LAFS.7.RI.2.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 7
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: EBSR , MS , MC , OR , GR , SHT , DDHT item(s)
  • Assessed with: LAFS.7.L.3.4 and LAFS.7.L.3.5
  • Assessment Limits :
    Items should focus on grade-appropriate words. Items should not focus on dictionary-based word meanings but should focus on how a word or phrase functions within the context of the text. Items should focus on words and phrases that have figurative, connotative, or technical meanings central to the meaning of the text rather than isolated, incidental vocabulary. Items may ask about words with discrete context clues in close proximity or words whose meaning is conveyed more implicitly throughout the text. Items may ask the student to employ various strategies to explore word meaning, including the application of context clues, roots, or affixes. Items may require the student to make connections between words and to delve into figurative or connotative meanings.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing these standards may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Technology-Enhanced Item Descriptions section on pages 3 and 4 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess these standards (excluding the Editing Task Choice and Editing Task item types). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of words or phrases by using context clues.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word or phrase from the passage.

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple correct meanings of a word or phrase from the passage. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select a word’s or phrase’s meaning and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning. 

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select a word’s or phrase’s meaning and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning.

    Task Demand

    Analyze the impact of word choice on meaning and tone.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to interpret the meaning of words or phrases and then to select the impact they have on the text.
    • Requires the student to select the tone or meaning of the text and then select words or phrases that helped create that tone or meaning. 

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the impact of word choice on a certain section of the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple ways in which words or phrases affect a certain section of the text. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select the text’s meaning or tone and then to select words from the text that support that meaning or tone.

    Open Response

    • Requires the student to explain how the impact of word choice affects the text’s meaning or tone.

    Task Demand

    Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to determine how common, grade appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots may provide clues to the meaning of a word.

    Task Demand

    Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of figurative language from the passage. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of figurative language and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning. 

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of figurative language and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple pieces of textual evidence that act as context clues when determining the meaning of figurative language.

    Task Demand

    Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select how a relationship between two words serves as a context clue for the meaning of one of the words. 

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to move words into a graphic organizer to demonstrate their relationship with one another. 

    GRID

    • Requires the student to move words into a graphic organizer to demonstrate their relationship with one another.

    Task Demand

    Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending).

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the reason an author chose a particular word or phrase instead of a word or phrase with a similar denotation.
    • Requires the student to select a different word or phrase that would maintain the connotation of a word or phrase in the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple ways a different word choice might change the tone or meaning of the text. 

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to match words with similar denotations with the change in connotation each word has to the original word.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1001040: M/J Language Arts 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001050: M/J Language Arts 2 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002010: M/J Language Arts 2 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1008040: M/J Reading 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008050: M/J Reading 2, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1100000: M/J Library Skills/Information Literacy (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7810012: Access M/J Language Arts 2  (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1400025: M/J Peers as Partners in Learning (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.7.RI.2.AP.4a: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used with figurative language.
LAFS.7.RI.2.AP.4b: Determine the connotative meanings of word and phrases as they are used in a text.
LAFS.7.RI.2.AP.4c: Analyze how the use of figurative, connotative or technical terms affects the meaning or tone of text.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Water Resource Word Study:

The student will determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in “Water: Our Threatened Resource,” including literal and connotative meanings, and then analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. The student will complete his/her analysis through a guided reading, text-marking, a word map, and a gallery walk.

Type: Formative Assessment

Clarifying "Destination: Mars":

The student will read an informational passage titled, “Destination: Mars,” which details how scientists prepare for missions to Mars for scientific research. The student will locate and clarify unfamiliar terms and phrases and use a graphic organizer to record his or her findings. Finally, the student will analyze how the word choice in the passage impacts the meaning and tone of the passage and record his/her analysis on the graphic organizer.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Child Soldiers Lesson 1: Analysis of News Articles:

In this lesson, students will read a series of three news articles about Sudanese efforts to disband child soldier units. Working in small groups, then partners, and finally independently, students will work to determine the meaning of selected vocabulary from each article, respond to text-dependent questions, and complete a graphic organizer answering the lesson's guiding questions and citing evidence from the text in support of their analysis. Students will then write an extended paragraph in response to one guiding question of their choosing. This is the first lesson of a three part unit that will build towards having the students research and write a paper on child soldiers.

Unit overview: This unit will guide students though the process of reading multiple texts to develop knowledge about the topic of child soldiers and will culminate in a final research project. The first lesson focuses on news articles while the second lesson concentrates on one former child soldier's story as portrayed through interviews and his music. As a whole, the unit integrates close reading of multiple sources with speaking and listening activities and provides students with opportunities to write routinely from sources throughout the unit. The unit provides ample occasions for students to read, evaluate, and analyze complex texts as well as routine writing opportunities that encourage reflection.

Type: Lesson Plan

Incursion of the Lionfish: Text Features, Text Structure, and Author's Central Idea- A Close Read:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close read of an informational text about the invasion of lionfish in the Gulf of Mexico. Students will work to determine the meaning of selected vocabulary, determine the author's central idea, and analyze how the use of text features and the cause/effect text structure support and develop the author's central idea. Text-dependent questions and a key, an annotation handout, text feature cards for review, and a friendly letter template and writing rubric for the summative assessment have been included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sleep On It: A Close Reading Lesson:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close read of the article, "Why Teenagers Really do Need an Extra Hour in Bed" by Russell Foster (published on April 22, 2013 in Issue 2913 of NewScientist). For the first reading, students will focus on academic vocabulary. In the second reading, students will answer text-dependent questions to guide their comprehension of the article. In the third close reading, students will choose important facts in the article and cross-reference them with other articles to determine the validity and reliability of the evidence. Graphic organizers and worksheets, along with suggested keys and a writing rubric, have been provided. For the summative assessment, students will write a persuasive letter in which they make a claim regarding sleep and support it with textual evidence.

Type: Lesson Plan

Benjamin Franklin - A Man of Amazing Accomplishments: A Close Read:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close read of an excerpt from The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. For the first close read, students will focus on multiple meaning vocabulary words and will define them and write their own sentences using the words. In the second close read, students will answer questions about the text using textual evidence. These questions will lead them to analyze characteristics and events in the life of a young Ben Franklin. As students read the excerpt a third time, they will develop a research question about how a characteristic or event in the life of young Ben Franklin influenced an accomplishment of an older, mature Ben Franklin. Students will research the life of Ben Franklin to answer their questions in a one to two page paper, which they will ultimately share with their peers for the summative assessment.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading: "For this is an Enchanted Land," an excerpt from Cross Creek:

In this lesson, students will conduct three close readings of an excerpt from Cross Creek by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings.

For the first reading, the students will complete a graphic organizer to define select vocabulary words. In the second reading, students will complete another graphic organizer to analyze the types of figurative language used in the story and how they impact the tone and meaning. They will also complete a T-chart comparing and contrasting the sensory details used to describe a before and after of the author's home. In the final reading, students will answer text-based questions about the excerpt. Answer keys for the graphic organizers and text-based questions are included.

The summative assessment, in the form of a narrative/descriptive essay, will require the students to choose a special place of their own and describe it with specific words and figurative language that convey the appropriate tone.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: The Secrets Behind What You Eat:

This close reading exemplar uses an excerpt from Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma: The Secrets Behind What You Eat. The goal of this two day exemplar from Student Achievement Partners web resources is to give students the opportunity to use reading and writing habits to unpack Pollan's investigative journalism of industrial farms. By reading and rereading the passage closely combined with classroom discussion about it, students will identify why and how farming practices have changed, as well as identify Pollan's point of view on the subject. When combined with writing about the passage and teacher feedback, students will begin to appreciate investigative journalism, as well as question from where their food is coming.

Type: Lesson Plan

Engineering the Perfect Poem by Using the Vocabulary of STEM:

In this lesson by Deborah Kozdras, Ph.D. and James L. Welsh, provided by ReadWriteThink.org, a website developed by the International Reading Association, the National Council of Teachers of English, with support from the Verizon Foundation, students will use the Internet to research unique engineering careers. Students will then create poems incorporating career-specific vocabulary terms and present their findings to the class.

Type: Lesson Plan

Battling for Liberty: Tecumseh's and Patrick Henry's Language of Resistance:

In this lesson, students will compare and contrast the "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!" speech by Patrick Henry with two speeches by Chief Tecumseh of the Shawnee. This lesson extends the study of Patrick Henry's speech to demonstrate the ways Native Americans also resisted oppression through rhetoric. By examining these three speeches, students can develop a new respect for the Native Americans' politically effective and poetic use of language. Students are challenged to recognize the rhetorical devices used by both men and their own emotional responses to the two speeches, in addition to translating a portion of Henry's speech to emulate the style of Tecumseh.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Go Figure: Learning Figurative Language:

Learn how figures of speech like simile, metaphor, and personification are used in the speeches of famous individuals. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine text from speeches by John F. Kennedy, Barack Obama, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Ideas

Summer Olympics - Ideas for English Language Learners :

The first ELL teaching idea on this site (found under "Articles") focuses on the understanding of the word "perseverance" as it relates to Olympic athletes who have had to overcome various challenges to be able to compete. Multiple text types (photo, video, articles) address a variety of learners' modalities. Other teaching ideas focus on health and fitness, what inspires you, and even public interest in sports being motivated by popular books and movies. Each idea can stand on its own or multiple ideas can be combined into a thematic unit.

Type: Teaching Idea

Finding Science through Reading Science Fiction:

In this ReadWriteThink.org lesson, students will be able to explore the genre of science fiction, while learning more about the science integrated into the plot of the story using nonfiction texts and resources. First, students define the science fiction genre and then read and discuss science fiction texts. Next, they conduct research to find science facts that support or dispute the science included in the plot of the science fiction book they read. Students then revisit their definition of the genre and revise based on their reading. Finally, students complete a project that examines the science fiction genre in relation to real-world science concepts and topics. This lesson plan makes the connections between the worlds in science fiction and students' real world explicit by asking them to explore the underlying science that supports the fictional world and considering its relationship to the real science in today's society.

Type: Teaching Idea

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Go Figure: Learning Figurative Language:

Learn how figures of speech like simile, metaphor, and personification are used in the speeches of famous individuals. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine text from speeches by John F. Kennedy, Barack Obama, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Go Figure: Learning Figurative Language:

Learn how figures of speech like simile, metaphor, and personification are used in the speeches of famous individuals. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine text from speeches by John F. Kennedy, Barack Obama, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.