SC.912.L.16.13

Describe the basic anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system. Describe the process of human development from fertilization to birth and major changes that occur in each trimester of pregnancy.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Standard: Heredity and Reproduction -

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications

  • Clarification :

    Students will identify and/or describe the basic anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system.

    Students will describe the process of human development from the zygotic stage to the end of the third trimester and birth.

  • Content Limits :

    Items referring to the male human reproductive system are limited to the seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deferens, urethra, epididymis, scrotum, penis, and testes.

    Items referring to the female human reproductive system are limited to the ovaries, oviduct (fallopian tube), uterus, cervix, and vagina.

    Items assessing the function of the placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac, and amniotic fluid are limited to how these structures relate to the development of the fetus.

    Items will not assess physiological or hormonal changes of the mother during pregnancy.

    Items assessing the production of hormones in the context of the physiology of the human reproductive system are limited to a conceptual understanding of the production of hormones.

    Items will not assess hormonal control during pregnancy.

    Items may refer to the early stages of development (implantation, morula, blastocyst, gastrulation, neurulation) but will not assess the definition of these terms.

    Items referring to changes in each trimester are limited to normal human development.

    Items will not assess specific knowledge of malformations in the human fetus, miscarriages, maternal preexisting conditions, genetic conditions, or the impact of exposure to environmental conditions.

    Items will not assess the utilization of technology to assist in or prevent fertilization or monitor development of the fetus.

    Items will not address or assess the menstrual cycle.

  • Stimulus Attributes :
    Illustrations or diagrams may be used.
  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.6.L.14.5.
Sample Test Items (1)
  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question:

    A fertilized egg undergoes several stages before it is successfully implanted. The diagram below shows these stages as the fertilized egg travels through the female human reproductive system.

     

    In which of the following structures of the female human reproductive system is the blastocyst implanted during normal human development?

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000360: Anatomy and Physiology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027020: Biotechnology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002440: Integrated Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002450: Integrated Science 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2002445: Integrated Science 3 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
7920040: Fundamental Integrated Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.16.In.6: Describe the basic process of human development from fertilization to birth.
SC.912.L.16.Su.5: Recognize major phases in the process of human development from fertilization to birth.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.5: Recognize the sequence of human development from baby to child to adult.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Do You See What I See:

The student will be able to describe the process of human development including major changes that occur in each trimester of pregnancy. Students will become scientists and explore the major changes that occur during embryo development. First, students will work in groups and correctly match the fetal development picture cards with the appropriate description. Next, students compare and share their findings with other groups and record this data. Finally, students will act as physicians as they investigate a medical case study of a pregnant woman and determine what trimester she is in by analyzing ultrasound reports detailing certain makers of the stages of development. Students will use a claim, evidence, rationale style activity using the ultrasound pictures and learned content to support their answers. The lesson culminates with students sharing their findings through a gallery walk.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Making of a Marvel: Part 4:

In this lesson, students will examine the process of fertilization. First, students will make predictions regarding the structures of egg and sperm and how it will aid or impede the fertilization process. Students will also make predictions about why meiosis produces differences in the numbers of sperm and eggs made available. Next, students will use microscopes to examine prepared slides of sperm and eggs. They will sketch each and label structures, and answer follow up questions at various DOK levels. For a final activity, students will use a word bank to fill in a narrative paragraph describing the fertilization process.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Making of a Marvel: Part 1:

The Making of a Marvel Part 1 is the first lesson of the reproductive unit (six lessons total). Students will begin with making cost analysis lists, as a class, of costs and benefits to asexual and sexual reproduction. The goal of this introductory exercise is to grab attention and illustrate that in sexual reproduction, the value of genetic diversity is well worth the cost. The second phase of the lesson begins with a brief discussion on the anatomy of both male and female reproductive systems. Together as a class we will then label diagrams of both systems. As a final activity in the lesson, students will receive cut out diagrams of both male and female systems. In this hands-on-manipulative students will match the corresponding structure and function labels given to them with the correct part of the diagram. This lesson follows the gradual release method of I do, we do, you do.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Real Story of Where Babies Come From:

Students will observe, explore, and create a story about the main structures of the female/male reproductive systems, describing how these systems interact during the process of fertilization to a create human being.

Type: Lesson Plan

How Do Babies Develop?:

In this lesson, students explore the development of the human fetus during pregnancy.

Type: Lesson Plan

Human Reproduction:

Students learn about the male and female reproductive systems and the developmental changes of pregnancy. Students will create a timeline about the trimesters of pregnancy.

Type: Lesson Plan

Where it all Begins: The Basic Structures of the Reproductive System:

Students will identify and/or describe the basic anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system. Students will understand how the structures of the human reproductive system work together to create and deliver gametes for fertilization.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

The Human Reproductive System, Part 1:

Explore the genetic advantage of sexual reproduction, describe the basic anatomy and physiology of both the male and female human reproductive systems, describe the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 in a two-part series. Click here to 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Human Reproductive System (Part 2):

Explore the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 2 in a two-part series. Click here to launch .

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Pregnancy and Birth:

This woman knows all about birthing babies!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Resource Collection

neoK12:

Educational lesson, videos and games for K-12 students. Covers all subjects, with Science and Social Studies very well represented.

Type: Resource Collection

Text Resources

Long-held Theory on Human Gestation Refuted:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This is a fine synopsis of a previously reported (and highly technical) study that shows the thought process behind challenging an existing theory. The subject is human evolution and the biology of childbirth. It encompasses basic anthropology concepts such as walking upright, as well as the biology of energy needs in pregnancy. Long-held views (that narrow birth canals are required for bipedalism) are debunked by careful analysis of how women with varying hip widths actually walk—and the authors found no difference.

Type: Text Resource

Sexual Reproduction - How it Works:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article gives an overview of the human reproductive system, including the organs that are present in both sexes and the role that each gender plays in reproduction. It is organized in a manner that supports readers' comprehension of the subject and captures their attention.

Type: Text Resource

Fetal Development, Human:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. There are many stages of the development of living things. This article focuses on the development of a human being starting at fertilization. The author gives vivid descriptions of each step of the process, breaking these steps into two larger groups: early development and the fetal period.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Embryonic Stem Cells:

This Khan Academy video describes what happens to a zygote as it becomes an embyro. It further explains what a stem cell is and discusses why there are questions concerning the use of stem cells.

Type: Tutorial

Maturation of the Follicle and Oocyte:

This tutorial will help you to understand the function of the follicle. Each follicle is a single egg cell surrounded by several layers of follicle cells. An ovary consists of many follicles. The follicle cells protect and nourish the egg prior to its release into the oviducts during ovulation.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Development of the Human Embryonic Brain:


This video presentation shows how the fetal brain grows during pregnancy, both in terms of its size and the number of neurons.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

The Human Reproductive System (Part 2):

Explore the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 2 in a two-part series. Click here to launch .

The Human Reproductive System, Part 1:

Explore the genetic advantage of sexual reproduction, describe the basic anatomy and physiology of both the male and female human reproductive systems, describe the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 in a two-part series. Click here to 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

The Human Reproductive System, Part 1:

Explore the genetic advantage of sexual reproduction, describe the basic anatomy and physiology of both the male and female human reproductive systems, describe the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 in a two-part series. Click here to 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Human Reproductive System (Part 2):

Explore the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 2 in a two-part series. Click here to launch .

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

Embryonic Stem Cells:

This Khan Academy video describes what happens to a zygote as it becomes an embyro. It further explains what a stem cell is and discusses why there are questions concerning the use of stem cells.

Type: Tutorial

Maturation of the Follicle and Oocyte:

This tutorial will help you to understand the function of the follicle. Each follicle is a single egg cell surrounded by several layers of follicle cells. An ovary consists of many follicles. The follicle cells protect and nourish the egg prior to its release into the oviducts during ovulation.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Development of the Human Embryonic Brain:


This video presentation shows how the fetal brain grows during pregnancy, both in terms of its size and the number of neurons.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.