LAFS.910.WHST.1.1

Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
  1. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 910
Strand: Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
Idea: Level 4: Extended Thinking &Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved

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This benchmark is part of these courses.
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7912070: Access Liberal Arts Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 and beyond)
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7912090: Access Algebra 1B (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 and beyond)
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond)
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7921027: Access World History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond)
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2100335: African-American History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond)
0719300: Creek 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond)
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Type: Lesson Plan

Digestion...in 3-D!:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses innovative research to aid in the understanding of how the digestive system works. The text describes how the villi in the small intestine work with the contraction of the muscle wall to aid digestion and how a team of researchers are working together to create a 3-D model this process. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Got Bull?:

This MEA is a genetics based lesson for upper level biology students. Students will review the data on several bulls and help a client choose the best bulls to begin a new cattle operation.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Role of Oceans in Climate Change:

Students will use multiple hands-on activities, videos, and text resources to evaluate the ocean's influence on global climate change. Student engagement and investigation are the focus of this lesson with the intent of increasing rigor and creating global citizens. The summative assessment focuses on student application of their new knowledge to answer a scientific question; students present their findings in various mediums.

Type: Lesson Plan

State of Emergency: Climate Change in Florida:

The governor of Florida has declared a state of emergency and is asking all of the residents to calculate their carbon footprint. Students need to submit a reference letter back to the governor explaining what their carbon footprint is as well as the steps they will take to reduce their carbon footprint. Students will then present their findings and evidence to reduce their carbon footprint at a city council meeting. This is an imaginary scenario and students will be graded on their written letters and speeches that are presented to the class.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Bunch of Hot Air....Balloon Rides That Is!:

This is a 9th grade MEA about weather prediction and limitations thereof. This MEA will ask students to work as a team to design a plan to select the source for weather forecasts for a private hot-air balloon tour company. Students will evaluate information from various weather predictions sources to determine which one is best for a hot-air balloon ride company.

Type: Lesson Plan

Yogurt Land Container:

The student will assist Yogurt Land on choosing a new size container to offer their customers. The choice of containers are different three dimensional figures. Students will revisit the concepts of volume, surface area, and profit in order to make a decision.

Type: Lesson Plan

A New View: Space Exploration MEA:

This MEA is about space exploration. Students will review data on six extrasolar planets and determine which one would be most feasible to explore first.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cleaning Up Your Act:

Cleaning Up Your Act Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) provides students with a real world engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best material for cleaning up an oil spill. The main focus of this MEA is to recognize the consequences of a catastrophic event, and understand the environmental and economical impact based on data analysis. Students will conduct individual and team investigations in order to arrive at a scientifically sound solution to the problem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones:

Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones is a model-eliciting activity that asks teams of students to work as forensic anthropologists and use equations to determine the height and gender of persons to whom a series of newly discovered bones may belong.

Type: Lesson Plan

Movie Theater MEA:

This MEA deals with creating a business plan for a movie theater, based on provided data. Students will first determine the best film to show, and then based on that decision, will create a model of ideal sales. Students will need to create equations and graph them to visually represent relationships.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Cancer: Mutated Cells Gone Wild!:

Explore the relationship between mutations, the cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth which may result in cancer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Professional Development

Branching Out: Growing Literacy Skills in Writing:

Click "View Site" to open a full-screen version.

By the end of this module, teachers should be able to:

  • Label the College and Career Readiness, also known as CCR, anchor standards for Writing
  • Explain the structure and organization of the grade-specific Writing standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects
  • Use the grade-specific Writing standards to identify what students should know and be able to do

This is Module 2 of 4 in the series, "Literacy across the Content Areas: Reading and Writing to Build Content Knowledge."

Type: Professional Development

Text Resources

Cone Snail Venom Reveals Insulin Insights:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the context area. The text describes how cone snail venom, a simpler form of insulin than human insulin, works more rapidly. Diabetes is a disease that occurs when the body is no longer to control the glucose levels in the bloodstream. Cone snail venom could help scientists develop a better, more efficient way of treating diabetes.

Type: Text Resource

The First Non-Browning GMO Apples Slated to Hit Shelves Next Month:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses newly developed apples that have lower levels of PPO enzyme, thus keeping them from turning brown quickly.

Type: Text Resource

For the First Time, Bees Declared Endangered in the U.S.:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how for the first time bees have been declared endangered in the United States. Seven species of Hawaiian yellow-faced bees have been decimated by invasive species and habitat loss and are now federally protected. The text goes on to describe an innovative way scientists want to help the bees.

Type: Text Resource

GM Mosquitoes Succeed at Reducing Dengue, Company Says:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes a recent study that allowed researchers to prove the benefits of releasing GM mosquitoes in Brazil in order to decrease disease transmission. At first, research showed that the mosquito population had dropped, but then the research also showed that diseases like dengue fever had dropped dramatically in comparison to areas with conventional mosquito control.

Type: Text Resource

Rangers Use Artificial Intelligence to Fight Poachers:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text discusses the design of an artificial intelligence (AI) technology called PAWS that was designed as a tool to help wildlife officials stop poachers. PAWS uses data about previous poaching activities and analyzes the data to create smart and efficient routes for wildlife officers to use while looking for poaching activity.

Type: Text Resource

Which Emits More Carbon Dioxide: Volcanoes or Human Activities?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article answers the question of whether volcanic activity or human activities contribute more to global warming. With evidence and support, they easily conclude human activities are the heaviest contributor

Type: Text Resource

Peering into the Secret World of Life Beneath Winter Snows:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes a new field of researchers called winter ecologists who are examining the effects of warmer winters caused by climate change. The text describes how snow creates an insulating layer for the living organisms below the snow. When that insulating layer is thinner, due to increased global temperatures, the organisms suffer colder temperatures, stress, and even death. Winter ecologists are trying to learn more about this layer, which is called the subnivium, and how organisms are responding to these changes.

Type: Text Resource

Warming Waters Contributed to the Collapse of New England's Cod Fishery:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the decline in the population of cod found in the Gulf of Maine. The author writes that fishery managers have set strict quotas on cod, with little positive change. Research indicates climate change has been a major factor in the steady decline of cod, and the text explains why.

Type: Text Resource

Invasive Lionfish Diet Could Impact Native Coral Reef Fishes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how lionfish, an invasive species in Atlantic waters, is threatening ecosystems there. The voracious diet of the lionfish will likely affect native species and the commercial fishing industry.

Type: Text Resource

Organic Fruit and Veggies Help This Farmer-Mom Save Money and Forests in Bangladesh:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how people in Bangladesh are using homestead farming to provide for their families, while simultaneously contributing to preserving local forests. With the help of USAID, farmers are using higher-yielding seeds and cultivating crops using organic fertilizers and composting. The demand for food grown without pesticides and nourished by compost helps the homestead farmers to make enough money to improve their standard of living, while helping the environment at the same time.

Type: Text Resource

Feeding Birds in Your Local Park? If They're White Ibises in Florida, Think Twice:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes the interactions between local wildlife (white ibises in Florida) and humans, and the impact that these interactions have on both species. The article presents both benefits as well as potential drawbacks to the close proximity of humans and white ibises. The article also describes how scientists are studying these interactions and their effects.

Type: Text Resource

Peru's Melting Glaciers Teach Community "to Be Strong in the Face of the Changes":

This informational text is resource designed to help support reading in the content area. The article discusses the impact of climate change (global warming) on the tropical glaciers in Peru. It focuses on providing a description of how Peruvians depend upon the glaciers and the impact that the melting of the glaciers could have in the future. The author also emphasizes USAID's role in working with Peruvians to help them develop plans to deal with the possible loss of the glaciers

Type: Text Resource

Where Do Rats Move in After Disasters?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes how a mathematical model can be used to simulate how environmental changes affect populations of pathogen-carrying rodents. A "capture" program undertaken by researchers at Tulane University allowed them to capture rats in post-Katrina neighborhoods in order to determine how rats migrate after natural or man-made disasters.

Type: Text Resource

Lakes Around the World Rapidly Warming:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This article describes the effect of climate change on the water supply and on ecosystems around the world. The article introduces research from a study spanning six continents that analyzed data to determine the rate at which Earth's lakes are warming. The author then uses this data to connect to the impacts on Earth's ecosystems and on human lives.

Type: Text Resource

Scientists Discover How Blue and Green Clays Kill Bacteria:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This text describes how researchers unearthed a natural clay deposit with antibacterial characteristics. The text also discusses exactly how the two elements in the clay cause the destruction of the bacteria. The end of the article addresses how this discovery could provide possible solutions to bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant, like MRSA.

Type: Text Resource

Coastal Blue Carbon:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes different ecosystems that store carbon, like forests, and goes into how carbon is stored more efficiently in coastal ecosystems. The text goes on to advocate for conserving and protecting our coastal ecosystems to keep the carbon stored and prevent the carbon from being released into the atmosphere to further impact the planet through climate change. The text also explores other benefits for conserving coastal ecosystems.

Type: Text Resource

Gut Reaction: Digestion Revealed in 3-D:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes how villi in the small intestine and muscle contraction work together to digest food and provide nutrients to the body, using the metaphor of coral working with an ocean current to circulate nutrients in the sea. A team of scientists plans to use technology to create 3-D imaging of digestion, and their research is described in the article along with the specific physiology and function of the villi within the digestive tract.

Type: Text Resource

World record for compact particle accelerator: Researchers ramp up energy of laser-plasma 'tabletop' accelerator:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Using one of the most powerful lasers in the world, researchers have accelerated subatomic particles to the highest energies ever recorded from a compact accelerator. The team used a specialized petawatt laser and a charged-particle gas called plasma to get the particles up to speed. The setup is known as a laser-plasma accelerator, an emerging class of particle accelerators that physicists believe can shrink traditional, miles-long accelerators to machines that can fit on a table.

Type: Text Resource

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions -- Real-Life Implications:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Oxidation-reduction reactions are one of the main types of reactions students are taught in chemistry class, but what are some real-life examples of this often awe-inspiring reaction? This article looks at the science behind some real-life oxidation-reduction reactions, including explosions (in cars and trains), space shuttle fuel, and many uses of metals. The importance of these reactions in limiting systems is also covered.

Type: Text Resource

Robots Will Steal Your Job: Exponential Growth:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text sets out to provide the reader with a clear understanding of the concept of exponential growth. Stories and examples tied to the stories are used to clarify the concept of exponential growth. Readers are offered various scenarios where exponential growth applies to everyday life, and opportunities are given to practice their grasp of the concepts.

Type: Text Resource

What Happens to Shipping Containers Lost at Sea?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article examines how the marine environment is affected by shipping containers that accidentally fall to the seafloor. It explores how the containers can be harmful but can also be a benefit to the ecosystem depending on factors such as what the containers are carrying and what the containers are made of.

Type: Text Resource

Wave Power:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. New Jersey-based company Ocean Power Technologies has gained a permit to launch PowerBuoys, which will convert ocean wave energy into power for human consumption. The benefits and concerns of harnessing the ocean's energy by this method are discussed in the article.

Type: Text Resource

Will Seafloor Carpets Be the Key to Harvesting Wave Energy?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes how scientists have discovered a method of transferring wave energy into electrical energy by the use of manmade seafloor "carpets." After the article explains how the process works, it lists the potential benefits of utilizing this method on a large scale.

Type: Text Resource

Animal Clones: Double Trouble?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Would you want to eat "clone chops?" This article discusses the possibility of food products derived from cloned animals appearing on our plates in the future. Also included is a brief history of cloning and the methods by which it is executed. In addition, the ethical and health arguments surrounding this development are discussed.

Type: Text Resource

Birds Have Clever Solution for a Cuckoo Conundrum:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes how Australia's superb fairy wrens have developed a solution to the parasitism of the cuckoos that lay their eggs in their nests. The wrens' adaptation of singing to incubating eggs allows the unborn babies to learn the call as a password. Once born, the babies repeat this call to the mother so she can feed them and not the parasitic cuckoos.

Type: Text Resource

Invasive Pythons Put Squeeze on Everglades' Animals:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This interesting article about Burmese pythons in the Everglades showcases the effect one invasive species has on a local ecosystem and habitat. This is a great way to discuss invasive species in the classroom and explore the causes and effects on biodiversity.

Type: Text Resource

How Tumbleweeds Spread Radiation from Old Nuclear Sites:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes how radioactive materials can be spread by biological vectors, such as tumbleweeds and rabbits, from decommissioned nuclear sites and nuclear waste storage facilities.

Type: Text Resource

Cultured Beef: Do We Really Need a $380,000 Burger Grown in Petri Dishes?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes the way scientists have created the first lab-grown meat and the possible implications of this new technology. An infographic and video are included that add significantly to the content.

Type: Text Resource

Will Snakes Inherit the Earth?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The author discusses the effects that invasive animals can have on an ecosystem. She initially writes about the Burmese python's effect on the Everglades and follows with the effects of other non-native species on native species. Finally, she exposes the reader to the debate about whether something should be done to control invasive species.

Type: Text Resource

Explainer: The Difference Between Radioactivity and Radiation:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text explains the difference between radioactivity (including radioactive decay, half-life, etc.) and radiation, and the connection between the two.

Type: Text Resource

How Lightning Strikes Erode Mountains:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explains how lightning impacts a mountain's shape and magnetic charge.

Type: Text Resource

Teen Reported to Police after Finding Security Hole in Website:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This is an article about a teenager who found a security hole in a web site so reported it as a good deed; however, he was then reported to the police. It also mentions others who have been in the same situation. Note: This article aligns with IIT Standard: 18.03--Explain the emergence of a paperless society.

Type: Text Resource

F-16 Accident Investigation Complete:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Investigators give their final conclusion of what caused an F-16 crash after making scientific observations.

Type: Text Resource

In a Grain Of Golden Rice, A World of Controversy Over GMO Foods:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text discusses the origins of, and controversy surrounding, Golden Rice, a genetically modified food that could potentially provide beta-carotene to millions in Africa and Asia.

Type: Text Resource

Incredible Technology: How to Bring Extinct Animals Back to Life:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses possible ways in which an extinct animal might be revived, as well as the potential consequences of de-extinction.

Type: Text Resource

Fancy a Balloon Ride to the Stratosphere?:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes a new mini spacecraft that allows individuals to rise peacefully by balloon into the stratosphere.

Type: Text Resource

Snowflake Science: How it Snows for Days in the Arctic:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The purpose of this text is to explain how a conceptual model for snowfall in the Arctic is useful in explaining how snow falls for days on end in relatively clean atmospheric conditions.

Type: Text Resource

What We Learned about Human Origins in 2013:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. The article summarizes the gains in the understanding of hominid evolution to include comparative archaeology and biology, DNA and tool analysis.

Type: Text Resource

Tidal Energy:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text proposes the advantages and disadvantages of three methods of converting tidal energy into electricity. The text includes links to outside information and key vocabulary words are highlighted with blue print.

Type: Text Resource

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Nationalism, Colonialism, and The Cold War:

This web resource provides a full teaching unit in PDF format designed to help students understand shifts in world politics during the second half of the twentieth century. Through an examination of primary and secondary source documents, students will work to gain awareness of the process that led to the creation of more than fifty independent sovereign states. Students will analyze the influence that the Soviet Union and the United States held over new states during the Cold War. The unit's summative assessment asks students to present research findings explaining the specific contexts of one newly-independent African state and one newly-independent Southeast Asian state.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

A Bunch of Hot Air....Balloon Rides That Is!:

This is a 9th grade MEA about weather prediction and limitations thereof. This MEA will ask students to work as a team to design a plan to select the source for weather forecasts for a private hot-air balloon tour company. Students will evaluate information from various weather predictions sources to determine which one is best for a hot-air balloon ride company.

A New View: Space Exploration MEA:

This MEA is about space exploration. Students will review data on six extrasolar planets and determine which one would be most feasible to explore first.

Cleaning Up Your Act:

Cleaning Up Your Act Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) provides students with a real world engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best material for cleaning up an oil spill. The main focus of this MEA is to recognize the consequences of a catastrophic event, and understand the environmental and economical impact based on data analysis. Students will conduct individual and team investigations in order to arrive at a scientifically sound solution to the problem.

Got Bull?:

This MEA is a genetics based lesson for upper level biology students. Students will review the data on several bulls and help a client choose the best bulls to begin a new cattle operation.

Green with Envy:

Students will make recommendations for dealing with the effects of algal blooms with regard to public health.

Movie Theater MEA:

This MEA deals with creating a business plan for a movie theater, based on provided data. Students will first determine the best film to show, and then based on that decision, will create a model of ideal sales. Students will need to create equations and graph them to visually represent relationships.

Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones:

Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones is a model-eliciting activity that asks teams of students to work as forensic anthropologists and use equations to determine the height and gender of persons to whom a series of newly discovered bones may belong.

Yogurt Land Container:

The student will assist Yogurt Land on choosing a new size container to offer their customers. The choice of containers are different three dimensional figures. Students will revisit the concepts of volume, surface area, and profit in order to make a decision.

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Cancer: Mutated Cells Gone Wild!:

Explore the relationship between mutations, the cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth which may result in cancer with this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Cancer: Mutated Cells Gone Wild!:

Explore the relationship between mutations, the cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth which may result in cancer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.