LAFS.6.RL.2.5

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 6
Strand: Reading Standards for Literature
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , EBSR , MS , ST , MC item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask the student to analyze the purpose ofspecific sentences, scenes, or stanzas. Items may ask the student to consider the effect of a particular sentence, scene, or stanza on the overall structure and meaning. Items should focus on how specific structural elements create a comprehensive picture ofthe theme, setting, or plot.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing this standard may be used with one ormore grade-appropriate literary texts. Texts may vary incomplexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Enhanced Item Descriptions section on page 3 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess thisstandard (excluding the Editing Task Choice item type). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Analyze and explain how a specific element of a text contributes to overall structure and development of the theme, setting, or plot. The part of the text to be analyzed may be provided.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select sentences or phrases in the text that contribute to the development of a particular theme, setting, or plot.
    • Requires the student to select an explanation of how a sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and then select a description of how it contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select a theme, setting, or plot and to select sentences or phrases that contribute to the development of that theme, setting, or plot. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select an explanation of how a sentence, scene, or stanza contributes to overall structure and meaning. 
    Multiselect
    • Requires the student to select multiple inferences about how a sentence, scene, or stanza contributes to overall structure and meaning. 
    Table Match
    • Requires the student to complete a table by matching theme, setting, and plot elements with structural elements that help to develop them.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1001010: M/J Language Arts 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001020: M/J Language Arts 1 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002000: M/J Language Arts 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1008010: M/J Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008020: M/J Reading 1, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1009000: M/J Creative Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
7810011: Access M/J Language Arts 1  (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1009025: M/J Creative Writing (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.6.RL.2.AP.5a: Identify important events in a text.
LAFS.6.RL.2.AP.5b: Identify the events that contributed the most to the theme, setting or plot.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Analyzing Stanzas in Eyes of the Sphinx:

The student will read a poem using active reading strategies. After reading the poem, the student will use a graphic organizer to analyze how each stanza contributes to the development of the plot. Once the graphic organizer is complete, the student will pick one of the stanzas he or she examined in order to write a deeper analysis of its role in the poem.

Type: Formative Assessment

All It Takes is Analysis:

The student will read a passage, identify the theme and plot, and then analyze how portions of the text contribute to the development of theme by answering four questions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Thinking about Miracles:

The student will read a poem and analyze how particular lines contribute to the meaning of the poem. The student will also identify the theme of the poem and identify details that support the theme.

Type: Formative Assessment

Let's Discuss the Winner:

The student will read “An Unwitting Winner” and will take notes on a handout identifying how particular sentences contribute to the development of the theme, setting, and plot in the story. The student will then participate in a discussion about how particular sentences in the story contribute to the development of the theme, setting, and plot.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Narrative Writing: A Lesson Learned the Hard Way in “Thank You, M’am”:

In this lesson, students will read Langston Hughes’ short story, “Thank You, M’am”, analyzing the impact of plot and character in developing the story’s theme. After reading the story, students will use details gathered from the text to write a narrative that predicts/portrays what would occur if the characters met again.

Type: Lesson Plan

Narrative Writing: Climate Change and “The Sand Castle”:

In this lesson, students will view a video about climate change, read and analyze a short story depicting the effects of climate change, and write their own narratives sending a message to their readers about the impact of climate change.

Type: Lesson Plan

Philosophical Chairs with Tom Sawyer:

In this lesson, students will close read a short section (chapter 23) of Twain"s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, gathering and organizing evidence to collaboratively defend a position with textual support in a debate-style activity. They will use this experience to assist with the creation of an extended written paragraph addressing the development of theme in Twain"s novel, this time citing evidence in writing to support their assertions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Childhood Rememberances: Life and Art Intersect in Nikki GIovani's "Nikki-Rosa":

In her poem "Nikki-Rosa," Nikki Giovanni describes specific moments from her childhood. The images she recalls are more than biographical details; they are evidence to support her premise that growing up black doesn't always mean growing up in hardship. Adapted from Carol Jago's Nikki Giovanni in the Classroom, this lesson invites students to explore what Jago calls the place "where life and art intersect" by carefully reading and discussing Giovanni's poem. They explore their own childhood memories using an interactive tool and then write about these memories, using Giovanni's poem as a model.

Type: Lesson Plan

Narrative Retelling: The Enchanted Raisin:

This three-block lesson includes an interactive collaborative vocabulary activity, a guided read of the short story "The Enchanted Raisin," and culminates in a narrative storyboard planning activity and creation of a picture book with the goal of retelling the story to a younger audience.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reciprocal Teaching Strategies in Poetry: "The Copper Kettle Sweetheart":

In this lesson, students will use the four core reading strategies of predicting, clarifying, questioning and summarizing to develop comprehension skills through the use of poetry.

Type: Lesson Plan

Discovering the Central Message through Paul Revere's Midnight Message:

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the central message of "Paul Revere's Ride," (ATOS 5.7) through the skill of taking marginal notes. The summative assessment will entail students selecting three quotes from the poem, illustrating them, and then providing a written explanation of each quote and its significance to the central message of the poem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

A Navajo Chant and Refrain in "The Twelfth Song of Thunder":

Explore the poem “The Twelfth Song of Thunder” from the Navajo Mountain Chant. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine how a refrain in the poem better develops the theme of the poem. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Following "The Road Not Taken":

Explore the poem “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost and learn how the poem’s structure develops theme, setting, and plot as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Unit/Lesson Sequences

Using "The Bully" by Paul Langan to Teach Tolerance:

This unit plan uses the book "The Bully" by Paul Langan, which is from the Bluford series, to teach tolerance. There are a plethora of resources and activities including graphic organizers, reflective journals, and reader's theater. Students work together to gain an understanding of the effects of bullying and an awareness of this important issue.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

A Study of "America Street: A Multicultural Anthology of Stories":

This is a sixth grade unit using the collection of short stories in "America Street: A Multicultural Anthology of Stories" by Anne Mazer. Students will examine point of view, multiple perspectives, character development, and setting in these varied texts. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Investigating a Mystery in "Chasing Vermeer":

This sixth grade unit is based on the mystery novel Chasing Vermeer by Blue Balliett. Students will analyze clues and motives, study plot, and make predictions while learning about the artist Johannes Vermeer. It includes a complete packet with creative activities, graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

A Study of Science and Fantasy Fiction in A Wrinkle in Time:

This is a sixth grade unit on the sci-fi novel A Wrinkle in Time by Madeline L'Engle. Students will examine the characteristics of scientific and futuristic fiction including vocabulary, setting, and plot development. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Exploring Verse Novels with "Keeping the Night Watch" and "Chess Rumble" :

This is a sixth grade unit on the verse novels Keeping the Night Watch by Hope Anita Smith and Chess Rumble by G. Neri. This unit explores narrative and lyric poetry, figurative language, author's purpose, voice, and symbolism. It includes games, graphic organizers, and a complete student packet, and includes a pacing guide and assessment with sample student answers.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Figurative Language and Author's Purpose in "Home of the Brave" by Katherine Applegate:

This is a sixth grade unit on the verse novel Home of the Brave by Katherine Applegate. This unit explores narrative and lyric poetry, figurative language, author's purpose, voice, and symbolism. It is rich with games, graphic organizers, and a complete student packet and includes a pacing guide and assessment with sample student answers.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Drawing Conclusions and Solving Mysteries in “Sammy Keyes and the Hollywood Mummy”:

This is a sixth grade unit on the mystery novel Sammy Keyes and the Hollywood Mummy by Wendelin Van Draanen. Students will analyze characters, study the plot, make predictions, and draw conclusions to solve a mystery in this forensic-themed unit. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Analyzing Characters and Making Predictions in "Sammy Keyes and the Hotel Thief":

This is a sixth grade unit on the mystery novel Sammy Keyes and the Hotel Thief by Wendelin Van Draanen. Students will analyze characters, study the plot, and make predictions in this forensic-themed unit. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

"The House on Mango Street": A Short Story Unit Examining Point of View, Perspective, and Plot:

This is a sixth grade unit using the short stories in The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros to identify point of view, interpret a character's perspective, and utilize plot elements to retell a story. This unit includes several graphic organizers, an assessment, and an answer key with sample responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Analyzing the Mystery Novel "The Westing Game" by Ellen Raskin:

This is a sixth grade unit on the mystery novel "The Westing Game" by Ellen Raskin. Students will analyze the character's motives, identify clues to solve the mystery, make predictions about the conclusion, and identify 'red herrings'. This unit on detective fiction includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

The Black Snowman, An Interdisciplinary Unit:

This lesson will involve work in oral language, concepts of print, spelling, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and writing with the use of one book, The Black Snowman.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

A Navajo Chant and Refrain in "The Twelfth Song of Thunder":

Explore the poem “The Twelfth Song of Thunder” from the Navajo Mountain Chant. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine how a refrain in the poem better develops the theme of the poem. 

Following "The Road Not Taken":

Explore the poem “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost and learn how the poem’s structure develops theme, setting, and plot as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

A Navajo Chant and Refrain in "The Twelfth Song of Thunder":

Explore the poem “The Twelfth Song of Thunder” from the Navajo Mountain Chant. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine how a refrain in the poem better develops the theme of the poem. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Following "The Road Not Taken":

Explore the poem “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost and learn how the poem’s structure develops theme, setting, and plot as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.