The student will organize, synthesize, analyze, and evaluate the validity and reliability of information from multiple sources (including primary and secondary sources) to draw conclusions using a variety of techniques, and correctly use standardized citations;
Subject Area: X-Reading/Language Arts (former standards - 2008)
Grade: 910
Strand: Information and Media Literacy
Standard: Research Process - The student uses a systematic process for the collection, processing, and presentation of information.
Date Adopted or Revised: 01/07
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes


SS.912.C.12Explain the changing roles of television, radio, press, and Internet in political communication.


  • Reporting Category: Informational Text/Research Process
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark will be assessed using: MC item(s)

  • Clarification :
    The student will use a variety of techniques and strategies to analyze and evaluate information within or across texts. 

    The student will identify the validity (i.e., correctness or soundness) and reliability (i.e., dependability) of information in a text by identifying supporting facts and analyzing the development of argument(s) within or across texts. In addition, the student may be asked to apply information from a text in a valid and/or reliable way. 

    The student will identify relationships between two or more ideas or among other textual elements found within or across texts (i.e., synthesize information).

  • Content Limits :
    Texts should be grade-level appropriate and present information in order to 
    • aid the student’s determination of validity and reliability of information; 
    • express a relationship among two or more ideas; 
    • express a relationship among ideas and certain text features; and 
    • reflect ideas that can be analyzed and evaluated. 

    This type of information may come from both primary and/or secondary sources. 

    Synthesis should be assessed by identifying the relationships among two or more ideas.

  • Content Focus :
    Synthesize Information (within/across texts)
    Analyze and Evaluate Information (within/across texts)
    Determine the Validity and Reliability of Information (within/across texts)
  • Text Attributes :
    Texts should be informational but on occasion may be literary; both may include either primary or secondary sources. 

    Primary sources may include, but are not limited to, eyewitness accounts of events, such as letters, journals, diaries, and historical documents. 

    Secondary sources may include, but are not limited to, encyclopedias, books, newspapers, and magazine articles. 

    Other stimuli may include, but are not limited to, illustrations with captions, graphics, and charts. 

    Evidence presented in texts should be logical, internally consistent, and clearly developed by the author in order to assess the validity and reliability of information.

  • Distractor Attributes :
    Distractors may include, but are not limited to 
    • incorrect analysis of validity and/or reliability of the text;
    • facts and details drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item; 
    • incorrect interpretations of the accuracy of information found in the text; 
    • incorrect synthesis of information; and 
    • plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. 

    Note: Whenever possible, validity and reliability items should utilize direct quotations from the text in the answer choices. 

    Note: For differentiating between Benchmark LA.910.1.7.7 and Benchmark LA.910.6.2.2, items that require students to compare or contrast specific details within the text should be aligned with Benchmark LA.910.1.7.7. Items that require students to synthesize similarities or differences and to draw conclusions from those similarities or differences within or across text(s) should be aligned with Benchmark LA.910.6.2.2.