## Course Standards

## General Course Information and Notes

### General Notes

Laboratory investigations that include the use of scientific inquiry, research, measurement, problem solving, laboratory apparatus and technologies, experimental procedures, and safety procedures are an integral part of this course. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) recommends that at the high school level, all students should be in the science lab or field, collecting data every week. School laboratory investigations (labs) are defined by the National Research Council (NRC) as an experience in the laboratory, classroom, or the field that provides students with opportunities to interact directly with natural phenomena or with data collected by others using tools, materials, data collection techniques, and models (NRC, 2006, p. 3). Laboratory investigations in the high school classroom should help all students develop a growing understanding of the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work, as well as the skills to calibrate and troubleshoot equipment used to make observations. Learners should understand measurement error; and have the skills to aggregate, interpret, and present the resulting data (National Research Council, 2006, p.77; NSTA, 2007).

**Special Notes: Instructional Practices**

Teaching from a range of complex text is optimized when teachers in all subject areas implement the following strategies on a routine basis:

- Ensuring wide reading from complex text that varies in length.
- Making close reading and rereading of texts central to lessons.
- Emphasizing text-specific complex questions, and cognitively complex tasks, reinforce focus on the text and cultivate independence.
- Emphasizing students supporting answers based upon evidence from the text.
- Providing extensive research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence).

**Science and Engineering Practices** (NRC

*Framework for K-12 Science Education, 2010*)

- Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering).
- Developing and using models.
- Planning and carrying out investigations.
- Analyzing and interpreting data.
- Using mathematics, information and computer technology, and computational thinking.
- Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering).
- Engaging in argument from evidence.
- Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

** Literacy Standards in Science**

Secondary science courses include reading standards for literacy in science and technical subjects 6-12 and writing standards for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects 6-12. The courses also include speaking and listening standards. For a complete list of standards required for this course click on the blue tile labeled course standards. You may also download the complete course including all required standards and notes sections using the export function located at the top of this page.

**English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:**

Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Science. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL's need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: http://www.cpalms.org/uploads/docs/standards/eld/SC.pdf

**Additional Instructional Resources:**

A.V.E. for Success Collection is provided by the Florida Association of School Administrators: http://www.fasa.net/4DCGI/cms/review.html?Action=CMS_Document&DocID=139. Please be aware that these resources have not been reviewed by CPALMS and there may be a charge for the use of some of them in this collection.

### General Information

**Course Number:**2000350

**Course Path:**

**Abbreviated Title:**ANAT PHYSIO

**Number of Credits:**One (1) credit

**Course Length:**Year (Y)

**Course Type:**Core Academic Course

**Course Level:**2

**Course Status:**Course Approved

**Grade Level(s):**9,10,11,12,30,31

**Graduation Requirement:**Equally Rigorous Science

## Educator Certifications

## Student Resources

## Original Student Tutorials

Explore the cerebrum and the cerebellum--the seats of thoughts and emotions in the human brain. You'll also learn about their functions and how they are surrounded and protected by the meninges..

This interactive tutorial is part 3 in a three-part series about the human brain. Click below to open other tutorials in this series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the hypothalamus and the thalamus, two regions in the center of the human brain that are among the areas responsible for constantly controlling mechanisms that we are hardly aware of, such as keeping our body temperature stable.

This interactive tutorial is part 2 in a three-part series about the human brain. Click below to continue this series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about the three components that make up the brainstem of the human brain, including their specific functions and how the brainstem relates to the brain and the rest of the body.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 in a three-part series about the human brain. Click below to continue this series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explores how vaccines and antibiotics provide an extra level of protection from infectious agents and pathogens.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine the hallowed words of Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address." In this interactive tutorial you'll identify his point of view, reasoning, and evidence in order to evaluate his effectiveness as a speaker.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of carbohydrates with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

- The Macromolecules of Life: Overview
- The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids
- The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins
- The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

Type: Original Student Tutorial

See how data are interpreted to better understand the reproductive strategies taken by sea anemones with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine field sampling strategies used to gather data and avoid bias in ecology research. This interactive tutorial features the CPALMS Perspectives video Sampling Strategies for Ecology Research in the Intertidal Zone*.*

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of lipids with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

- The Macromolecules of Life: Overview
- The Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates
- The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins
- The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to define, calculate, and interpret marginal frequencies, joint frequencies, and conditional frequencies in the context of the data with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

At any instant in your life, millions and millions of enzymes are hard at work in your body as well as all around you making your life easier!

By the end of this tutorial you should be able to describe how enzymes speed up most biochemical reactions as well as identify the various factors that affect enzyme activity like pH and temperature.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of proteins with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 4 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

- The Macromolecules of Life: Overview
- The Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates
- The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids
- The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify and describe the leading scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about factors that affect the blood flow in your body in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The graph of a quadratic equation is called a parabola [puh-ra-bow-luh]. The key features we will focus on in this tutorial are the vertex (a maximum or minimum extreme) and the direction of its opening. You will learn how to examine a quadratic equation written in vertex form in order to distinguish each of these key features.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to identify and describe the structural and functional features of nucleic acids, one of the 4 primary macromolecule groups in biological systems, with this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 3 in 5-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series:

- Macromolecules: Overview
- Macromolecules: Carbohydrates
- Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids
- Macromolecules: Lipids
- Macromolecules: Proteins

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the relationship between mutations, the cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth which may result in cancer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to identify the four basic biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) by structure and function with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

- The Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates
- The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids
- The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins
- The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify the basic functions of the immune system. You will also be able to distinguish between nonspecific and specific immune responses.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to name the major regions of the brain and identify them on a diagram with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Game

The Control of the Cell Cycle educational game is based on the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for discoveries concerning the control of the cell cycle.

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

This Excel spreadsheet allows the educator to input data into a two way frequency table and have the resulting relative frequency charts calculated automatically on the second sheet. This resource will assist the educator in checking student calculations on student-generated data quickly and easily.

Steps to add data: All data is input on the first spreadsheet; all tables are calculated on the second spreadsheet

- Modify column and row headings to match your data.
- Input joint frequency data.
- Click the second tab at the bottom of the window to see the automatic calculations.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Perspectives Video: Experts

Jump to it and learn more about how quadratic equations are used in robot navigation problem solving!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The tide is high! How can we statistically prove there is a relationship between the tides on the Gulf Coast and in a fresh water spring 20 miles from each other?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Sometimes the cell cycle gets derailed a bit, which can lead to the development of tumors. Learn more about mutations!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Strengthen your understanding of how muscle filaments function as this physiologist flexes his knowledge.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Get fired up as you learn more about ceramic glaze recipes and mathematical units.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is to allow students to demonstrate an ability to construct boxplots and to use boxplots as the basis for comparing distributions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to make deductions about what kind of music students like by examining a table with data.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to answer probability questions about SAT scores, using distribution and mean to solve the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem could be used as an introductory lesson to introduce group comparisons and to engage students in a question they may find amusing and interesting.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to examine the relationship between shops and crimes by using a correlation coefficient.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to have students complete normal distribution calculations and to use properties of normal distributions to draw conclusions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to use the normal distribution as a model for a data distribution. Students must use given means and standard deviations to approximate population percentages.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task provides a context to calculate discrete probabilities and represent them on a bar graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is meant to be a straight-forward assessment task of graph reading and interpreting skills. This task helps reinforce the idea that when a variable represents time, t = 0 is chosen as an arbitrary point in time and positive times are interpreted as times that happen after that.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to find the average, write an equation, find the domain, and create a graph of the cost of producing DVDs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The principal purpose of the task is to explore a real-world application problem with algebra, working with units and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout. Students are asked to determine which product will be the most economical to meet the requirements given in the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task students are given graphs of quantities related to weather. The purpose of the task is to show that graphs are more than a collection of coordinate points; they can tell a story about the variables that are involved, and together they can paint a very complete picture of a situation, in this case the weather. Features in one graph, like maximum and minimum points, correspond to features in another graph. For example, on a rainy day, the solar radiation is very low, and the cumulative rainfall graph is increasing with a large slope.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem introduces a logistic growth model in the concrete settings of estimating the population of the U.S. The model gives a surprisingly accurate estimate and this should be contrasted with linear and exponential models.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is for instructional purposes only and students should already be familiar with some specific examples of logistic growth functions. The goal of this task is to have students appreciate how different constants influence the shape of a graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task can be used as a quick assessment to see if students can make sense of a graph in the context of a real world situation. Students also have to pay attention to the scale on the vertical axis to find the correct match. The first and third graphs look very similar at first glance, but the function values are very different since the scales on the vertical axes are very different. The task could also be used to generate a group discussion on interpreting functions given by graphs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to illustrate through an absurd example the fact that in real life quantities are reported to a certain level of accuracy, and it does not make sense to treat them as having greater accuracy.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task operates at two levels. In part it is a simple exploration of the relationship between speed, distance, and time. Part (c) requires understanding of the idea of average speed, and gives an opportunity to address the common confusion between average speed and the average of the speeds for the two segments of the trip.

At a higher level, the task addresses MAFS.912.N-Q.1.3, since realistically neither the car nor the bus is going to travel at exactly the same speed from beginning to end of each segment; there is time traveling through traffic in cities, and even on the autobahn the speed is not constant. Thus students must make judgments about the level of accuracy with which to report the result.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The problem requires students to not only convert miles to kilometers and gallons to liters but they also have to deal with the added complication of finding the reciprocal at some point.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to calculate the cost of materials to make a penny, utilizing rates of grams of copper.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students are asked to use units to determine if the given statement is valid.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a challenging task, suitable for extended work, and reaching into a deep understanding of units. Students are given a scenario and asked to determine the number of people required to complete the amount of work in the time described. The task requires students to exhibit MAFS.K12.MP.1.1, Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. An algebraic solution is possible but complicated; a numerical solution is both simpler and more sophisticated, requiring skilled use of units and quantitative reasoning. Thus the task aligns with either MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 or MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1, depending on the approach.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students explore and manipulate expressions based on the following statement:

A function f defined for -a < x < a is even if f(-x)=f(x) and is odd if f(-x)=-f(x) when -a < x < a. In this task we assume f is defined on such an interval, which might be the full real line (i.e., a=8).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)^{2}+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This resource poses the question, "how many vehicles might be involved in a traffic jam 12 miles long?"

This task, while involving relatively simple arithmetic, promps students to practice modeling (MP4), work with units and conversion (N-Q.1), and develop a new unit (N-Q.2). Students will also consider the appropriate level of accuracy to use in their conclusions (N-Q.3).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task is a modeling problem which ties in to financial decisions faced routinely by businesses, namely the balance between maintaining inventory and raising short-term capital for investment or re-investment in developing the business.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides students the opportunity to make use of units to find the gas needed (MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1). It also requires them to make some sensible approximations (e.g., 2.92 gallons is not a good answer to part (a)) and to recognize that Felicia's situation requires her to round up. Various answers to (a) are possible, depending on how much students think is a safe amount for Felicia to have left in the tank when she arrives at the gas station. The key point is for them to explain their choices. This task provides an opportunity for students to practice MAFS.K12.MP.2.1: Reason abstractly and quantitatively, and MAFS.K12.MP.3.1: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem involves the meaning of numbers found on labels. When the level of accuracy is not given we need to make assumptions based on how the information is reported. An unexpected surprise awaits in this case, however, as no reasonable interpretation of the level of accuracy makes sense of the information reported on the bottles in parts (b) and (c). Either a miscalculation has been made or the numbers have been rounded in a very odd way.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Tutorials

Type: Tutorial

Type: Tutorial

In this Khan Academy video tutorial, learn the main important arteries in the brain that bring necessary oxygen to all parts of the brain.

Type: Tutorial

Learn about the complications that may occur after a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

Type: Tutorial

In this Khan academy video tutorial, learn about the possible treatments and interventions of different types of strokes.

Type: Tutorial

You will learn how the parent function for a quadratic function is affected when f(x) = x^{2}.

Type: Tutorial

Type: Tutorial

Learn about the process your body goes through in healing after a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the students to identify the vertex of a parabola from the equation, and then graph the parabola.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners to graph the equation of the quadratic function using the coordinates of the vertex of a parabola adn its x- intercepts.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to learn about the exponential functions by graphing various equations representing exponential growth and decay.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help students to understand the process of reflex arc. A reflex arc is the nerve pathway which makes a fast, automatic response possible.When the safety of an organism demands a very quick response, the signals may be passed directly from a sensory neuron, via a relay neuron, to a motor neuron for instant, unthinking action. This is a reflex action.

Type: Tutorial

A vaccine allows a person to develop acquired immunity against an illness without actually getting the disease. This interactive tutorial will help the learners to understand the process by which vaccines work in the human body.

Type: Tutorial

Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands and are released in the blood stream. This tutorial will help the learners to understand how the hormones reach their target cells in order to communicate the message.

Type: Tutorial

Hypersensitivity refers to excessive, undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system. Type 2 hypersensitivity is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and may affect a variety of organs and tissues. This animation relates hypersensitivity and blood types together.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video discusses which ions are allowed to be actively transported out of the filtrate of urine. The process of secondary active transport in the nephron is described in detail.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video describes how the proteins myosin and actin interact to produce a mechanical force on muscles, allowing them to move.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video explains the role that tropomyosin and tropinin play in muscle contraction. The role of the calcium ion concentrations are also explained.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video explains how cytotoxic t cells get activated by MHC-I antigen complexes and then proceed to kill infected cells. This video addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video discusses helper t cells in the immune system. The role of helper t cells in activating b cells is detailed. This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video describes the structure of the molecule DNA in great detail. It also discuses the role DNA plays in the process of protein synthesis, explaining transcription and translation. The video discusses the relationship between DNA and chromosomes as well.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video describes B lymphocyte cells, and how they are activated and produce antibodies within the immune system.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video describes non specific immunity, and the specific role of phagocytes. The tutorial explains how phagocytes engulf pathogens that enter the body as a line of defense.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video contains an overview of the types of immune responses in the body. The differences between humoral adaptive immunity and cell mediated immunity are discussed in detail.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video describes the structure of muscle cells. The tutorial details the muscle cell from the macro skeletal muscle to the individual cell of the muscle, called the myofiber. The functions of actin and myosin and how they cause muscles to contract are also explained.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video describes the anatomical structure of a neuron. Each structure is explained in detail.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video discusses form and function in the respiratory system. All of the respiratory organs are discussed.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video explains the major vessels involved in the flow of blood and follows the steps that blood takes as it travels through the heart.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand how bone growth is different from the growth of many other organs. Although bone may appear to be rigid and lifeless it is actually living tissue that is capable of growth. Unlike soft tissues, bone cannot simply grow by adding additional cells and removing cells that are no longer necessary. The calcium laid down in bone gives the skeleton the strength and rigidity needed to protect and support the body. This rigidity means that expansion requires addition of cells on the outside and, when necessary, the removal of calcium and other materials on the inside.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand how digestive tissue can produce a concentrated acid without damage to cells and molecules that are exposed to the acid. Hydrochloric acid production is described in this animation.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand why the secretion of gastric fluids is controlled both locally and through the central nervous system. This animation describes how gastric secretion is regulated by both the brain and digestive hormones.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial presents an animation of the way that the enzyme sucrase catalyses sucrose into its components, glucose and fructose. This occurs in the small intestine of the human body.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video discusses the basics of cancer. The relationship between mutation, the cell cycle and uncontolled cell growth is explained.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial helps you to understand the factors involved in air flow into and out of the lungs.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial explains that electrical signals cannot travel from one neuron to the next directly. The signal crosses the synapse in chemical form. One neuron releases chemicals in response to an action potential and the chemicals travel across the synapse and stimulate an action potential in the next neuron. These chemicals are called neurotransmitters.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial explains the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the respiratory system.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand how the exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood occurs by simple diffusion due to the changes in the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand how the nutritional value of food can be measured on many different scales. The most basic measurement scale is the free energy content in the food, i.e., how much energy is released when chemical bonds within the food are broken.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial is helpful in understanding how the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place during the process of respiration.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to visualize and understand how nerve impulses cause muscle contractions. The neurons and muscle tissue conduct electrical current by moving ions across cellular membranes. The signal will travel through the tissue and trigger the contraction of individual sarcomeres, the functional units of muscle. This tutorial explains the neuromuscular junction where the synapse occurs.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand which factors determine the strength of bone. Bone strength is determined by the internal structure, shape, and size of the bone. As we age, bone mass is lost, leading to a common condition called osteoporosis. This tutorial compares normal bone tissue with osteoporotic bone tissue.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand what determines the range of sound frequencies a person can hear. Sound travels through the air and through water as waves of changing pressure. The volume of sound is determined by the amplitude of the sound waves.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand the role that vitamins play in human nutrition. Vitamins interact with enzymes to allow them to function more effectively. Though vitamins are not consumed in metabolism, they are vital for the process of metabolism to occur.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

Tissues associated with the stomach produce not only digestive enzymes but also hydrochloric acid. The hydrochloric acid helps to chemically break down the food in the stomach. This tutorial will help you to understand how digestive tissue can produce a concentrated acid without damage to cells and molecules exposed to the acid.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial demonstrates how the structure of a signal molecule determines its function. Signal molecules can interact with either intracellular or extracellular receptors. For a signal molecule to bind with an intracellular receptor it must be able to pass through the cellular membrane. Generally signal molecules that enter the cell are nonpolar and fat soluble. These signal molecules can pass through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. Signals that bind with extracellular receptors are proteins or other types of molecules that cannot readily pass through the membrane.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help students understand how the immune system of vertebrates is characterized by acquired responses that are highly specific to particular antigens. This system has the advantage of having a cellular memory for previous infections.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand how allergies develop. Allergies are exaggerated immune responses caused by B cells producing excess IgE antibodies. An allergen (food, dust) is a foreign substance, which binds to the antibodies and triggers a reaction that includes the production of histamine.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a very high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

One of the functions of the T-Cells in the immune system is to attack and destroy infected cells. Target cells are cells that have been attacked by a virus. When the target cells have been taken over by a virus and they do not have a good chance of surviving, they trigger their own death. This action reduces the chance that other nearby cells will become infected.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand the function of phagocytes. Phagocytes are specialized cells that ingest and break down foreign material including bacteria and viruses.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand how the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place between the alveoli and the blood by taking partial pressure into consideration. Oxygen diffuses from the air through the alveoli into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli. This occurs due to differences in partial pressures.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand how all of the components of the heart are able to work together without direct control from the central nervous system. This video shows that for proper function of the heartbeat, it is necessary that all of the muscle fibers in a region contract in unison.

Type: Tutorial

The cardiac cycle is defined as the complete heartbeat from generation to the beginning of the next beat, and includes the diastole, the systole, and the intervening pause. This tutorial will help you to understand the cardiac cycle.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help students understand the process of muscle contraction. A muscle contains many muscle fibers and each fiber contains a bundle of 4-20 myofibrils. Each fibril is striated and these striations are produced by the arrangement of thick and thin filaments, called actin and myosin. The contraction and relaxation of these actin and myosin filaments help muscles move.

Type: Tutorial

T-cells perform a wide variety of functions in the immune system. In this tutorial you will understand the structure and function of the T-cells.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to understand the processing of hemoglobin and why it is different from the processing of many other macromolecules. Hemoglobin contains a heme group which contains iron. Iron is not common in other macromolecules therefore conservation of iron is important and is processed independently.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help students understand how food is digested with the help of different gastric secretions. Gastric juice from glands renders food particles soluble, initiates digestion, and converts the gastric contents to a semiliquid mass called chyme, thus preparing it for futher disgestion in the small intestine.

Type: Tutorial

Blood pressure is determined by the force of the blood acting on the walls of the blood vessels. Two factors determine the size of this force. One is the volume of blood being pumped through the vessel. The other is the size of the vessels. Changes in blood pressure can be caused by either a change in the amount of blood being pumped or by a change in the size of the blood vessels. Feedback mechanisms, described in this animation, will alter heart rate and blood vessel dilation to maintain blood pressure at appropriate levels.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help students to understand how concentrations of gases in the blood change during breathing. This animation shows high carbon dioxide concentrations and low oxygen concentrations indicating that gas exchage is occurring at a slower than ideal rate. Because of this, heart rate increases or decreases to compensate the exchange of gas.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial explores the steps that food takes on its journey through the digestive system. All major digestive organs and the process of nutrient absorption are explained.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help students understand how the difference in the alveloar pressure and the barometric air pressure allows the inspiration and expiration of air in the lungs.

Type: Tutorial

All living things are made of cells. In the human body, these highly efficient units are protected by layer upon layer of defense against icky invaders like the cold virus. Shannon Stiles takes a journey into the cell, introducing the microscopic arsenal of weapons and warriors that play a role in the battle for your health.

Type: Tutorial

This TED-ED original lesson explains the three common routes of metastasis. Cancer usually begins with one tumor in a specific area of the body. But if the tumor is not removed, cancer has the ability to spread to nearby organs as well as places far away from the origin, like the brain. How does cancer move to these new areas and why are some organs more likely to get infected than others? Ivan Seah Yu Jun explains the three common routes of metastasis.

Type: Tutorial

This short video describes the process of antibiotic resistance. Right now, you are inhabited by trillions of micro organisms. Many of these bacteria are harmless (or even helpful!), but there are a few strains of ‘super bacteria' that are pretty nasty -- and they're growing resistant to our antibiotics. Why is this happening? Kevin Wu details the evolution of this problem that presents a big challenge for the future of medicine.

Type: Tutorial

Chemical reactions are constantly happening in your body -- even at this very moment. But what catalyzes these important reactions? This short video explains how enzymes assist the process, while providing a light-hearted way to remember how activation energy works.

Type: Tutorial

This TED ED original lesson takes a closer look at how the heart pumps blood. For most of history, scientists weren't quite sure why our hearts were beating or even what purpose they served. Eventually, we realized that these thumping organs serve the vital task of pumping clean blood throughout the body. But how? Edmond Hui investigates how it all works by taking a closer look at the heart's highly efficient ventricle system.

Type: Tutorial

How do cancer cells grow? How does chemotherapy fight cancer (and cause negative side effects)? The answers lie in cell division. George Zaidan explains how rapid cell division is cancer's "strength" -- and also its weakness.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners with their understanding of chemical structure of DNA.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial provides information about the sound and how it travels. It also includes information on the anatomy and physiology of the human ear for the learners to understand how sound passes through the ear.

Type: Tutorial

This resource explores the electromagnetic spectrum and waves by allowing the learner to observe the refraction of light as it passes from one medium to another, study the relation between refraction of light and the refractive index of the medium, select from a list of materials with different refractive indicecs, and change the light beam from white to monochromatic and observe the difference.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe how the eye's muscles change the shape of the lens in accordance with the distance to the object being viewed
- Indicate the parts of the eye that are responsible for vision
- View how images are formed in the eye

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a concave spherical mirror generates an image
- Observe how the size and position of the image changes with the object distance from the mirror
- Learn the difference between a real image and a virtual image
- Learn some applications of concave mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a convex mirror forms the image of an object
- Understand why convex mirrors form small virtual images
- Observe the change in size and position of the image with the change in object's distance from the mirror
- Learn some practical applications of convex mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Observe the change of color of a black body radiator upon changes in temperature
- Understand that at 0 Kelvin or Absolute Zero there is no molecular motion

Type: Tutorial

This resource explains how a solar cell converts light energy into electrical energy. The user will also learn about the different components of the solar cell and observe the relationship between photon intensity and the amount of electrical energy produced.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe that light is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic waves
- Explore the propagation of an electromagnetic wave through its electric and magnetic field vectors
- Observe the difference in propagation of light of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Explore the relationship between wavelength, frequency, amplitude and energy of an electromagnetic wave
- Compare the characteristics of waves of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Learn to trace the path of propagating light waves using geometrical optics
- Observe the effect of changing parameters such as focal length, object dimensions and position on image properties
- Learn the equations used in determining the size and locations of images formed by thin lenses

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

With an often unexpected outcome from a simple experiment, students can discover the factors that cause and influence thermohaline circulation in our oceans. In two 45-minute class periods, students complete activities where they observe the melting of ice cubes in saltwater and freshwater, using basic materials: clear plastic cups, ice cubes, water, salt, food coloring, and thermometers. There are no prerequisites for this lesson but it is helpful if students are familiar with the concepts of density and buoyancy as well as the salinity of seawater. It is also helpful if students understand that dissolving salt in water will lower the freezing point of water. There are additional follow up investigations that help students appreciate and understand the importance of the ocean's influence on Earth's climate.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video presentation is illustrating the amount of work the kidney performs each day to maintain proper levels of ions in the body. It will help in increasing your understanding about the functions of kidney.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video presentation will help to understand the regeneration process in a zebrafish. When the zebrafish heart is damaged, the wound site is rapidly sealed with a fibrin clot that stems bleeding within seconds. Following clot formation, the tissue that surrounds the heart muscle, *the epicardium*, gradually covers the fibrin clot via migration and cell division. Over the next few months, new cardiac muscle is produced and replaces the clot.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Ocean explorer Robert Ballard gives a TED Talk relating to the mysteries of the ocean, and the importance of its continued exploration.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Interviews with expert scientists about the genome and mutant organisms
- Examples on model organisms used in genome research
- Animation explaining how mutations occur

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

An introduction to what cancer is and how it is the by-product of broken DNA replication.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This site has fantastic short Flash animations of intricate cell processes, including photosynthesis and the electron transport chain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

This simulation allows the student to create a box plot and a histogram for the same set of data and toggle between the two displays. Maximum, minimum, median and mean are shown for the data set. The student can change the cell width to explore how the histogram is affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This manipulative will help students in understanding scatter plots which are particularly useful when investigating whether there is a relationship between two variables. Students could develop a systematic plan for collecting and entering data into the scatter plot manipulative and set appropriate ranges for the *x* and *y* scales.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students adjust slider bars which adjust the coefficients and constants of a linear function and examine how their changes affect the graph. The equation of the line can be in slope-intercept form or standard form. This activity allows students to explore linear equations, slopes, and y-intercepts and their visual representation on a graph. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This resource provides linear functions in standard form and asks the user to graph it using intercepts on an interactive graph below the problem. Immediate feedback is provided, and for incorrect responses, each step of the solution is thoroughly modeled.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This educational game is about blood types, blood typing, and blood transfusions. Your challenge is to save patients in urgent need of blood transfusions. Your job is to decide what blood type these patients belong to in order to administer safe blood transfusions. At the end you will be evaluated: if you make no mistakes at all you will get all five blood drops.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students use preset data or enter in their own data to be represented in a box plot. This activity allows students to explore single as well as side-by-side box plots of different data. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the Java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Using this virtual manipulative, students are able to graph a function and a set of ordered pairs on the same coordinate plane. The constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted using slider bars, so the student can explore the affect on the graph as the function parameters are changed. Students can also examine the deviation of the data from the function. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With this online tool, students adjust the standard deviation and sample size of a normal distribution to see how it will affect a histogram of that distribution. This activity allows students to explore the effect of changing the sample size in an experiment and the effect of changing the standard deviation of a normal distribution. Tabs at the top of the page provide access to supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this online tool, students input a function to create a graph where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is an online graphing utility that can be used to create box plots, bubble graphs, scatterplots, histograms, and stem-and-leaf plots.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With a mouse, students will drag data points (with their error bars) and watch the best-fit polynomial curve form instantly. Students can choose the type of fit: linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic. Best fit or adjustable fit can be displayed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This interactive simulation investigates graphing linear and quadratic equations. Users are given the ability to define and change the coefficients and constants in order to observe resulting changes in the graph(s).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative histogram tool can aid in analyzing the distribution of a dataset. It has 6 preset datasets and a function to add your own data for analysis.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity allows the user to graph data sets in multiple bar graphs. The color, thickness, and scale of the graph are adjustable which may produce graphs that are misleading. Users may input their own data, or use or alter pre-made data sets. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students can create and view a histogram using existing data sets or original data entered. Students can adjust the interval size using a slider bar, and they can also adjust the other scales on the graph. This activity allows students to explore histograms as a way to represent data as well as the concepts of mean, standard deviation, and scale. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Section:Grades PreK to 12 Education Courses >Grade Group:Grades 9 to 12 and Adult Education Courses >Subject:Science >SubSubject:Biological Sciences >