Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
SC.3.P.8.2 - Measure and compare the mass and volume of solids and liquids.
SC.3.P.8.3 - Compare materials and objects according to properties such as size, shape, color, texture, and hardness.
SC.4.P.8.1 - Measure and compare objects and materials based on their physical properties including: mass, shape, volume, color, hardness, texture, odor, taste, attraction to magnets.
SC.3.P.10.4 - Demonstrate that light can be reflected, refracted, and absorbed.
Explore: What will the students do to explore the concepts and skills being developed through the lesson?
Day two will be a review of the definitions of six various forms of energy and a closer look at chemical and sound energy.
Students should begin with labeling (Day Two - Forms of Energy) and dating their science notebooks.
Allow students to pair up to work on the Forms of Energy Vocabulary Sort (attached). Students may use notes from day 1, to help in sorting the vocabulary cards.
Explain to students that you are going to take a closer look at sound energy. Ask, "What causes sound"? (vibrations) Sound moves through the air in waves. Different objects make sounds with different pitches.
Each group of students should have 4 baby food (or other glass jars of the same size), a cup of water, a tuning fork (or other metal fork). Students will place varying amounts of water in each container. The glass containers should be lined up from least amount of water to greatest amount of water. Students will tap each jar. They should listen for the sound and watch the vibration of the fork. Repeat tapping each jar at least three times. Safety Note: Remind students to be careful with the glass jars when striking them with the tuning fork. If struck too hard, they could break. Students should be wearing safety glasses during this part of the investigation.
When complete, the students will participate in a think, pair, share with the following questions, one at a time:
- Think: When asked a question, students will be given a specific amount of time (approximately 1 minute if thinking or 3 minutes if they are asked to write) to think or write independently about the answer.
- Pair: Students will again be given a specific amount of time to share their answers with a partner.
- Share: Students will share answers whole group or with the teacher as a group.
- What did you observe about the reaction of the fork to the tapping? (answers will vary)
- Were the sounds different for each jar? (answers will vary)
- How did the amount of water impact the pitch? (answers will vary)
- Why was it important that all of the jars were the same type and size? (The jar is a controlled variable. The only changing variable was the amount of water. In order to get accurate results, only one variable may change.)
- Why did you test each jar a minimum of three times? (Multiple tests should be completed to check for accuracy and comparison of results.)
Next, we will take a look at chemical energy.
- Inform students to put their safety glasses back on and ensure that they understand they are to wear them throughout this activity.
- Students will need a test tube (or 12 ounce cup), goggles, baking soda and vinegar.
- Students will pour 1/2 cup of vinegar into the test tube (or cup).
- Students will add 1 tablespoon of baking soda to the test tube (or cup) with vinegar.
- Return the lid to the test tube and observe reaction.
After activity the students will again participate in a think pair share discussing the following questions.
- What reactions did you observe?
- What type of energy is stored in baking soda and vinegar? (chemical, baking soda and vinegar are both chemicals)
- What happened to the chemical energy when the substances were mixed? (it was released)
At the end of the day 2 lesson, students will write two paragraphs in their science notebooks (one each for sound and chemical energy). The purpose of the paragraph will be for them to record their observations for the day, share what they learned and give example of the energy form.
Day 3 will include an introduction of heat transformation and a focus on electrical and and light energy.
Label (Day 3 Forms of Energy) and date a page in science notebooks.
Share the video on energy transformations.
Discuss what eat it means for energy to transform (change from one form to another) and share examples [chemical (battery) to electrical (playing a radio), electrical (radio) to sound (music)]
Students will need a circuit board or a wire, D battery, battery holder, and small light bulb.
Electrical energy is moving electrical charges. This site offers some great information and helpful images.
Students should recognize there is chemical energy stored in a battery. Using the wire, battery and light bulb, students will make a connection so that the light bulb emits light (and heat). (If you have discussed open and closed circuits previously, this is a great teaching moment to review those.) Explain that the chemical energy in the battery transforms into electrical energy that flows through the wire, which changes into light and heat energy emitted from the light bulb.
Next, allow students to explore with a flashlight and mirror. Concepts including reflection and refraction may have been previously taught in 3rd grade, but may need to be reviewed. Share that light always travels in a straight line. Reflection is when the light bounces off on object. Refraction is when it bends.
Day 3 Think, Pair, Share
- What observation did you make when connecting your battery and light bulb? (answers will vary)
- Was there a transformation of energy? (from the chemical energy in the battery to the electrical energy and from the electrical energy to the light and heat energy)
- What observations did you make with the flashlight? (answers will vary)
Students should write one paragraph in their science journals, to summarize the lesson. The paragraph should include an explanation of energy transfer and a summary of the day's observation to include light and electrical energy. Include illustrations if desired.
Day four will include discussion of potential and kinetic energy and focus on mechanical and heat energy.
Potential energy is stored energy or the amount of energy an object has the ability to produce. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Once an object is released it produces kinetic energy. Potential and kinetic energy together form mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is the movement associated with an object.
If desired, show song and video, "Kinetic and Potential Energy".
Using a rubber ball and yard stick, demonstrate kinetic and potential energy. Hold the ball at a given height. Discuss that the ball has a certain amount of potential energy from a given height. Release the ball and observe how high the ball bounces. Repeat the demonstration holding the ball at various heights allowing for varying amounts of kinetic energy.
Next, students will take a closer look at mechanical and heat energy. Mechanical energy can be transformed into heat energy through friction (a force that opposes motion through direct contact). Students will need a two pieces of sand paper. As students move the sand paper they are using mechanical energy. As students rub the paper against one another, they are observing friction. As they are doing this, some of the mechanical energy is transforming into heat energy.
Students will participate in a think, pair, share.
- When does potential energy change to kinetic energy? (When the stored energy is released.)
- How can mechanical energy be transformed into heat energy? (through friction)