Describe the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic information.
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Heredity and Reproduction -

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes


Integrate HE.912.C.1.7. Analyze how heredity and family history can impact personal health. Annually assessed on Biology EOC. Also assesses SC.912.L.16.4; SC.912.L.16.5; SC.912.L.16.9.


    Also Assesses:

    SC.912.L.16.4 Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence may or may not result in phenotypic change. Explain how mutations in gametes may result in phenotypic changes in offspring.

    SC.912.L.16.5 Explain the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes.

     SC.912.L.16.9 Explain how and why the genetic code is universal and is common to almost all organisms.

  • Clarification :

    Students will describe the process of DNA replication and/or its role in the transmission and conservation of genetic information.

    Students will describe gene and chromosomal mutations in the DNA sequence.

    Students will explain how gene and chromosomal mutations may or may not result in a phenotypic change.

    Students will explain the basic processes of transcription and/or translation, and their roles in the expression of genes.

    Students will explain that the basic components of DNA are universal in organisms.

    Students will explain how similarities in the genetic codes of organisms are due to common ancestry and the process of inheritance.

  • Content Limits :

    Items requiring the analysis of base pairs for gene mutations are limited to changes in a single gene.

    Items may refer to but will not assess the cell cycle, mitosis, and/or meiosis.

    Items will not require memorization of specific conditions resulting from chromosomal mutations.

    Items may refer to the process of meiosis in the context of mutations but will not assess meiosis in isolation.

    Items addressing transcription or translation will not require specific knowledge of initiation, elongation, or termination.
  • Stimulus Attributes :
    Scenarios requiring the use of a codon table must include the codon table.
  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.7.L.16.1 and SC.7.L.16.4.


  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question:

    Genes for medically important proteins can be cloned and inserted into bacteria, as shown in the diagram below.


    Why can bacteria recognize a human gene and then produce a human protein?

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice