity to solve real-world and mathematical problems using add, subtraction, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation. They will write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions.

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Time for Revolution: Using Context Clues:

Use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in an informative text about the Revolutionary War in this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Time for Revolution: Using Context Clues:

Use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in an informative text about the Revolutionary War in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.