SC.7.L.17.2

Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 7
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Big Idea: Interdependence -

A. Plants and animals, including humans, interact with and depend upon each other and their environment to satisfy their basic needs.

B. Both human activities and natural events can have major impacts on the environment.

C. Energy flows from the sun through producers to consumers.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: MC item(s)
  • Also Assesses
    SC.7.L.17.1
    Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web.

    SC.7.L.17.3 Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites.

  • Clarification :
    Students will compare and/or contrast relationships between organisms, such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism.

    Students will describe and/or explain the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web.

    Students will identify and/or describe various limiting factors in an ecosystem and their impact on native populations.
  • Content Limits :
    Items assessing the relationships between organisms may require the identification of the relationship as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, or commensalism.

    Items assessing the relationships of organisms may require recognition of common examples of mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and/or commensalism.

    Items will not require specific knowledge of organisms.

    Items may assess food webs but will not assess food chains.

    Items assessing consumers in a food web are limited to primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers.

    Items will not assess that the Sun is the source of energy for living things in isolation.

    Items will not address energy pyramids or use the term trophic level.
  • Stimulus Attributes :
    Food webs may include a maximum of 15 organisms.
  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.4.L.17.2, SC.4.L.17.3, and SC.4.L.17.4.
Sample Test Items (1)
  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question: Mangrove trees are common to the Florida Everglades. The tree roots serve as a place for freshwater oysters to attach when the tide is high, as shown in the picture below. The oysters are protected from predators when attached to the roots underwater.

    the oysters do not harm the trees nor do they provide any benefit to the trees. which of the following relationships is most similar to the relationship between the mangrove trees and the oysters?
  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2002070: M/J Comprehensive Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002080: M/J Comprehensive Science 2, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000010: M/J Life Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000020: M/J Life Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7820016: Access M/J Comprehensive Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2002085: M/J Comprehensive Science 2 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7920035: Fundamental Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
2002200: M/J STEM Environmental Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.7.L.17.In.2: Describe how organisms interact with other organisms in an ecosystem to help each other (mutualism), to obtain food (predation), and to benefit at the expense of the other (parasitism).
SC.7.L.17.Su.2: Recognize how living things affect each other in their habitat (ecosystem).
SC.7.L.17.Pa.2: Recognize a mutual relationship between people and other living things.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Educational Game

Coral Reef Connections-Ecological Relationships Among Reef Creatures:

In this interactive dive through Australia's Great Barrier Reef, discover relationships that have evolved between the resident organisms. Some are predators and prey; others compete for space, food, or mates; and still others are dependent or codependent on each other. Select one of four reef zones, then click on a type of relationship, predation and parasitism, competition or commensalism and mutualism to learn more about these relationships among reef creatures.

Type: Educational Game

Lesson Plans

Pandas and Horses "Duke It Out":

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text designed to support reading in the content area. The article introduces readers to a new threat to giant panda survival: horses. The article explains how both species are competing for the limited bamboo supply in the Wolong Nature Reserve. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

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Sneaky! Virus Sickens Plants, but Helps Them Multiply:

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Type: Lesson Plan

Bee Tongues Shrinking:

In this lesson, students will analyze an article that explains how bees have made an evolutionary adaptation of shorter tongues due to their flower food source moving up a mountain as a result of climate change. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. This lesson includes two note-taking guides, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, and sample answer keys.

Type: Lesson Plan

What’s the Buzz about the Bee Population?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an article that introduces readers to the importance and role of pollinators, factors contributing to their current decline, and easy steps that can be taken to help pollinators. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

SYMBIOSIS - Episode 4: From Pests to People (Dr. Wilson's Amazing Pea Aphids):

Dr. Alex Wilson of the University of Miami is an evolutionary biologist whose research centers on symbiotic relationships. "" from Day's Edge Productions on Vimeo is the last of four films created with funding from the National Science Foundation. This lesson, which includes a pre-test, slide presentation, and activity, was developed to support the learning concepts provided by Dr. Wilson's films.

Type: Lesson Plan

SYMBIOSIS - Episode 3: Inside the Pea Aphid (Dr. Alex Wilson's Amazing Pea Aphids!):

Dr. Alex Wilson of the University of Miami is an evolutionary biologist whose research centers on symbiotic relationships. In this short animated film, she explains exactly how the bacteria aids the aphid. The film explores how scientists use what they learn to seek evolutionary patterns in nature. "" from Day's Edge Productions on Vimeo is the third of four films created with funding from the National Science Foundation. This lesson, which includes a pre-test, slide presentation, activity, and formative assessment was developed to support the learning concepts provided by Dr. Wilson's films.

Type: Lesson Plan

SYMBIOSIS - Episode 2: Aphids Are Weird! (Dr. Alex Wilson's Amazing Pea Aphids!):

Dr. Alex Wilson of the University of Miami is an evolutionary biologist whose research centers on symbiotic relationships. In this short animated film, she introduces the concept of symbiosis to the viewers. This is the second of four films created with funding from the National Science Foundation, from Day's Edge Productions on Vimeo. This lesson, which includes a pre-test, slide presentation, activity, and formative assessment, was developed to support the learning concepts provided by Dr. Wilson's films.

Type: Lesson Plan

SYMBIOSIS - Episode 1: Symbiotic Super Powers (Dr. Alex Wilson's Amazing Pea Aphids!):

Dr. Alex Wilson of the University of Miami is an evolutionary biologist whose research centers on symbiotic relationships. In this short animated film, she introduces the concept of symbiosis to the viewers. from Day's Edge Productions on Vimeo is the first of four films created with funding from the National Science Foundation. This lesson, which includes a pre-test, slide presentation, activity, and formative assessment was developed to support the learning concepts provided by Dr. Wilson's films.

Type: Lesson Plan

Wolves of Yellowstone - Ecology & Human Impact:

In this MEA, students will decide how many wolves to introduce into Yellowstone National Park's ecosystem. The number of wolves could influence many factors, from the tourism industry to local farming businesses, as well as the populations of other species in the area. Students must choose to introduce the number of wolves they feel will be most beneficial to the preservation of Yellowstone National Park as determined by the mission statement of Yellowstone and the National Park Service.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

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Snakes Invade the Everglades:

This lesson introduces the concept of an invasive species, the Burmese python, and its impact on other animal populations in the Florida Everglades. Students will interpret and evaluate graphs to investigate correlation and causation as well as evaluate claims using evidence.

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Symbiotic Relationships General Lesson Plan with Relationship Diagram Activity:

Through a combination of videos and class discussions, students will be introduced to definitions and examples of symbiotic relationships. Students will solidify their definitions of relationships with an included, fun, picture-based interactive quiz. Guided practice includes an interactive game to help students deepen knowledge with guiding questions and short organized video clips. The topic is further explored through independent research on an ecosystem and the relationships between them which may be used as a summative assessment (rubric, instructions, and example included).

This lesson will take approximately two class periods to complete.

Type: Lesson Plan

Symbiosis Under the Sea:

In this lesson, students examine and research examples of symbioses that exist between organisms that live in the ocean. They watch two informative videos that contain many examples mutualisms, parisitisms, and commensalisms, and are asked to categorize and write informational texts about relationships shown in the videos.

Type: Lesson Plan

At the Top: A Bald Eagle's Diet:

This activity asks students to become scientists who are studying the components of a bald eagle's diet. They will collect data by pulling prey chips from an envelope and recording this data. They then graph their research data, draw conclusions about what a bald eagle eats, and share their conclusions with the class.

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Monarch Matters:

This 5E lesson plan introduces and explores the symbiotic relationships of the monarch butterfly in a Florida garden. Reading strategies, short video clips, and assessments are included.

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Interrelationships of Organisms:

In this activity the students will be learning unit specific vocabulary, and then bring it to life by creating a classroom ecosystem. They will each play a role in the ecosystem and be cycled in and out as appropriate. The ecosystem will look at the relationships amongst organisms (commensalism, parasitism, and mutualism), and how a singular event can crash an interdependent ecosystem.

Type: Lesson Plan

My Burrow - Our Burrow!:

"…Everything affecting the gopher tortoise's habitat affects the tortoise and … eventually affects all other organisms in its ecosystem. Efforts to save the gopher tortoise are really a manifestation of our desire to preserve intact, significant pieces of the biosphere. …We must preserve…the gopher tortoise and other species in similar predicaments, for if we do not, we lose a part of our humanity, a part of our habitat, and ultimately our world." — Dr. George W. Folkerts, "The Gopher Tortoise: A Species in Decline"

The gopher tortoise of the southeastern United States is a reptile that creates and lives in a subterranean burrow primarily in dry upland habitats. The are also found among coastal dunes. More than 350 species depend upon the gopher tortoise burrow for protection from temperature extremes and periodic fires. The fires, in turn, ensure that the canopy is open for plentiful sunlight. Low growing vegetation is the tortoise's primary diet and depends on open sunny areas. The animal species living in the burrow are known as commensals and include hundreds of invertebrates and vertebrates that would not survive without the burrows these tortoises create. This lesson is designed for students to deepen their understanding about symbiotic relationships and, most importantly, learn that the removal of a keystone species (the gopher tortoise) affects the entire food web of the habitats in which these inhabitants exist.

Type: Lesson Plan

Symbiosis in a Florida Scrub Ecosystem:

This lesson will use a hands-on activity to explore symbiotic relationships and interactions between organisms in a Florida scrub ecosystem. Class discussion and a group activity engages students in active learning and provides an opportunity for students and teachers to assess understanding throughout the lesson. A short-answer written assignment allows for students to organize their thoughts and for the teacher to conduct a final assessment.

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Symbiotic Relationships:

This lesson introduces, enforces and assesses students on three types of symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalism and parasitism).

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Pizza Box Ecosystems:

A long-term project in which students create a labeled ecosystem diorama out of a recycled pizza box as they complete an introductory ecology unit.

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Symbiosis:

This is an introductory lesson in which students describe, explain, and give examples of types of symbiotic relationships, including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring the World Outdoors:

This lesson is designed for hands-on learning about how organisms are interdependent. Students will go exploring in their school yard identifying living and nonliving things. Students will be guided with a list of things to find, where they can take pictures or collect them to take back to the classroom for further exploration. Students will then research and organize their findings identifying organisms based on terms learned in class. They will create an iMovie, PowerPoint or poster and will then be present to the class.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pythons in the Everglades MEA:

In this MEA, students will investigate the introduction of a non-native, i.e. invasive, species to the Florida Everglades: the Burmese Python. Students will investigate the complex predator-prey relationship and learn why this could damage the ecosystem permanently. Students will analyze a set of data to determine which method of eradication would be best and most effective, considering factors such as cost, the amount of man-power necessary to implement it, the effect it would have on the python population, and its impact on other species.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Learning Interdependence Through Florida's Ecosystems:

Students are assigned one of Florida's ecosystems and are guided through a series of lessons that cover SC.7.L.17.1, SC.7.L.17.2, SC.7.L.17.3, culminating in a project.

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Fishy Forms - Adaptations Tell Us Lifestyles:

In this lesson, students explore morphology (body shape) of fish and how they can indicate the fish"s lifestyle.

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Ecology Lesson Part 4 of 4 - Jeopardy Review:

This review game is designed to be part 4 of a 4 part series covering Interdependence. The first two lessons are Powerpoints that go over the information in the game. The third lesson is a biomes lab activity. This can be used as a stand alone activity, however - just make sure that you preview the questions and have covered this material with your students before presenting it to the class.

Type: Lesson Plan

Survival Journal Part Three: Surviving the Epidemic: Planting Tomatoes:

This is a detailed lesson based on the germination of seeds, science vocabulary of plants, diseases, and insect infestations with tomato plants. Tomatoes grow nutrients that the human body needs to survive. It is a companion lesson to: Survival Journal Parts 1 and 2 available on CPALMS.

Type: Lesson Plan

Survival Journal Part Two: Outdoor Gardening:

In this lesson, students will design two outdoor gardens, 1) a raised garden bed and 2) a ground level garden (traditional). Students will, with help of the teacher, till the ground with removal of ground cover, build border for garden, add soil, attach poles with string to create a life size graph all so they can grow tomatoes and plot the data easily in their survival journals.This is Part 2 of a 4-Part Project on Survival.

Type: Lesson Plan

Ecology Lesson Part 1 of 4:

This lesson is intended as the first part of a 4 part series. Part 1 is a powerpoint discussing terminology in Ecology including abiotic/biotic factors; symbiotic relationships [descriptions and examples of all 3]; producer/consumers; predator/prey; food chain;food web. Part 2 is a powerpoint that covers the biomes of the world and incorporates the terminology from part 1. Part 3 is a biomes lab activity, and Part 4 is a jeopardy review activity.

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Symbiotic Socializing:

Students will collaboratively work towards understanding symbiotic relationships in various ecosystems. Activities include KWL chart, short Youtube Clip, Symbiotic Sea Social, Symbiosis Scavenger Hunt, Symbiotic Style Four Corners, and creating a cumulative Symbiotic Diagram of an ecosystem of students' choice.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Relationships among Organisms:

Explore relationships among organisms, including mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism in this engaging tutorial!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Relationships among Organisms in the Kenyan Savannah:

Explore relationships between key species in Kenya and learn how they interact with each other. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Experts

Invasive Ants and Competition in the Kenyan Savannah:

Patrick Milligan shares his research on invasive ant species in the Kenyan savannah.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Relationships of Organisms in the Kenyan Savannah:

Patrick Milligan discusses the relationship of organisms in the Kenyan savannah.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Fish Microbiota, Dysbiosis, and Disease Prevention:

Dr. Andrea Larsen explains how fish microbiota are connected to fish health for aquaculture applications.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Professional Development

Snake Island: Facts, Judgments, and Speculation :

This tutorial is designed to help secondary science teachers learn how to incorporate literacy skills into their science curriculum. This tutorial will demonstrate how teachers can teach students to distinguish among facts, reasoned judgements, and speculation. The focus on literacy across content areas is intended to help foster students' reading, writing, and thinking skills in multiple disciplines.

Click "View Site" to open a full-screen version.

Type: Professional Development

Teaching Ideas

Sharing the Sea-SeaWorld classroom Activity:

In this activity, the students will investigate the inter-relationships of predator and prey and the diversity of food items in the sea.

Type: Teaching Idea

Create an Invertebrate-A SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

Students will identify the differences between an open and closed circulatory system; bilateral and radial symmetry; and an exoskeleton and hydrostatic skeleton. Students will define various terminology associated with invertebrates. Students will describe the differences between the three types of symbiotic relationships (parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism).

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

Text Resource: Sneaky! Virus Sickens Plants, but Helps Them Multiply:

This informational text (intended to support reading in the content area) describes how one common virus takes a sneaky route to success. It doesn’t kill its leafy hosts, instead, it makes infected plants smell more attractive to bees. This ensures the virus will have a new generation of the plants to host it in the future.

Type: Text Resource

Belly up to the Bamboo Buffet: Pandas vs. Horses:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In parts of China, pandas are threatened by horses. The pandas have a specific diet - bamboo that grows on the gently sloping areas far from human populations. But some farmers allow their horses to roam free and graze upon bamboo, taking away the only source of food for pandas.

Type: Text Resource

Bee Tongues are Getting Shorter as Temperatures Warm:

This informational text resource supports reading in the content area. The text explains how bees have made an evolutionary adaptation of shorter tongues. This adaptation is due to their mutualistic relationship with their flower food source moving up a mountain as a result of climate change.

Type: Text Resource

It's Blackberry Season! Summer Fruits Depend on Pollinators. But Where Have All the Bees Gone?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article introduces the reader to the importance and role of pollinators, factors contributing to their decline, and easy steps that can be taken to help pollinators.

Type: Text Resource

Fear Matters:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Prey species exhibit a variety of behaviors to avoid getting eaten by predators. For example, some animals may run away, find shelter, or move to a safer area if they sense predators are near. This article describes the responses of two prey species in detail: tree frog tadpoles that hatch early when predators are close by, and elk that avoid eating in dangerous areas when wolves are present. Their responses to fear can affect not only the prey species, but the entire food web.

Type: Text Resource

Wily Bacteria Create "Zombie" Plants :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes a newly found parasitic bacterial protein, SAP54, which turns host plants into non-flowering "zombies" for the sole benefit of the parasites. This knowledge may enable scientists to help plants defend against these attackers.

Type: Text Resource

Why Are Bees Vanishing?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Not many people will say they like bees, but they are a very necessary part of our environment. Scientists are struggling to find an answer—and, hopefully, a solution—as to why so many bee colonies are vanishing. They believe there are several environmental factors that are killing these insects.

Type: Text Resource

Corals and Coral Reefs:

This site from the Sea World Education Department provides an overview of corals and the reefs that they form. Many aspects of these invertebrates are covered, including descriptions, their scientific classification, their habitat and distribution, reef ecosystem, and the conservation of coral reefs worldwide.

Type: Text Resource

Trees Trap Ants Into Sweet Servitude:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. This is a news article describing the partnership between acacia trees and the ants which live on them, as well as the manipulation of the ants into an addictive relationship by the tree.

Type: Text Resource

Rainforest Rodents Risk Their Lives to Eat:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. Researchers found that the hungrier an agouti is the more likely it is to take risks to find food; in turn, they determined that the more risks an agouti took the more likely it was to be killed by an ocelot.

Type: Text Resource

Orb-weaving Spiders use Webs to Trap Pollen in Addition to Insects:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text presents scientific evidence that spiders obtain their nutrition from both plants and animals. Traditionally spiders have been classified as carnivores. This new evidence indicates that they are omnivores.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorial

Hopping into Central Ideas:

Click "View Site" to open a full-screen version. This tutorial is designed to help secondary science teachers learn how to integrate literacy skills within their science curriculum. This tutorial will demonstrate a series of steps that teachers can teach students to help them determine the central ideas of a science text. The focus on literacy across content areas is designed to help students independently build knowledge in different disciplines through reading and writing.

Type: Tutorial

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Pythons in the Everglades MEA:

In this MEA, students will investigate the introduction of a non-native, i.e. invasive, species to the Florida Everglades: the Burmese Python. Students will investigate the complex predator-prey relationship and learn why this could damage the ecosystem permanently. Students will analyze a set of data to determine which method of eradication would be best and most effective, considering factors such as cost, the amount of man-power necessary to implement it, the effect it would have on the python population, and its impact on other species.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Wolves of Yellowstone - Ecology & Human Impact:

In this MEA, students will decide how many wolves to introduce into Yellowstone National Park's ecosystem. The number of wolves could influence many factors, from the tourism industry to local farming businesses, as well as the populations of other species in the area. Students must choose to introduce the number of wolves they feel will be most beneficial to the preservation of Yellowstone National Park as determined by the mission statement of Yellowstone and the National Park Service.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades K-8

Relationships among Organisms:

Explore relationships among organisms, including mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism in this engaging tutorial!

Relationships among Organisms in the Kenyan Savannah:

Explore relationships between key species in Kenya and learn how they interact with each other. 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Relationships among Organisms:

Explore relationships among organisms, including mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism in this engaging tutorial!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Relationships among Organisms in the Kenyan Savannah:

Explore relationships between key species in Kenya and learn how they interact with each other. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Educational Game

Coral Reef Connections-Ecological Relationships Among Reef Creatures:

In this interactive dive through Australia's Great Barrier Reef, discover relationships that have evolved between the resident organisms. Some are predators and prey; others compete for space, food, or mates; and still others are dependent or codependent on each other. Select one of four reef zones, then click on a type of relationship, predation and parasitism, competition or commensalism and mutualism to learn more about these relationships among reef creatures.

Type: Educational Game

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.