LAFS.7.RI.2.5

Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 7
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , MS , MC , OR , GR , SHT item(s)
  • Items should focus on the way that structure develops ideas or influences meaning. Items may refer to the structure of an entire piece or the structure of a particular section. Items may ask about varying form or structure within a text or may ask the student to determine where a shift in structure occurs.
  • Assessment Limits :
    Items should focus on the way that structure develops ideas or influences meaning. Items may refer to the structure of an entire piece or the structure of a particular section. Items may ask about varying form or structure within a text or may ask the student to determine where a shift in structure occurs.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing this standard may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Technology-Enhanced Item Descriptions section on pages 3 and 4 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice and Editing Task item types). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that explicitly demonstrate the text’s structure.
    • Requires the student to select an analysis about structure and then to select words or phrases from the text to support the analysis selected. 

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select how the text’s structure contributes to the development of ideas in the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple elements or descriptions of the text’s structure.
    • Requires the student to select multiple explanations of how the text’s structure contributes to the development of ideas in the text. 

    Open Response

    • Requires the student to describe how the text’s structure contributes to the development of an idea. 

    GRID

    • Requires the student to drag descriptions, analyses, or elements of the text’s structure into a graphic organizer. 

    Table Match

    • Requires the student to complete a table by comparing effects of structural elements upon the text as a whole.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1001040: M/J Language Arts 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001050: M/J Language Arts 2 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002010: M/J Language Arts 2 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1008040: M/J Reading 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008050: M/J Reading 2, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1100000: M/J Library Skills/Information Literacy (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1700060: M/J Career Research and Decision Making (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7810012: Access M/J Language Arts 2  (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.7.RI.2.AP.5a: Use signal words as a means of locating information.
LAFS.7.RI.2.AP.5b: Outline a given text to show how ideas build upon one another.
LAFS.7.RI.2.AP.5c: Determine the structure of a text (e.g., chronological order, compare/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution).
LAFS.7.RI.2.AP.5d: Determine how the information in each section contributes to the whole or to the development of ideas.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

A Star is Born:

The student will analyze the structure of the article “Stars and Humans,” and the ways in which the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of ideas. The student will process his/her analysis through reading and rereading the text, while using text marking to determine the structure of the text. The student will then answer guiding questions to process his/her ideas.

Type: Formative Assessment

Argh! It's Structure Ye Be Seeking:

The student will analyze the structure of an informational text using signal words and phrases as well as the text features (title, headings, subheadings, etc.) as a guide. The student will then use a graphic organizer to record his/her analysis of the structure and how the sections contribute to the development of the ideas.

Type: Formative Assessment

Working Together for a Cause:

The student will analyze the structure the author uses to organize the text and determine how the structure contributes to the development of ideas and his/her understanding of the text through reading an informational text passage titled “The Three Sisters” and identifying the main idea and supporting details in each paragraph. The student will then outline the information from the passage using a graphic organizer. Finally, the student will write his/her analysis.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

A Search for Central Ideas: Examining Florida Wildlife:

In this lesson, students will work on identifying use of text features, and determining the meaning of selected vocabulary, key details, and central ideas in two informational texts in the form of brochures, brochures created by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission about Florida manatees and alligators. Graphic organizers and answer keys are provided, as well as the brochures, and resources to help with the review of text features and central ideas.

Type: Lesson Plan

Brochures: A Creative Format for the Study of Informational Texts :

In this lesson, students will work with two informational texts in the form of brochures, texts about Burmese pythons and lionfish. With the lionfish brochure, students will identify the text features used, determine the central ideas and key supporting details, and work with selected vocabulary. Students will then be provided with informational text on a different animal and they will put their skills to use to create a brochure of their own. Various graphic organizers and teacher resources have been included as attachments with the lesson plan, including a rubric for the students' brochure. Additional resources have also been provided in the Further Recommendations section to help teachers gather resources for students to use to create their own brochure.

Type: Lesson Plan

Incursion of the Lionfish: Text Features, Text Structure, and Author's Central Idea- A Close Read:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close read of an informational text about the invasion of lionfish in the Gulf of Mexico. Students will work to determine the meaning of selected vocabulary, determine the author's central idea, and analyze how the use of text features and the cause/effect text structure support and develop the author's central idea. Text-dependent questions and a key, an annotation handout, text feature cards for review, and a friendly letter template and writing rubric for the summative assessment have been included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: My Mother, the Scientist:

The goal of this three day exemplar from Student Achievement Partner web resources is to give students the opportunity to use reading and writing habits to absorb deep lessons from Charles Hirshberg's recollections of his mother. By reading and rereading the passage closely and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussions about the text, students will identify how much his mother's struggles and accomplishments meant to both Hirshberg and the wider world. When combined with writing about the passage, and possibly pairing this exemplar study with Richard Feynman's memoir "The Making of a Scientist," students will discover how much they can learn from this mixed genre memoir/biography about what inspires life choices.

Type: Lesson Plan

Comparing and Contrasting an Organizational Pattern:

Students investigate picture books organized in comparison/contrast structures to discover methods of organization and the ways authors use transitions to guide readers. Students can then decide what organizational patterns and transitional words work best to accomplish their individual purposes in writing and apply those to their papers. This lesson is designed to be used during a unit when students are writing a comparison/contrast paper. It will be most helpful prior to drafting, but it could also be useful during revision.

Type: Lesson Plan

Graphic Organizers For Science Reading/Writing:

This activity emphasizes the importance of teaching reading and writing strategies for students to use with informational text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson Study Resource Kit

Clarifying Water Quality: A grade 6-7 Lesson Study MEA Toolkit:

This toolkit supports the development of an instructional unit on water quality that aligns with science, mathematics and English/Language Arts standards for students in grades 6 and 7. The elements of this toolkit were assembled based upon their suitability for constructing a multi-day instructional unit on water quality that corresponds with the 5E Learning Cycle of engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate. At the heart of this toolkit is a Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) created by the Institute for P-12 Engineering Research and Learning (INSPIRE), housed at Purdue University. The INSPIRE Water Filter MEA is designed to integrate instruction in the subjects of science, math, engineering design, and English Language Arts. Your task as a lesson study team is to analyze the materials that are included in this toolkit and evaluate how they can be incorporated in a 5-E instructional unit plan that complies with the standards for science, English/Language arts and mathematics that are indicated. Ultimately, your team will design a three to five day unit on water quality that incorporates the materials provided in this toolkit. As you study these resources it is important to make note of any deficiencies or gaps that will need to be addressed and make modifications in the lesson resources and activities where needed.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Original Student Tutorial

Addicted To Lotteries: An Analysis Of Text Structures:

Learn about text structures found in informational texts by reading an article about lotteries in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Addicted To Lotteries: An Analysis Of Text Structures:

Learn about text structures found in informational texts by reading an article about lotteries in this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Addicted To Lotteries: An Analysis Of Text Structures:

Learn about text structures found in informational texts by reading an article about lotteries in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.