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* Please note that examples of resources are not intended as complete curriculum.

Lesson Plan

Hopping Backwards on the Number Line: This lesson uses the number line model to teach students how to generate differences. First, the teacher will demonstrate this by having students hop to subtract numbers on a physical number line (such as carpet squares or a shower curtain marked appropriately). Students will also investigate whether the commutative property holds for subtraction.

One more up on top: Students will be able to describe how adding by one is like counting up or on. 
Flower Power Flower Company MEA & STEAM* Activity: This STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Math) lesson has been designed around a ModelEliciting Activity.
This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) is written at a 1st grade level. The Flower Power MEA provides students with an real world problem in which they must work as a team to design a plan to select the best flower arrangement for a special event. The resource was primarily designed as an MEA so the time and teacher instructions are primarily based on the MEA. The additional activities will take several hours of instruction but include watching and discussing a video about the parts of plants, reading a book, and discussing the art in the book as well as additional art by the book author/illustrator. 
Planting Vegetables After a Storm: In this openended question, students in teams will make decisions about how to rank vegetables to plant on a farm. The students' decisions will be based on various criteria, such as most liked, easier to grow, cost and quantity of vegetables per harvest. 
Unit / Lesson Sequence

Macaroni Math: In this 6lesson unit, students will begin working on the fundamentals of subtraction using the takeaway model of subtraction in several different contexts (counting, sets, number line, balanced equations, and inverse of addition) using pasta shapes. They will learn to decompose numbers, explore the zero property, and the relation between addition and subtraction. Objects will be used to act out subtraction situations, and subtraction will be represented in pictures. They will compose and solve subtraction problems.
Individual Lessons
 Lesson 1: Recording Two Ways
 Using pasta shapes, students make sets and then subtract some away, recording the subtraction both vertically and horizontally. They draw a set of shapes and then subtract shapes by crossing them out, finally recording in both formats the subtraction represented in the drawing.
 Lesson 2: How Many Left?
 Students will work with the set model of subtraction, writing story problems and finding differences using sets, including subtraction of zero and all. Differences are recorded in chart format.
 Lesson 3: Where Will I Land?
 This lesson focuses on finding differences using the number line model. Students will be asked to predict differences and compose puzzles involving subtraction.
 Lesson 4: What Balance?
 This lesson uses the balance model to help students further explore the meaning of subtraction. They will start using subtraction facts to generate related addition facts, which bring to the foreground the conception of subtraction as the inverse of addition.
 Lesson 5: Who's in the Fact Family?
 This lesson continues exploring the relationship between addition and subtraction, as students find fact families using their problemsolving skill. This includes adding zero and alike addends.
 Lesson 6: What's the Difference?
 Students will use reasoning to find differences of numbers to 10, using calculators and addition charts. They will also play a game of concentration.

How Many More Fish?: "This unit focuses on comparative subtraction. The students use fishshaped crackers to explore five meanings for the operations of subtraction (counting, sets, number line, balance, and inverse of addition). Comparative subtraction extends the students early understandings about counting, addition, and subtraction in the takeaway mode. In this unit, the students investigate properties of subtraction, represent subtraction in objects and pictures, and record subtraction in both vertical notation and equations. They create and solve problems involving comparative subtraction. Students answer such questions as "How many more?" and "How many less?" Missing addend activities provide students with an experience in algebraic thinking." (from NCTM's Illuminations)

Comparing Connection Cubes: This 6 lesson unit focuses on the comparative mode of subtraction, and has students using connecting cubes to explore subtraction through five different models, counting, sets, number line, pan balance equations, and inverse of addition. Students will explore the relationship between addition and subtraction, use comparison in writing story problems, and practice subtraction facts and fact families. The lessons will build on and extend early understandings of counting, addition, and subtraction.
Individual Lessons
 Lesson 1: Counting Back and Counting On
 This lesson, which focuses on subtracting 1 from numbers to 10, begins with reading a counting book. The students model the numbers as the book is read. Then they make a chain of links and write in vertical and horizontal format the differences suggested by adding and subtracting one link at a time from their chains. Finally, they draw a chain showing one link being taken away and write in two formats the difference it represents.
 Lesson 2: Comparing Sets
 In this lesson students will be reviewing counting back by writing, estimating, and mentally computing whole number subtraction. They will count sets and record them in tables, which they will then use to draw conclusions. Students will also review the additive identity in the context of comparing sets.
 Lesson 3: Using the Number Line to Compare
 This lesson focuses on determining differences based on linear measurement, having students compare lengths using the number line. Students will then solve and create puzzles on number lines.
 Lesson 4: Balancing
 In this lesson students will explore subtraction through another model, the balance. The balance model leads naturally to recording equations. Students will write out in equation form the subtraction modeled on a pan balance, and then write out addition sentences that are from the same fact family.
 Lesson 5: Fact Families
 This lesson focuses on recording fact families, which students will use to explore the relationship between related addition and subtraction facts. Students will use connecting cubes and calculators to find missing addends, review the additive identity, and record fact families given either two addends or one addend and the sum.
 Lesson 6: Looking Back and Moving Forward
 This lesson reviews the work of the previous lessons, suggesting a framework for summative assessment. Students will use the knowledge and skills developed previously to demonstrate understanding while playing subtraction games.

Virtual Manipulative

Make Five: This game gives students a chance to practice multiplication, addition, and subtraction skills by combining Bingo and math tables. Students are given a number and are asked to identify a problem for which it is the answer from a 110 addition, subtraction, or multiplication tables. The goal is to make five (or three, for a simpler version) in a row. There is also a two player version for additional excitement as students compete against one another. 
Educational Game

The Game of Tens and Ones: A Lesson for Second Graders: "This game gives children practice with adding and subtracting ones and tens. Using a special die, two 0 99 charts, and two markers, children play in pairs. During the course of a game, they calculate between 20 and 30 addition and subtraction problems." (from Math Solutions Professional Development) 
Text Resource

Critical Areas and Changes in Grade 1: This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade One student will know, understand, and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study). 
Educational Software / Tool

Hundreds Chart: A printable hundreds chart featuring a 10x10 table numbered 1 to 100. (found on Illuminations website under "Trading for Quarters") 
Teaching Idea

Counting Books: The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skipcounting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity. 
Pocket Change: In this coin toss game, students score points based on the value of the coins which land heads up. Children work on several practical skills. They tell coins apart, distinguish "heads" from "tails," determine coin values, and add coin values. Students should have some familiarity with coins. 
Formative Assessment

Skyler’s Dog Biscuits: Students use a counting strategy to find the difference between two numbers. 
Beads On A Necklace: Students are guided to use counting to find the sum of two numbers. 
Addition and Subtraction Equations: Students are asked to write equations that correspond to counting strategies used in word problems. 
Using Counting On Strategies: Students are encouraged to use Counting On to solve Add To (Result Unknown) word problems.
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Related Resource Types
 + Macaroni Math + : In this 6lesson unit, students will begin working on the fundamentals of subtraction using the takeaway model of subtraction in several different contexts (counting, sets, number line, balanced equations, and inverse of addition) using pasta shapes. They will learn to decompose numbers, explore the zero property, and the relation between addition and subtraction. Objects will be used to act out subtraction situations, and subtraction will be represented in pictures. They will compose and solve subtraction problems.<br /> <br /><b>Individual Lessons</b><br /> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"> <li><a href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=677" target="_blank">Lesson 1: Recording Two Ways</a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> Using pasta shapes, students make sets and then subtract some away, recording the subtraction both vertically and horizontally. They draw a set of shapes and then subtract shapes by crossing them out, finally recording in both formats the subtraction represented in the drawing. </li></ul> <li><a href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=679" target="_blank">Lesson 2: How Many Left?</a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> Students will work with the set model of subtraction, writing story problems and finding differences using sets, including subtraction of zero and all. Differences are recorded in chart format. </li></ul> <li><a href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=683" target="_blank">Lesson 3: Where Will I Land?</a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> This lesson focuses on finding differences using the number line model. Students will be asked to predict differences and compose puzzles involving subtraction. </li></ul> <li><a href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=686" target="_blank">Lesson 4: What Balance?</a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> This lesson uses the balance model to help students further explore the meaning of subtraction. They will start using subtraction facts to generate related addition facts, which bring to the foreground the conception of subtraction as the inverse of addition. </li></ul> <li><a href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=689" target="_blank">Lesson 5: Who's in the Fact Family?</a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> This lesson continues exploring the relationship between addition and subtraction, as students find fact families using their problemsolving skill. This includes adding zero and alike addends. </li></ul> <li><a href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=691" target="_blank">Lesson 6: What's the Difference?</a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> Students will use reasoning to find differences of numbers to 10, using calculators and addition charts. They will also play a game of concentration. </li></ul> </ul>
 + How Many More Fish? + : "This unit focuses on comparative subtraction. The students use fishshaped crackers to explore five meanings for the operations of subtraction (counting, sets, number line, balance, and inverse of addition). Comparative subtraction extends the students early understandings about counting, addition, and subtraction in the takeaway mode. In this unit, the students investigate properties of subtraction, represent subtraction in objects and pictures, and record subtraction in both vertical notation and equations. They create and solve problems involving comparative subtraction. Students answer such questions as "How many more?" and "How many less?" Missing addend activities provide students with an experience in algebraic thinking." (from NCTM's Illuminations)<br />
 + Comparing Connection Cubes + : This 6 lesson unit focuses on the comparative mode of subtraction, and has students using connecting cubes to explore subtraction through five different models, counting, sets, number line, pan balance equations, and inverse of addition. Students will explore the relationship between addition and subtraction, use comparison in writing story problems, and practice subtraction facts and fact families. The lessons will build on and extend early understandings of counting, addition, and subtraction.<br /> <br /><b>Individual Lessons</b><br /> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=310">Lesson 1: Counting Back and Counting On </a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> This lesson, which focuses on subtracting 1 from numbers to 10, begins with reading a counting book. The students model the numbers as the book is read. Then they make a chain of links and write in vertical and horizontal format the differences suggested by adding and subtracting one link at a time from their chains. Finally, they draw a chain showing one link being taken away and write in two formats the difference it represents. </li></ul> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=315">Lesson 2: Comparing Sets </a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> In this lesson students will be reviewing counting back by writing, estimating, and mentally computing whole number subtraction. They will count sets and record them in tables, which they will then use to draw conclusions. Students will also review the additive identity in the context of comparing sets. </li></ul> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=321">Lesson 3: Using the Number Line to Compare </a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> This lesson focuses on determining differences based on linear measurement, having students compare lengths using the number line. Students will then solve and create puzzles on number lines. </li></ul> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=326">Lesson 4: Balancing </a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> In this lesson students will explore subtraction through another model, the balance. The balance model leads naturally to recording equations. Students will write out in equation form the subtraction modeled on a pan balance, and then write out addition sentences that are from the same fact family. </li></ul> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=329">Lesson 5: Fact Families </a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> This lesson focuses on recording fact families, which students will use to explore the relationship between related addition and subtraction facts. Students will use connecting cubes and calculators to find missing addends, review the additive identity, and record fact families given either two addends or one addend and the sum. </li></ul> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=338">Lesson 6: Looking Back and Moving Forward </a></li> <ul style="liststyle: none outside none;"><li> This lesson reviews the work of the previous lessons, suggesting a framework for summative assessment. Students will use the knowledge and skills developed previously to demonstrate understanding while playing subtraction games. </li></ul> </ul>
 + Hundreds Chart + : A printable hundreds chart featuring a 10x10 table numbered 1 to 100. (found on Illuminations website under "Trading for Quarters")
 + The Game of Tens and Ones: A Lesson for Second Graders + : "This game gives children practice with adding and subtracting ones and tens. Using a special die, two 0 99 charts, and two markers, children play in pairs. During the course of a game, they calculate between 20 and 30 addition and subtraction problems." (from Math Solutions Professional Development)
 + Counting Books + : The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skipcounting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.
 + Critical Areas and Changes in Grade 1 + : This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade One student will know, understand, and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).
 + Pocket Change + : In this coin toss game, students score points based on the value of the coins which land heads up. Children work on several practical skills. They tell coins apart, distinguish "heads" from "tails," determine coin values, and add coin values. Students should have some familiarity with coins.
 + Make Five + : This game gives students a chance to practice multiplication, addition, and subtraction skills by combining Bingo and math tables. Students are given a number and are asked to identify a problem for which it is the answer from a 110 addition, subtraction, or multiplication tables. The goal is to make five (or three, for a simpler version) in a row. There is also a two player version for additional excitement as students compete against one another.
 + Hopping Backwards on the Number Line + : <p>This lesson uses the number line model to teach students how to generate differences. First, the teacher will demonstrate this by having students hop to subtract numbers on a physical number line (such as carpet squares or a shower curtain marked appropriately). Students will also investigate whether the commutative property holds for subtraction.</p>
 + One more up on top + : Students will be able to describe how adding by one is like counting up or on.
 + Flower Power Flower Company MEA & STEAM* Activity + : This STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Math) lesson has been designed around a ModelEliciting Activity. <br />This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) is written at a 1st grade level. The Flower Power MEA provides students with an real world problem in which they must work as a team to design a plan to select the best flower arrangement for a special event. The resource was primarily designed as an MEA so the time and teacher instructions are primarily based on the MEA. The additional activities will take several hours of instruction but include watching and discussing a video about the parts of plants, reading a book, and discussing the art in the book as well as additional art by the book author/illustrator.
 + Planting Vegetables After a Storm + : In this openended question, students in teams will make decisions about how to rank vegetables to plant on a farm. The students' decisions will be based on various criteria, such as most liked, easier to grow, cost and quantity of vegetables per harvest.
 + Skyler’s Dog Biscuits + : Students use a counting strategy to find the difference between two numbers.
 + Beads On A Necklace + : Students are guided to use counting to find the sum of two numbers.
 + Addition and Subtraction Equations + : Students are asked to write equations that correspond to counting strategies used in word problems.
 + Using Counting On Strategies + : Students are encouraged to use <em>Counting On </em>to solve Add To (Result Unknown) word problems.
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2 Student Resources
 Hundreds Chart: A printable hundreds chart featuring a 10x10 table numbered 1 to 100. (found on Illuminations website under "Trading for Quarters")
 Make Five: This game gives students a chance to practice multiplication, addition, and subtraction skills by combining Bingo and math tables. Students are given a number and are asked to identify a problem for which it is the answer from a 110 addition, subtraction, or multiplication tables. The goal is to make five (or three, for a simpler version) in a row. There is also a two player version for additional excitement as students compete against one another.
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1 Parent Resources
 Hundreds Chart: A printable hundreds chart featuring a 10x10 table numbered 1 to 100. (found on Illuminations website under "Trading for Quarters")
Subject Area: CCSS: Mathematics
Grade: 1
Domain: Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster: Add and subtract within 20.
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Context Complexity:
Level 1: Recall

More Information
Date of Last Rating: 07/12
Status: State Board Approved
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