LAFS.6.RL.2.6

Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 6
Strand: Reading Standards for Literature
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , EBSR , MS , ST , MC item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask the student to explain the strategies the author uses to develop the point of view of the narrator orspeaker. Items should not exclusively ask the student to identify the narrator’s or speaker’s point of view.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing this standard may be used with one ormore grade-appropriate literary texts. Texts may vary incomplexity
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Enhanced Item Descriptions section on page 3 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice item type). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Explain how the author develops point of view, using details from the text.The point of view may be provided.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select phrases or sentences from the text that support the development of a point of view.
    • Requires the student to select the point of view and to select details from the text that show how the author develops this point of view.
    • Requires the student to select the narrator’s point of view and to select a correct explanation of how point of view is developed. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select a correct explanation of how point of view is developed and to select words or phrases in the text that show that development. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the correct explanation of how the author develops point of view. 
    • Requires the student to select explicit or implicit details from the text that develop the narrator’s or speaker’s point of view. 
    Multiselect
    • Requires the student to select multiple phrases or sentences from the text that support the development of a point of view. 
    Table Match
    • Requires the student to complete a table by matching points of view with supporting details from the text

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1001010: M/J Language Arts 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001020: M/J Language Arts 1 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002000: M/J Language Arts 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1008010: M/J Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008020: M/J Reading 1, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
7810011: Access M/J Language Arts 1  (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.6.RL.2.AP.6a: Determine the narrative point of view.
LAFS.6.RL.2.AP.6b: Identify and describe how the narrative point of view influences the reader’s interpretation.
LAFS.6.RL.2.AP.6c: Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Point of View in Eyes of the Sphinx:

The student will read a poem using active reading strategies. After reading the poem, the student will analyze how the author develops the speaker’s point of view by recording observations using a graphic organizer. Once the graphic organizer is complete, the student will write to explain the observations.

Type: Formative Assessment

It All Depends on the Point of View:

The student will read the text “Our New Dog” and complete the guided reading questions.  The student will also identify words and phrases that establish the point of view and then explain how the author developed the point of view of the narrator or speaker in the text.

Type: Formative Assessment

Point of View of White Crane Ridge:

The student will read a literary text and will use a graphic organizer to explain how the narrator’s point of view helps to develop the reader’s understanding of the story and the perspective of the characters.

Type: Formative Assessment

Perception Is Reality:

The student will read the literary passage “Aunt Ria’s Bungalow” and use a graphic organizer to identify the point of view used in the story. The student will also identify words and phrases that establish that point of view and then explain how the author developed the point of view of the speaker.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Childhood Rememberances: Life and Art Intersect in Nikki GIovani's "Nikki-Rosa":

In her poem "Nikki-Rosa," Nikki Giovanni describes specific moments from her childhood. The images she recalls are more than biographical details; they are evidence to support her premise that growing up black doesn't always mean growing up in hardship. Adapted from Carol Jago's Nikki Giovanni in the Classroom, this lesson invites students to explore what Jago calls the place "where life and art intersect" by carefully reading and discussing Giovanni's poem. They explore their own childhood memories using an interactive tool and then write about these memories, using Giovanni's poem as a model.

Type: Lesson Plan

Counting down from 11: Analysis of Point of View in "Eleven" by Sandra Cisneros:

In this lesson, students create their own definitions of a child and a tween and use their definitions to guide their reading of the short story "Eleven" by Sandra Cisernos. After collecting text evidence, students will develop their own argument about the point of view of the narrator in the story through discussion and writing. In the closing activity, students will also write a found poem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lincoln the Leader:

In this lesson, students will work cooperatively to read and analyze a poem that describes President Abraham Lincoln. Through teacher led and small-group discussions of "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight by Vachel Lindsay, students will learn vocabulary in context, identify the speaker's point of view, and write an argument presenting and supporting their analysis of the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Inside My Mind: Narrator Perspective:

Explore how an author develops the point of view of a narrating character through the incredible story of Melody, a girl who cannot speak. Excerpts in this interactive tutorial are taken from the award-winning novel Out of My Mind by Sharon Draper.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Unit/Lesson Sequences

A Study of "America Street: A Multicultural Anthology of Stories":

This is a sixth grade unit using the collection of short stories in "America Street: A Multicultural Anthology of Stories" by Anne Mazer. Students will examine point of view, multiple perspectives, character development, and setting in these varied texts. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

A Study of Science and Fantasy Fiction in A Wrinkle in Time:

This is a sixth grade unit on the sci-fi novel A Wrinkle in Time by Madeline L'Engle. Students will examine the characteristics of scientific and futuristic fiction including vocabulary, setting, and plot development. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Exploring Verse Novels with "Keeping the Night Watch" and "Chess Rumble" :

This is a sixth grade unit on the verse novels Keeping the Night Watch by Hope Anita Smith and Chess Rumble by G. Neri. This unit explores narrative and lyric poetry, figurative language, author's purpose, voice, and symbolism. It includes games, graphic organizers, and a complete student packet, and includes a pacing guide and assessment with sample student answers.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Figurative Language and Author's Purpose in "Home of the Brave" by Katherine Applegate:

This is a sixth grade unit on the verse novel Home of the Brave by Katherine Applegate. This unit explores narrative and lyric poetry, figurative language, author's purpose, voice, and symbolism. It is rich with games, graphic organizers, and a complete student packet and includes a pacing guide and assessment with sample student answers.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Analyzing Characters and Making Predictions in "Sammy Keyes and the Hotel Thief":

This is a sixth grade unit on the mystery novel Sammy Keyes and the Hotel Thief by Wendelin Van Draanen. Students will analyze characters, study the plot, and make predictions in this forensic-themed unit. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

"The House on Mango Street": A Short Story Unit Examining Point of View, Perspective, and Plot:

This is a sixth grade unit using the short stories in The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros to identify point of view, interpret a character's perspective, and utilize plot elements to retell a story. This unit includes several graphic organizers, an assessment, and an answer key with sample responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Inside My Mind: Narrator Perspective:

Explore how an author develops the point of view of a narrating character through the incredible story of Melody, a girl who cannot speak. Excerpts in this interactive tutorial are taken from the award-winning novel Out of My Mind by Sharon Draper.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Inside My Mind: Narrator Perspective:

Explore how an author develops the point of view of a narrating character through the incredible story of Melody, a girl who cannot speak. Excerpts in this interactive tutorial are taken from the award-winning novel Out of My Mind by Sharon Draper.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.