# MAFS.8.SP.1.3Archived Standard

Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height.
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics
Domain-Subdomain: Statistics & Probability
Cluster: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Cluster: Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data. (Supporting Cluster) -

Clusters should not be sorted from Major to Supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting clusters.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/14
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved - Archived
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications

• Assessment Limits :

Numbers in items must be simple rational numbers (e.g., , to the 10th). Data are required for all items. In all items requiring a line of best fit, the equation of that line should be given.

• Calculator :

Neutral

• Context :

Required

Sample Test Items (2)
• Test Item #: Sample Item 1
• Question:

The slope of the line of best fit for the data shown is approximately 1.5.

What is the meaning of 1.5 in terms of the context?

• Difficulty: N/A
• Type: MS: Multiselect

• Test Item #: Sample Item 2
• Question:

The amount of money Alan earns as a plumber after x hours is modeled by the equation y = \$25x + \$50.

What is the meaning of \$25 in this model?

• Difficulty: N/A
• Type: OR: Open Response

## Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1205050: M/J Accelerated Mathematics Grade 7 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205070: M/J Grade 8 Pre-Algebra (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1204000: M/J Foundational Skills in Mathematics 6-8 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7812030: Access M/J Grade 8 Pre-Algebra (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

## Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Formative Assessments

Tuition:

Students are asked to use a linear model to make a prediction about the value of one of the variables.

Type: Formative Assessment

Stretching Statistics:

Students are asked to interpret a specific solution and the y-intercept of a linear equation that describes a context.

Type: Formative Assessment

Foot Length:

Students are asked to interpret the line of best fit, slope, and y-intercept of a linear model.

Type: Formative Assessment

Developmental Data:

Students are asked to interpret the slope of a linear model.

Type: Formative Assessment

## Lesson Plans

Sea Ice Analysis Grade 8:

The changing climate is an important topic for both scientific analysis and worldly knowledge. This lesson uses data collected by the National Snow and Ice Data Center to create and use mathematical models as a predictive tool and do critical analysis of sea ice loss.

Type: Lesson Plan

Shipwrecked Pirates:

In this lesson, students will take the role of shipwrecked pirates. Working in groups, they will have to use the concepts of force, speed, scatter plots, and literal equations to come up with a way of getting one student to a nearby sister island so that they will both have enough food to survive.

Type: Lesson Plan

Steel vs. Wooden Roller Coaster Lab:

This lesson is a Follow Up Activity to the Algebra Institute and allows students to apply their skills on analyzing bivariate data. This STEM lesson allows students the opportunity to investigate if there is a linear relationship between a coaster's height and speed. Using technology the students can determine the line of best fit, correlation coefficient and use the line for interpolation. This lesson also uses prior knowledge and has students solve systems of equations graphically to determine which type of coaster is faster.

Type: Lesson Plan

Height Scatterplot Lab:

This lesson is a Follow Up Activity to the Algebra Institute and allows students to apply their skills on analyzing bivariate data. This STEM lesson allows students the opportunity to investigate if there is a linear relationship between a person's height and foot length. Using technology the students can determine the line of best fit, correlation coefficient and use the line for interpolation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Scattering Plots:

Students will find the slope of the line of regression in a scatter plot. Students will interpret the line of regression in context to a real-world situation involving bivariate data.

Type: Lesson Plan

Scatter Plots at Arm's Reach:

This lesson is an introductory lesson to scatter plots and line of best fit (trend lines). Students will be using m&m's to represent different associations in scatter plots, and measure each other's height and arm span to create their own bivariate data to analyze. Students will be describing the association of the data, patterns of the data, informally draw a line of best fit (trend line), write the equation of the trend line, interpret the slope and y-intercept, and make predictions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Linear Statistical Models:

In this lesson, students will learn how to analyze data and find the equation of the line of best fit. Students will then find the slope and intercept of the best fit line and interpret the meaning in the context of the data.

Type: Lesson Plan

Spaghetti Bridges:

Students use data collection from their spaghetti bridge activity to write linear equations, graph the data, and interpret the data.

Type: Lesson Plan

Graphing Equations on the Cartesian Plane: Slope:

The lesson teaches students about an important characteristic of lines: their slope. Slope can be determined either in graphical or algebraic form. Slope can also be described as positive, negative, zero, or undefined. Students get an explanation of when and how these different types of slope occur. Finally, students learn how slope relates to parallel and perpendicular lines. When two lines are parallel, they have the same slope and when they are perpendicular their slopes are negative reciprocals of one another. Prerequisite knowledge: Students must know how to graph points on the Cartesian plane. They must be familiar with the x- and y- axes on the plane in both the positive and negative directions.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorials

Scatterplots Part 6: Using Linear Models :

Learn how to use the equation of a linear trend line to interpolate and extrapolate bivariate data plotted in a scatterplot. You will see the usefulness of trend lines and how they are used in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 6 in 6-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Scatterplots Part 5: Interpreting the Equation of the Trend Line :

Explore how to interpret the slope and y-intercept of a linear trend line when bivariate data is graphed on a scatterplot in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 5 in 6-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Slope and Deep Sea Sharks:

Shark researcher, Chip Cotton, discusses the use of regression lines, slope, and determining the strength of the models he uses in his research.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

You and Michael:

In this problem solving task, students will test Marcus Vitruvius"s theory that a person"s height is approximately equal to their arm span (wingspan). Students will test this theory via collection, recording, graphing and analysis of data.

US Airports:

In this resource, real-world bivariate data is displayed in a scatter plot. The equation of the linear function which models the relationship between the two variables is provided, and it is graphed on the scatter plot. Students are asked to use the model to interpret the data and to make predictions.

## Unit/Lesson Sequences

Linear Functions and Slope:

This session on linear function and slope contains five parts, multiple problems and videos, and interactive activities geared to help students recognize and understand linear relationships, explore slope and dependent and independent variables in graphs of linear relationships, and develop an understanding of rates and how they are related to slopes and equations. Throughout the session, students use spreadsheets to complete the work, and are encouraged to think about the ways technology can aid in teaching and understanding. The solutions for all problems are given, and many allow students to have a hint or tip as they solve. There is even a homework assignment with four problems for students after they have finished all five parts of the session.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Direct and Inverse Variation:

"Lesson 1 of two lessons teaches students about direct variation by allowing them to explore a simulated oil spill using toilet paper tissues (to represent land) and drops of vegetable oil (to simulate a volume of oil). Lesson 2 teaches students about inverse variation by exploring the relationship between the heights of a fixed amount of water poured into cylindrical containers of different sizes as compared to the area of the containers' bases." from Insights into Algebra 1 - Annenberg Foundation.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

## Video/Audio/Animations

Linear Equations in the Real World:

Linear equations can be used to solve many types of real-word problems. In this episode, the water depth of a pool is shown to be a linear function of time and an equation is developed to model its behavior. Unfortunately, ace Algebra student A. V. Geekman ends up in hot water anyway.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Fitting a Line to Data:

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Graphing Lines:

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Equation Grapher:

This interactive simulation investigates graphing linear and quadratic equations. Users are given the ability to define and change the coefficients and constants in order to observe resulting changes in the graph(s).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Line of Best Fit:

This manipulative allows the user to enter multiple coordinates on a grid, estimate a line of best fit, and then determine the equation for a line of best fit.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## MFAS Formative Assessments

Developmental Data:

Students are asked to interpret the slope of a linear model.

Foot Length:

Students are asked to interpret the line of best fit, slope, and y-intercept of a linear model.

Stretching Statistics:

Students are asked to interpret a specific solution and the y-intercept of a linear equation that describes a context.

Tuition:

Students are asked to use a linear model to make a prediction about the value of one of the variables.

## Original Student Tutorials Mathematics - Grades 6-8

Scatterplots Part 5: Interpreting the Equation of the Trend Line :

Explore how to interpret the slope and y-intercept of a linear trend line when bivariate data is graphed on a scatterplot in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 5 in 6-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Scatterplots Part 6: Using Linear Models :

Learn how to use the equation of a linear trend line to interpolate and extrapolate bivariate data plotted in a scatterplot. You will see the usefulness of trend lines and how they are used in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 6 in 6-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Original Student Tutorials

Scatterplots Part 6: Using Linear Models :

Learn how to use the equation of a linear trend line to interpolate and extrapolate bivariate data plotted in a scatterplot. You will see the usefulness of trend lines and how they are used in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 6 in 6-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Scatterplots Part 5: Interpreting the Equation of the Trend Line :

Explore how to interpret the slope and y-intercept of a linear trend line when bivariate data is graphed on a scatterplot in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 5 in 6-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

US Airports:

In this resource, real-world bivariate data is displayed in a scatter plot. The equation of the linear function which models the relationship between the two variables is provided, and it is graphed on the scatter plot. Students are asked to use the model to interpret the data and to make predictions.

## Video/Audio/Animations

Linear Equations in the Real World:

Linear equations can be used to solve many types of real-word problems. In this episode, the water depth of a pool is shown to be a linear function of time and an equation is developed to model its behavior. Unfortunately, ace Algebra student A. V. Geekman ends up in hot water anyway.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Fitting a Line to Data:

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Graphing Lines:

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Equation Grapher:

This interactive simulation investigates graphing linear and quadratic equations. Users are given the ability to define and change the coefficients and constants in order to observe resulting changes in the graph(s).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Line of Best Fit:

This manipulative allows the user to enter multiple coordinates on a grid, estimate a line of best fit, and then determine the equation for a line of best fit.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

US Airports:

In this resource, real-world bivariate data is displayed in a scatter plot. The equation of the linear function which models the relationship between the two variables is provided, and it is graphed on the scatter plot. Students are asked to use the model to interpret the data and to make predictions.

## Video/Audio/Animation

Fitting a Line to Data:

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulative

Graphing Lines:

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative