# Standard 1: Understand fractions as numbers and represent fractions.

General Information
Number: MA.3.FR.1
Title: Understand fractions as numbers and represent fractions.
Type: Standard
Subject: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Strand: Fractions

## Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

## Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

## Access Points

MA.3.FR.1.AP.1

Explore unit fractions in the form  as the quantity formed by one part when a whole is partitioned into n equal parts. Denominators are limited to 2, 3 and 4.

MA.3.FR.1.AP.2
Explore fractions, less than or equal to a whole, in the form of as the result of adding the unit fraction to itself m times. Denominators are limited to 2, 3 and 4.
MA.3.FR.1.AP.3
Read and generate fractions, less than or equal to a whole, using standard form.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Educational Game

Flower Power: An Ordering of Rational Numbers Game:

This is a fun and interactive game that helps students practice ordering rational numbers, including decimals, fractions, and percents. You are planting and harvesting flowers for cash. Allow the bee to pollinate, and you can multiply your crops and cash rewards!

Type: Educational Game

## Formative Assessments

Unit Fractions:

Students divide a hexagon into two, three, and six equal parts and write the unit fraction representing each part.

Type: Formative Assessment

Two Equal Parts:

Students divide figures into two parts, each having the same area, and write the unit fraction representing each part.

Type: Formative Assessment

Which Shows One Third?:

Students are shown three circles and asked to select the one that correctly shows one third shaded and explain why the other two do not.

Type: Formative Assessment

What Does One Fifth Mean?:

Students are shown the fraction one fifth and asked to describe what it means.

Type: Formative Assessment

Three Quarters Of The Race:

Students are read a word problem about a student who has run three-fourths of a race and asked to describe what that means.

Type: Formative Assessment

Painting A Wall:

Students are read a word problem about a wall being painted and asked to describe what three-eighths of the wall means.

Type: Formative Assessment

How Many Fourths Are In Two Wholes?:

Students are asked to divide two rectangles into fourths and then to consider how many fourths the two wholes represent.

Type: Formative Assessment

Halves of an Irregular Polygon:

Students partition an irregular hexagon into two equal parts and describe each part using a unit fraction.

Type: Formative Assessment

Four Parts of the Whole:

Students partition a rectangle into four equal parts and describe each part using a fraction.

Type: Formative Assessment

## Image/Photograph

Clipart ETC Fractions:

Illustrations that can be used for teaching and demonstrating fractions. Fractional representations are modeled in wedges of circles ("pieces of pie") and parts of polygons. There are also clipart images of numerical fractions, both proper and improper, from halves to twelfths. Fraction charts and fraction strips found in this collection can be used as manipulatives and are ready to print for classroom use.

Type: Image/Photograph

## Lesson Plans

Mystery Strips - Fractional Parts of the Whole:

This problem-solving lesson has students working together in groups to discover that fractions are made up of equal parts of one-whole. In this lesson, students are exposed to equivalent fractions as well as challenged to work beyond unit fractions to discover the fractional part of one-whole that the "mystery strips" represent. This highly engaging lesson takes into account all levels of learners and will challenge even your most advanced students.

Type: Lesson Plan

Parts of a Whole:

In this lesson, students will recognize a whole partitioned into equal parts and represent the unit fraction as 1/b. Students will learn to represent one equal-sized piece (numerator) of the partitioned whole (denominator) as a number in standard, numeral-word, and word form.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fraction Action!:

This lesson will help students understand that fractions are parts of a whole. The lesson introduces fractional parts using familiar manipulatives.

Type: Lesson Plan

Discovering Fractions:

In this lesson students will make initial discoveries about fractions. Students will work together to explain and record the discoveries they make while using manipulatives to explore fractions.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Human Number Line:

In this lesson, students will create a human number line by estimating a fraction's approximate location on the number line between zero and one. This lesson helps students visualize fractions’ relative distance from 0 in order to order and compare fractions and engages them in justifying their thinking.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fraction Name Art:

This lesson is designed to introduce and give students practice with the concept of fractions as part of a set. Students will use their classmates to create fraction statements, play a guessing game with color tiles, and finally write fractional statements about their own Name Art!

Type: Lesson Plan

Would You Rather?:

This lesson is designed to help students generate rules for comparing fractions. The students will use fraction tiles to discover ways to compare fractions with the same denominator or fractions with the same numerator. They will also begin to use benchmark fractions to help make comparisons and complete inequalities.

Type: Lesson Plan

The "Whole" Deal:

In this lesson, students will extend their understanding of unit and non-unit fractions by using different pattern blocks to represent one whole and then determining the fractional part the other pattern blocks represent.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fractions Meet Pattern Blocks:

Students will identify the fractional parts of a whole using pattern blocks. There is a focus on unit fractions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Symmetrical Solutions:

Students will use paper cutout and geoboards to find and create lines of symmetry. Students will have the opportunity to work with a partner and independently.

Type: Lesson Plan

Who has more? Using the size of the fractional part to compare.:

Students explore how they can compare fractions by considering the denominator. Students use real world examples to create models and demonstrate that the size of the piece decreases as the denominator increases.

Type: Lesson Plan

Making our own fraction manipulatives!:

Students will make and use a set of fraction manipulatives including whole, halves, fourths, and eighths to represent parts of a whole. They may be used later to discover fraction relationships.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fraction Folding - Part 2:

Students will use foldables to create and name fractions. Students will sing a song to learn the terms numerator and denominator. Students will identify how many unit fractions compose a fraction.

Type: Lesson Plan

Comparing and Placing Unit Fractions on a Number Line:

In this lesson, 3rd grade students will compare fractions which have the same numerator and explain their reasoning. The students will be able to compare the fractions by correctly placing them on a number line.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fraction Folding-Part 1:

In this lesson, students will build the understanding of unit fractions. They will differentiate examples and non-examples of fractional parts of squares. They will label unit fractions and describe unit fractions as those that “build” other fractions.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorials

Partitioning Number Lines in the Neighborhood:

Learn about unit fractions and how to partition number lines to plot unit fractions' locations. Join Nik, Natalia, and their neighborhood friends on a number line fraction finding adventure in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Fraction Camp! Fractions Greater Than 1 on a Number Line:

Joey uses his knowledge of fractions to win games at camp by knowing where fractions greater than one are located on number lines, in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Nature Walk: Fractions Less Than 1 on a Number Line:

Learn to use number lines to represent fractions as Emmy explores nature in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Finding Fractions at Camp: Fractions on a Number Line:

Joey learns about the location of unit fractions on a number line while at camp in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sharing With Fractions:

Learn to name or identify fractions, especially unit fractions, and justify the fractional value using an area model in this pizza-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Unlock an effective teaching strategy for teaching adding fractions in this Teacher Perspectives video for educators.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Making Connections Between Partitioning Circles and Circle Graphs:

Unlock an effective teaching strategy for connecting partitioning circles and circle graphs in this Teacher Perspectives video for educators.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Decomposing Fractions in Multiple Ways:

Unlock an effective teaching strategy for decomposing fractions in multiple ways in this Teacher Perspectives video for educators.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Exploring Fractions with Pattern Blocks:

Unlock an effective teaching strategy for using pattern blocks to explore fraction concepts in this Teacher Perspectives video for educators.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Representing Half of a Circle:

This task continues "Which pictures represent half of a circle?" moving into more complex shapes where geometric arguments about cutting or work using simple equivalences of fractions is required to analyze the picture. In order for students to be successful with this task, they need to understand that area is additive.

Geometric pictures of one half:

This task presents students with some creative geometric ways to represent the fraction one half. The goal is both to appeal to students' visual intuition while also providing a hands on activity to decide whether or not two areas are equal. In order for students to be successful with this task, they need to understand that area is additive.

Money in the piggy bank:

This task is designed to help students focus on the whole that a fraction refers. It provides a context where there are two natural ways to view the coins.  While the intent is to deepen a student's understanding of fractions, it does go outside the requirements of the standard.

Naming the Whole for a Fraction:

The goal of this task is to show that when the whole is not specified, which fraction is being represented is left ambiguous.

## Virtual Manipulatives

Build a Fraction:

This virtual manipulative will help the students to build fractions from shapes and numbers to earn stars in this fraction lab. To challenge the children there are multiple levels, where they can earn lots of stars.
Some of the sample learning goals can be:

• Build equivalent fractions using numbers and pictures.
• Compare fractions using numbers and patterns
• Recognize equivalent simplified and unsimplified fractions

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Fraction Game:

This virtual manipulative allows individual students to work with fraction relationships. (There is also a link to a two-player version.)

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Original Student Tutorials

Partitioning Number Lines in the Neighborhood:

Learn about unit fractions and how to partition number lines to plot unit fractions' locations. Join Nik, Natalia, and their neighborhood friends on a number line fraction finding adventure in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Fraction Camp! Fractions Greater Than 1 on a Number Line:

Joey uses his knowledge of fractions to win games at camp by knowing where fractions greater than one are located on number lines, in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Nature Walk: Fractions Less Than 1 on a Number Line:

Learn to use number lines to represent fractions as Emmy explores nature in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Finding Fractions at Camp: Fractions on a Number Line:

Joey learns about the location of unit fractions on a number line while at camp in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sharing With Fractions:

Learn to name or identify fractions, especially unit fractions, and justify the fractional value using an area model in this pizza-themed, interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Game

Flower Power: An Ordering of Rational Numbers Game:

This is a fun and interactive game that helps students practice ordering rational numbers, including decimals, fractions, and percents. You are planting and harvesting flowers for cash. Allow the bee to pollinate, and you can multiply your crops and cash rewards!

Type: Educational Game

Representing Half of a Circle:

This task continues "Which pictures represent half of a circle?" moving into more complex shapes where geometric arguments about cutting or work using simple equivalences of fractions is required to analyze the picture. In order for students to be successful with this task, they need to understand that area is additive.

Geometric pictures of one half:

This task presents students with some creative geometric ways to represent the fraction one half. The goal is both to appeal to students' visual intuition while also providing a hands on activity to decide whether or not two areas are equal. In order for students to be successful with this task, they need to understand that area is additive.

Money in the piggy bank:

This task is designed to help students focus on the whole that a fraction refers. It provides a context where there are two natural ways to view the coins.  While the intent is to deepen a student's understanding of fractions, it does go outside the requirements of the standard.

Naming the Whole for a Fraction:

The goal of this task is to show that when the whole is not specified, which fraction is being represented is left ambiguous.

## Virtual Manipulatives

Build a Fraction:

This virtual manipulative will help the students to build fractions from shapes and numbers to earn stars in this fraction lab. To challenge the children there are multiple levels, where they can earn lots of stars.
Some of the sample learning goals can be:

• Build equivalent fractions using numbers and pictures.
• Compare fractions using numbers and patterns
• Recognize equivalent simplified and unsimplified fractions

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Fraction Game:

This virtual manipulative allows individual students to work with fraction relationships. (There is also a link to a two-player version.)

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Image/Photograph

Clipart ETC Fractions:

Illustrations that can be used for teaching and demonstrating fractions. Fractional representations are modeled in wedges of circles ("pieces of pie") and parts of polygons. There are also clipart images of numerical fractions, both proper and improper, from halves to twelfths. Fraction charts and fraction strips found in this collection can be used as manipulatives and are ready to print for classroom use.

Type: Image/Photograph

Representing Half of a Circle:

This task continues "Which pictures represent half of a circle?" moving into more complex shapes where geometric arguments about cutting or work using simple equivalences of fractions is required to analyze the picture. In order for students to be successful with this task, they need to understand that area is additive.

Geometric pictures of one half:

This task presents students with some creative geometric ways to represent the fraction one half. The goal is both to appeal to students' visual intuition while also providing a hands on activity to decide whether or not two areas are equal. In order for students to be successful with this task, they need to understand that area is additive.

Money in the piggy bank:

This task is designed to help students focus on the whole that a fraction refers. It provides a context where there are two natural ways to view the coins.  While the intent is to deepen a student's understanding of fractions, it does go outside the requirements of the standard.

Naming the Whole for a Fraction:

The goal of this task is to show that when the whole is not specified, which fraction is being represented is left ambiguous.

## Virtual Manipulative

Build a Fraction:

This virtual manipulative will help the students to build fractions from shapes and numbers to earn stars in this fraction lab. To challenge the children there are multiple levels, where they can earn lots of stars.
Some of the sample learning goals can be:

• Build equivalent fractions using numbers and pictures.
• Compare fractions using numbers and patterns
• Recognize equivalent simplified and unsimplified fractions

Type: Virtual Manipulative