- Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
- Formative Assessment
To access and review prior knowledge, give students a few problems with two addends such as 8 + 5 and 6 + 9 and ask, "How we can use the strategy of make a ten to find the sum?" (Possible answer for 8 + 5: "I can break apart 8 into the two addends of 5 + 3. Then I can add 5 + 5 to make 10 and then add 3 to find the total of 13.")
To assess further understanding, give students a few problems with three addends such as 4 + 8 + 3 and 5 + 7 + 2 to solve. Ask for volunteers to share their solutions and explain how they found their answer. As students share the total, ask if they can express their answer in terms of tens and ones. (Ex: 4 + 8 + 3 = 15; 15 can be expressed as 10 + 5.) Analyze students' responses to determine which students might need extra help during the lesson and which students might be able to work independently and/or receive more challenging tasks. Observe how students combine the three addends, noting which students are able to make a ten to find the sum and which students rely on other strategies. Students who rely only on counting by ones could need extra support during this lesson.
- Feedback to Students
As students are working in partner pairs, observe how they add, what strategies they use, how quickly they are able to express the total in terms of tens and ones, and if they understand the meaning of the equal sign in their equations. As they work, facilitate or provide corrective feedback, allowing them to revise answers as needed. Use the guiding questions and the questions listed in the Guided Practice section to check students' understanding.
- Summative Assessment
Students' understanding can be assessed in several ways. One option is to assign the following problems and ask students to solve them by finding the total and then writing an equation to show how the three addends are equivalent to the total expressed in tens and ones.
7 + 4 + 8 (Answer: 7 + 4 + 8 = 10 + 9)
6 + 9 + 9 (Answer: 6 + 9 + 9 = 20 + 4)
13 + 4 + 8 (Answer: 13 + 4 + 8 = 20 + 5)
Another option is use the journal entry or exit card referenced in the Closure section of the lesson to assess students' understanding of the lesson content.
- Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will add three addends and then decompose the total into tens plus ones. Additionally, they will record the two addition situations as an equality (ex: 6 + 8 + 3 = 10 + 7).
- Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- How does making a ten help us find the total of three addends?
- What does the equal sign mean?
- How do you know that both sides of the equation are equal?
- How would you express the total in terms of tens and ones?
- Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
This activity requires that students have an understanding of adding two numbers and be able to use the make-a-ten strategy in adding. Students should also have some experience expressing the numbers from 11- 30 in terms of tens and ones. To access and review this prior knowledge, see the first paragraph in the Formative Assessment section.
- Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
On the board or using an overhead projector or document camera, display this problem to students: 8 + 5 + 3. Ask students to talk with their shoulder partner and discuss different ways to combine the addends to find the total. Direct them to record their solution, showing how they combined the addends. As students collaborate, circulate and make note of the different strategies they use and decide which students will share their solutions. Be sure to have a variety of strategies explained. As students share their strategies, record on the board (or projector) the strategies they use such as make a ten, find a double, etc. Ask student pairs to discuss how they would express the total in terms of tens and ones. (16 is ten and six ones, or one ten and six ones) Show students how the initial problem is the same as or equal to the tens and ones expression (8 + 5 + 3 = 10 + 6) by writing the equation on the board (or with a projector or document camera). Have students record the equation on their paper (or dry erase board).
- Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
Give students another problem (6 + 7 + 8) and direct shoulder partners to find the total. Ask them to also discuss how to express the total in terms of tens and ones. Next ask several partners to share their solution and explain how they found the total. Direct the students to record their equation by having Partner A record the problem that you assigned and by having Partner B write the equal sign and write the total in terms of tens and ones. (Ex: Partner A would write 6 + 7 + 8 and Partner B would finish the equation by writing = 20 + 1.)
Ask the following questions and have shoulder partners discuss.
- How can both sides of the equation be equal if we have 3 addends on the left side of the equation and only 2 addends on the right side of the equation?
- What does the equal sign mean?
Then ask for volunteers to share their answers, facilitating corrective feedback through teacher questioning and students' discourse.
Give students 2-3 more problems with three addends to solve in partner pairs as done with the previous problem. (Sample problems: 4 + 3 + 8; 6 + 6 + 9; 12 + 5 + 8) As students work, circulate and provide corrective feedback and remediation as needed. Additionally, ask questions such as:
- How did you combine the addends?
- What strategy did you use to add? What is another way to find the total?
- If you had base ten blocks, how many rods and units would you need to show the total?
- What is your total amount? How do you know?
- How many would you have if you added 10 more? (or if you subtracted 10?)
When students are ready to move on, explain that they will be playing a game called Show It Another Way. Give each partner pair a dry erase board, marker or crayon, and a set of ten frame cards (See attachment entitled Ten Frame Cards and the Materials Needed section of the lesson plan). Ask students to separate their cards into piles of tens and ones. Select 3 ones cards and display them for the class with an overhead projector or document camera. Explain that partners need to work together to find the total and to display the answer in two ways—in terms of tens and ones using the ten frame cards, and by writing an equation on the white board like the equations written in Guided Practice. Allow students to work out the problems and display their answers. For example, if the teacher displays three cards that show 2, 9 and 7, partners would display a ten card and an eight card (total of 18) and also write 2 + 9 + 7 = 10 + 8 on their dry erase board. Review the correct answer and check for student understanding of the math content and of the task required.
If students need more practice, give them another problem to solve.
- Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Now tell them they are ready to play "Show It Another Way," and that this time, partners will stand when they have solved the problem and shown their answers in both ways. Select another group of 3 ones cards. Say, "Ready, set, go!" and display the three cards. As student pairs collaborate and then stand when finished, circulate to check their work. Allow one of the pairs to share their answer.
To make sure that all students get equal opportunity to express the answer in both ways, you can have Partner A show the answer with ten frame cards and Partner B write the equation on the dry erase board for the first problem. Then have them switch roles with each new problem.
Continue playing as time allows. You might also let student pairs come up and select the three cards to display.
Below are sample questions you can ask while students work or after they finish:
- How did you know what cards to use to show the number another way?
- How do you know that are both sets of cards equal?
- What would happen if I gave you four or five cards instead of three?
- How would you convince someone that your answer is correct?
- Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
To summarize the lesson, ask students to discuss the guiding questions with a partner. Then ask for several volunteers to share their answers. You might also have students write responses to the questions in their math journal or on an exit card.