Standard 1: Understand fractions as numbers and represent fractions.

General Information
Number: MA.3.FR.1
Title: Understand fractions as numbers and represent fractions.
Type: Standard
Subject: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Grade: 3
Strand: Fractions

Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

Access Points

MA.3.FR.1.AP.1
Explore unit fractions in the form 1/n as the quantity formed by one part when a whole is partitioned into n equal parts. Denominators are limited to 2, 3 and 4.
MA.3.FR.1.AP.2
Explore fractions, less than or equal to a whole, in the form of m/n as the result of adding the unit fraction 1/n to itself m times. Denominators are limited to 2, 3 and 4.
MA.3.FR.1.AP.3
Read and generate fractions, less than or equal to a whole, using standard form.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

Educational Game

Flower Power: An Ordering of Rational Numbers Game:


This is a fun and interactive game that helps students practice ordering rational numbers, including decimals, fractions, and percents. You are planting and harvesting flowers for cash. Allow the bee to pollinate, and you can multiply your crops and cash rewards!

Type: Educational Game

Formative Assessments

Unit Fractions:

Students divide a hexagon into two, three, and six equal parts and write the unit fraction representing each part.

Type: Formative Assessment

Two Equal Parts:

Students divide figures into two parts, each having the same area, and write the unit fraction representing each part.

Type: Formative Assessment

Which Shows One Third?:

Students are shown three circles and asked to select the one that correctly shows one third shaded and explain why the other two do not.

Type: Formative Assessment

What Does One Fifth Mean?:

Students are shown the fraction one fifth and asked to describe what it means.

Type: Formative Assessment

Three Quarters Of The Race:

Students are read a word problem about a student who has run three-fourths of a race and asked to describe what that means.

Type: Formative Assessment

Painting A Wall:

Students are read a word problem about a wall being painted and asked to describe what three-eighths of the wall means.

Type: Formative Assessment

How Many Fourths Are In Two Wholes?:

Students are asked to divide two rectangles into fourths and then to consider how many fourths the two wholes represent.

Type: Formative Assessment

Halves of an Irregular Polygon:

Students partition an irregular hexagon into two equal parts and describe each part using a unit fraction.

Type: Formative Assessment

Four Parts of the Whole:

Students partition a rectangle into four equal parts and describe each part using a fraction.

Type: Formative Assessment

Image/Photograph

Clipart ETC Fractions:

Illustrations that can be used for teaching and demonstrating fractions. Fractional representations are modeled in wedges of circles ("pieces of pie") and parts of polygons. There are also clipart images of numerical fractions, both proper and improper, from halves to twelfths. Fraction charts and fraction strips found in this collection can be used as manipulatives and are ready to print for classroom use.

Type: Image/Photograph

Lesson Plans

Mystery Strips - Fractional Parts of the Whole:

This problem-solving lesson has students working together in groups to discover that fractions are made up of equal parts of one-whole. In this lesson, students are exposed to equivalent fractions as well as challenged to work beyond unit fractions to discover the fractional part of one-whole that the "mystery strips" represent. This highly engaging lesson takes into account all levels of learners and will challenge even your most advanced students.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fraction Action!:

This lesson will help students understand that fractions are parts of a whole. The lesson introduces fractional parts using familiar manipulatives.

Type: Lesson Plan

Discovering Fractions:

In this lesson students will make initial discoveries about fractions. Students will work together to explain and record the discoveries they make while using manipulatives to explore fractions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fractions Meet Pattern Blocks:

Students will identify the fractional parts of a whole using pattern blocks.

Type: Lesson Plan

Symmetrical Solutions:

Students will use paper cutout and geoboards to find and create lines of symmetry. Students will have the opportunity to work with a partner and independently.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fraction Folding - Part 2:

Students will use foldables to create and name fractions. Students will sing a song to learn the terms numerator and denominator. Students will identify how many unit fractions compose a fraction.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Fraction Camp! Fractions Greater Than 1 on a Number Line:

Joey uses his knowledge of fractions to win games at camp by knowing where fractions greater than one are located on number lines, in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Nature Walk: Fractions Less Than 1 on a Number Line:

Learn to use number lines to represent fractions as Emmy explores nature in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Finding Fractions at Camp: Fractions on a Number Line:

Joey learns about the location of unit fractions on a number line while at camp in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sharing With Fractions:

Learn to name or identify fractions, especially unit fractions, and justify the fractional value using an area model in this pizza-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Problem-Solving Task

Money in the piggy bank:

This task is designed to help students focus on the whole that a fraction refers. It provides a context where there are two natural ways to view the coins.  While the intent is to deepen a student's understanding of fractions, it does go outside the requirements of the standard. 

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Virtual Manipulatives

Build a Fraction:


This virtual manipulative will help the students to build fractions from shapes and numbers to earn stars in this fraction lab. To challenge the children there are multiple levels, where they can earn lots of stars.
Some of the sample learning goals can be:

  • Build equivalent fractions using numbers and pictures.
  • Compare fractions using numbers and patterns
  • Recognize equivalent simplified and unsimplified fractions

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Fraction Game:

This virtual manipulative allows individual students to work with fraction relationships. (There is also a link to a two-player version.)

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Original Student Tutorials

Fraction Camp! Fractions Greater Than 1 on a Number Line:

Joey uses his knowledge of fractions to win games at camp by knowing where fractions greater than one are located on number lines, in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Nature Walk: Fractions Less Than 1 on a Number Line:

Learn to use number lines to represent fractions as Emmy explores nature in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Finding Fractions at Camp: Fractions on a Number Line:

Joey learns about the location of unit fractions on a number line while at camp in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sharing With Fractions:

Learn to name or identify fractions, especially unit fractions, and justify the fractional value using an area model in this pizza-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Educational Game

Flower Power: An Ordering of Rational Numbers Game:


This is a fun and interactive game that helps students practice ordering rational numbers, including decimals, fractions, and percents. You are planting and harvesting flowers for cash. Allow the bee to pollinate, and you can multiply your crops and cash rewards!

Type: Educational Game

Problem-Solving Task

Money in the piggy bank:

This task is designed to help students focus on the whole that a fraction refers. It provides a context where there are two natural ways to view the coins.  While the intent is to deepen a student's understanding of fractions, it does go outside the requirements of the standard. 

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Virtual Manipulatives

Build a Fraction:


This virtual manipulative will help the students to build fractions from shapes and numbers to earn stars in this fraction lab. To challenge the children there are multiple levels, where they can earn lots of stars.
Some of the sample learning goals can be:

  • Build equivalent fractions using numbers and pictures.
  • Compare fractions using numbers and patterns
  • Recognize equivalent simplified and unsimplified fractions

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Fraction Game:

This virtual manipulative allows individual students to work with fraction relationships. (There is also a link to a two-player version.)

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Image/Photograph

Clipart ETC Fractions:

Illustrations that can be used for teaching and demonstrating fractions. Fractional representations are modeled in wedges of circles ("pieces of pie") and parts of polygons. There are also clipart images of numerical fractions, both proper and improper, from halves to twelfths. Fraction charts and fraction strips found in this collection can be used as manipulatives and are ready to print for classroom use.

Type: Image/Photograph

Problem-Solving Task

Money in the piggy bank:

This task is designed to help students focus on the whole that a fraction refers. It provides a context where there are two natural ways to view the coins.  While the intent is to deepen a student's understanding of fractions, it does go outside the requirements of the standard. 

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Virtual Manipulative

Build a Fraction:


This virtual manipulative will help the students to build fractions from shapes and numbers to earn stars in this fraction lab. To challenge the children there are multiple levels, where they can earn lots of stars.
Some of the sample learning goals can be:

  • Build equivalent fractions using numbers and pictures.
  • Compare fractions using numbers and patterns
  • Recognize equivalent simplified and unsimplified fractions

Type: Virtual Manipulative