Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What will students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to:
- read a pedigree to identify phenotype and determine the possible genotype of an organism
- use a pedigree to determine the probability that an organism's offspring will be affected by genetic disease
- write to explain the impact of selective breeding on dog breeds
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students should know that parents pass traits to their offspring. They should also know that some diseases and disorders are passed from parent to offspring.
This lesson should take place after the lesson on Punnett squares.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How do doctors determine the risk of genetic disease in an individual?
If humans can use our knowledge of inheritance to obtain desired traits in an individual, should we? Why or why not?
How are Chihuahuas and Great Danes both members of the same species, domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris)? How do humans impact the look and temperament of dog breeds?
Engage: What object, event, or questions will the teacher use to trigger the students' curiosity and engage them in the concepts?
Begin with the pre-test. Students should take no more than about 15 minutes to complete the test. Remind them that this is an assessment to see what they already know about what you are going to teach, so if they don't know, they should do their best but not take too much time on any one question. (Note that the answer key is included in the attached document beginning on the third page.)
Once the pre-test has been collected, begin with the PowerPoint.
The teacher will introduce the standards and learning goals.
The teacher will ask the essential questions. This can be followed by a brief discussion about things students already know about genetics and genetic engineering.
Advance to the slide of the Great Dane and Chihuahua. Prompt students to turn and talk to their shoulder or face partner about the questions. Students can write any questions that they have on sticky notes; if the teacher does not answer them during the course of the lesson, they can ask later.
Pairs share what they discussed with the whole class. This should take no more than about 5 minutes.
Explore: What will the students do to explore the concepts and skills being developed through the lesson?
The Explore section encompasses a short period of direct instruction about how to read a pedigree (PowerPoint slides 6-13). The teacher answers questions as he/she moves along. The teacher should have the Pedigree Checklist Template (attached) in front of her/him during the PowerPoint to record student misconceptions.
During the lecture, students practice reading pedigrees and interpreting them using their white boards. (Each student arrives at his or her own answer, but they can correct misconceptions after everyone has shared.)
Explain: What will the students and teacher do so students have opportunities to clarify their ideas, reach a conclusion or generalization, and communicate what they know to others?
Once you get to "Real World Implications" (slide 14), the teacher will give students their sample pedigree about German Shepherds and hip dysplasia (Hip Dysplasia attachment). Students will determine the probability that each individual in Generation III will be affected by hip dysplasia.
The teacher hands out articles I and II (Dog Articles attachment), and the rubric (Pedigree Rubric attachment). Students will complete a 2-3 paragraph opinion response in which they discuss whether humans should continue to selectively breed dogs for desirable traits (like sense of smell, size, etc.) knowing that this selective breeding can reduce genetic variability in the population and increase the incidence of genetic disorders.
Elaborate: What will the students do to apply their conceptual understanding and skills to solve a problem, make a decision, perform a task, or make sense of new knowledge?
Once complete, students will form teams for "pro" and "con" for artificial selection, and the teacher will facilitate a friendly debate. Each side will have 5 minutes to go around the group once. Each group will have a recorder (to write down ideas) and a speaker (to share ideas with the whole class). The teacher will facilitate group discussion as students talk back and forth about artificial selection.
Potential "Pros" and "Cons" for artificial selection:
(These will either be sample student responses or you can suggest these to students to spark further discussion before groups begin to debate.)
- Artificial selection doesn't just pass along faulty genes; it helps us select for desirable ones, too.
- It helps us understand the impact of genetic pre-disposition in research on human diseases, like cancer.
- It hurts the animal, who will have no choice but to suffer through painful and debilitating illness if affected.
- It hurts the population because of decreased genetic variability.
The pre-test can be given again to show growth with regard to the learning goal, however, the primary assessment of this lesson is the written assignment, which asks, "Should people continue to breed and/or purchase purebred dogs that have desirable traits if the artificial selection of these dogs leads to an increase in genetic disorders?"
The teacher will use a pre-test to determine existing knowledge (as well as understanding of prior lessons on Punnet squares).
The teacher may use a checklist during the PowerPoint/Explore session to ensure that students are able to correctly use a pedigree and are ready to move on to the analytical portion of the lesson.
Feedback to Students
Students will get immediate feedback during formative assessment as well as feedback on their summative assessment via the rubric.